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Review diabetic nephropathy

Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Abiola Mohammed Adeosun, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
Glycemic homeostasis refers to glucose balance or control within circulation in living organisms. It is normally and largely compromised in diabetes. The compromise when exacerbated, leads to several complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy which are collectively known as diabetic complications and are the principal actors in co-morbidity and eventual mortality often associated with diabetes. The ability of therapeutic compounds including medicinal plants to restore glycemic balance or homeostasis in hyperglycemic condition is an index of their antidiabetic function and relevance...
February 27, 2018: Medicina
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Jose Kuzhively, Bettina Tahsin, Peter Hart, Leon Fogelfeld
AIM: Evaluate legacy effect on renal outcomes after the end of a multifactorial-multidisciplinary intervention in patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy (ADN trial) CKD 3-4. METHODS: A retrospective electronic review was conducted of 72 patients who completed the ADN trial ESRD-free with subsequent follow-up of two years or until ESRD development. RESULTS: At baseline, reflecting ADN trial end, 38 post-intervention and 34 post-control patients were similar except for lower HbA1c, SBP and age in the post-intervention group...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Yue Yang, Zheng Zhang, Li Zhuo, Da-Peng Chen, Wen-Ge Li
Background: Chronic kidney disease has become a leading public health concern in China, as it is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, the overall situation regarding common glomerular diseases in China remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the national profile of the common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, and Wanfang databases for English and Chinese language articles from inception to September 2017...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Guang-Jiang Shi, Guang-Rui Shi, Jia-Yin Zhou, Wen-Jin Zhang, Chen-Ying Gao, Ya-Ping Jiang, Zhen-Guo Zi, Hai-Hong Zhao, Yong Yang, Jian-Qiang Yu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major endocrine metabolic disease and is marked by a lack of insulin. The complication of DM is one of the most difficult problems in medicine. The initial translational studies revealed that growth factors have a major role in integrating tissue physiology and in embryology as well as in growth, maturation and tissue repair. In some tissues affected by diabetes, growth factors are induced by a relative deficit or excess. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism with multiple beneficial effects including hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kamlesh Khunti, Sudesna Chatterjee, Hertzel C Gerstein, Sophia Zoungas, Melanie J Davies
Sulphonylureas have been commercially available since the 1950s, but their use continues to be associated with controversy. Although adverse cardiovascular outcomes in some observational studies have raised concerns about sulphonylureas, findings from relatively recent, robust, and high-quality systematic reviews have indicated no increased risk of all-cause mortality associated with sulphonylureas compared with other active treatments. Results from large, multicentre, randomised controlled trials such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study and ADVANCE have confirmed the microvascular benefits of sulphonylureas, a reduction in the incidence or worsening of nephropathy and retinopathy, and no increase in all-cause mortality, although whether these benefits were due to sulphonylurea therapy and not an overall glucose-lowering effect could not be confirmed...
February 28, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Liang-Zhen You, Yi-Xuan Lin, Zhao-Hui Fang, Guo-Ming Shen, Jin-Dong Zhao, Ting-Ting Wang
Diabetes has become a global public health problem that seriously threatens human health. Traditional Chinese medicine, the characteristics of the role of multiple targets, has a unique advantage in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Astragaloside-Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ), one of the main activities of Astragalus membranaceus, has a series of pharmacological effects including improvement in the function of endothelial cells and neovascularization, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, regulating energy metabolism, protectionnervous, anti-cancer and so on...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Inam-U-Llah, Fengyuan Piao, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Raheel Suleman, Kaixin Li, Mengren Zhang, Pingan Wu, Muhammad Shahbaz, Zulfiqar Ahmed
Diets in rats and humans have shown promising results. Taurine improved glucagon activity, promoted glycemic stability, modified glucose levels, successfully addressed hyperglycemia via advanced glycation end-product control, improved insulin secretion and had a beneficial effect on insulin resistance. Taurine treatment performed well against oxidative stress in brain, increased the secretion of required hormones and protected against neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes compared with the control...
February 28, 2018: Amino Acids
Osamu Ichii, Taro Horino
Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs with approximately 18-25 bases, and their sequences are highly conserved among animals. miRNAs act as posttranscriptional regulators by binding mRNAs, and their main function involves the degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies revealed altered expression of miRNAs in the kidneys during the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and experimental rodent models by using high-throughput screening techniques including microarray and small RNA sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Lori Berard, Noreen Antonishyn, Kathryn Arcudi, Sarah Blunden, Alice Cheng, Ronald Goldenberg, Stewart Harris, Shelley Jones, Upender Mehan, James Morrell, Robert Roscoe, Rick Siemens, Michael Vallis, Jean-François Yale
It is currently estimated that 11 million Canadians are living with diabetes or prediabetes. Although hyperglycemia is associated with serious complications, it is well established that improved glycemic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications and can also reduce cardiovascular (CV) complications over the long term. The UKPDS and ADVANCE landmark trials have resulted in diabetes guidelines recommending an A1C target of ≤ 7.0% for most patients or a target of ≤ 6.5% to further reduce the risk of nephropathy and retinopathy in those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), if it can be achieved safely...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Syed Bilal Shah, Tahir Rasheed, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: The naturally inspired treatment options for several disease conditions and human-health related disorders such as diabetes mellitus have gained considerable research interest. In this context, naturally occurring plants and herbs with medicinal functionalities have gained special place than ever before in the current medicinal world. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to extend the current knowledge in the clinical field related to the diabetic complications...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Salvador Cazorla-Vázquez, Felix B Engel
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the fastest growing pathology worldwide with a prevalence of >10% in many countries. In addition, kidney cancer represents 5% of all new diagnosed cancers. As currently no effective therapies exist to restore kidney function after CKD- as well as cancer-induced renal damage, it is important to elucidate new regulators of kidney development and disease as new therapeutic targets. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most successful class of pharmaceutical targets...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Megan Stevens, Sebastian Oltean
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a prominent pro-angiogenic and pro-permeability factor in the kidney. Alternative splicing of the terminal exon of VEGF-A through the use of an alternative 3' splice site gives rise to a functionally different family of isoforms, termed VEGF-Axxx b, known to have anti-angiogenic and anti-permeability properties. Dysregulation of the VEGF-Axxx /VEGF-Axxx b isoform balance has recently been reported in several kidney pathologies, including diabetic nephropathy (DN) and Denys-Drash syndrome...
February 15, 2018: Genes
Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to the multiple causative factors, the current advances in medication for diabetic nephropathy (DN) do not appear to have improved therapies for patients. Furthermore, use of multiple synthetic medications has shown various adverse effects and ultimately leads to deterioration of the condition. Medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents are considered to be safer and more effective than synthetic medicines against various chronic diseases. Therefore, the use of natural products in the management of DN has been suggested...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Weixia Sun, Jiaxing Yang, Wanning Wang, Jie Hou, Yanli Cheng, Yaowen Fu, Zhonggao Xu, Lu Cai
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements and participates in numerous physiological processes. Abnormalities in zinc homeostasis often result in the pathogenesis of various chronic metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and its complications. Zinc has insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects and deficiency has been shown to aggravate diabetes-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in diabetic rodent models and human subjects with diabetes. Akt signaling pathway plays a central role in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and cell survival...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Nikiforos Stavropoulos, Sofia Bouloukou, Georgios Kerpiniotis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Constantinos Tsioufis, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a crucial microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus that is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of hypoglycemic drugs that positively affect several risk factors of cardiorenal damage. OBJECTIVES: To review and critically discuss available data on the association of SGLT-2 inhibitors treatment with kidney function, progress of diabetic kidney disease, and renal related outcomes, as well to unveil potential mechanisms of action that mediate such effects...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
A T Billeter, K M Scheurlen, P Probst, S Eichel, F Nickel, S Kopf, L Fischer, M K Diener, P P Nawroth, B P Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the effect of metabolic surgery on pre-existing and future microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison with medical treatment. Although metabolic surgery is the most effective treatment for obese patients with T2DM regarding glycaemic control, it is unclear whether the incidence or severity of microvascular complications is reduced. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) with no language restrictions, looking for RCTs, case-control trials and cohort studies that assessed the effect of metabolic surgery on the incidence of microvascular diabetic complications compared with medical treatment as control...
February 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Amy Leung, Vishnu Amaram, Rama Natarajan
Diabetes leads to markedly accelerated rates of many associated macrovascular complications like hypertension and atherosclerosis, and microvascular complications like nephropathy and retinopathy. High glucose, the hallmark of diabetes, drives changes in vascular and inflammatory cells that promote the development of these complications. Understanding the molecular processes involved in the development of diabetes and its debilitating complications can lead to much needed newer clinical therapies. Recently, long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be important in the biology of vascular cells and there is growing evidence that lncRNAs are also involved in the cell biology relevant to diabetic vascular complications...
February 1, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad
Nephropathy in diabetes patients is the most common etiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Strict glycemic control reduces the development and progression of diabetes-related complications, and there is evidence that improved metabolic control improves outcomes in subjects having diabetes mellitus with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glycemic control in people with kidney disease is complex. Changes in glucose and insulin homoeostasis may occur as a consequence of loss of kidney function and dialysis...
January 30, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
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