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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339313/the-human-body-odor-compound-androstadienone-increases-neural-interference-coupled-to-higher-behavioral-costs-during-an-emotional-stroop-task
#1
Jonas Hornung, Lydia Kogler, Michael Erb, Jessica Freiherr, Birgit Derntl
The androgen derivative androstadienone (AND) is a substance found in human sweat and thus may act as human chemosignal. With the current experiment, we aimed to explore in which way AND affects interference processing during an emotional Stroop task which used human faces as target and emotional words as distractor stimuli. This was complemented by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to unravel the neural mechanism of AND-action. Based on previous accounts we expected AND to increase neural activation in areas commonly implicated in evaluation of emotional face processing and to change neural activation in brain regions linked to interference processing...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306709/a-face-identity-hallucination-palinopsia-generated-by-intracerebral-stimulation-of-the-face-selective-right-lateral-fusiform-cortex
#2
Jacques Jonas, Hélène Brissart, Gabriela Hossu, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Bruno Rossion, Louis Maillard
We report the case of a patient (MB, young female human subject) who systematically experienced confusion between perceived facial identities specifically when electrically stimulated inside the lateral section of the right fusiform gyrus. In the presence of a face stimulus (an experimenter or a photograph), intracerebral electrical stimulation in this region generated a perceptual hallucination of an individual facial part integrated within the whole perceived face, i.e., facial palinopsia. In the presence of a distracting stimulus (visual scene or object picture), the patient also experienced an individual face percept superimposed on the non-face stimulus...
December 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304386/the-neurobiology-of-self-face-recognition-among-depressed-adolescents
#3
Karina Quevedo, Madeline Harms, Mitchell Sauder, Hannah Scott, Sumaya Mohamed, Kathleen M Thomas, Michael-Paul Schallmo, Garry Smyda
OBJECTIVE: Depression is linked to alterations in both emotion and self-processing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural activation in healthy and depressed youth to a novel task that combined emotion processing with self-face recognition. METHODS: An fMRI study involving 81 adolescents (50.6% females; Mage=14.61, SD=1.65) comprised of depressed (DEP, n=43), and healthy controls (HC, n=38). Participants completed a clinical interview and self-report measures during an initial assessment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242103/the-neural-network-for-face-recognition-insights-from-an-fmri-study-on-developmental-prosopagnosia
#4
Yuanfang Zhao, Zonglei Zhen, Xiqin Liu, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Face recognition is supported by collaborative work of multiple face-responsive regions in the brain. Based on findings from individuals with normal face recognition ability, a neural model has been proposed with the occipital face area (OFA), fusiform face area (FFA), and face-selective posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) as the core face network (CFN) and the rest of the face-responsive regions as the extended face network (EFN). However, little is known about how these regions work collaboratively for face recognition in our daily life...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218005/distributed-neural-activity-patterns-during-human-to-human-competition
#5
Matthew Piva, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Steve W C Chang, Joy Hirsch
Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197727/development-of-face-recognition-dynamic-causal-modelling-of-meg-data
#6
Wei He, Blake W Johnson
Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children's M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces...
November 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158201/the-effect-of-prior-knowledge-on-post-encoding-brain-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-subsequent-memory
#7
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
It is known that prior knowledge can facilitate memory acquisition. It is unclear, however, whether prior knowledge can affect post-encoding brain activity to facilitate memory consolidation. In this fMRI study, we asked participants to associate novel houses with famous/nonfamous faces and investigated how associative-encoding tasks with/without prior knowledge differentially affected post-encoding brain connectivity during rest. Besides memory advantages in the famous condition, we found that post-encoding hippocampal connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) and ventral-medial-prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was stronger following encoding of associations with famous than non-famous faces...
November 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155809/multivariate-pattern-dependence
#8
Stefano Anzellotti, Alfonso Caramazza, Rebecca Saxe
When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD): a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124784/dysfunction-in-emotion-processing-underlies-functional-psychogenic-dystonia
#9
Alberto J Espay, Thomas Maloney, Jennifer Vannest, Matthew M Norris, James C Eliassen, Erin Neefus, Jane B Allendorfer, Robert Chen, Jerzy P Szaflarski
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether abnormalities in emotion processing underlie functional (psychogenic) dystonia, one of the most common functional movement disorders. METHODS: Motor and emotion circuits were examined in 12 participants with functional dystonia, 12 with primary organic dystonia, and 25 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 4T and a finger-tapping task (motor task), a basic emotion-recognition task (emotional faces task), and an intense-emotion stimuli task...
November 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069521/love-flows-downstream-mothers-and-children-s-neural-representation-similarity-in-perceiving-distress-of-self-and-family
#10
Tae-Ho Lee, Yang Qu, Eva H Telzer
The current study aimed to capture empathy processing in an interpersonal context. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 22) each completed an empathy task during fMRI, in which they imagined the target person in distressing scenes as either themselves or their family (i.e. child for the mother, mother for the child). Using multi-voxel pattern approach, we compared neural pattern similarity for the self and family conditions and found that mothers showed greater perceptual similarity between self and child in the fusiform face area (FFA), representing high self-child overlap, whereas adolescents showed significantly less self-mother overlap...
December 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034316/large-scale-network-coupling-with-the-fusiform-cortex-facilitates-future-social-motivation
#11
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992271/preschool-negative-emotionality-predicts-activity-and-connectivity-of-the-fusiform-face-area-and-amygdala-in-later-childhood
#12
Sarah J Kann, Jonathan F O'Rawe, Anna S Huang, Daniel N Klein, Hoi-Chung Leung
Negative emotionality (NE) refers to individual differences in the propensity to experience and react with negative emotions and is associated with increased risk of psychological disorder. However, research on the neural bases of NE has focused almost exclusively on amygdala activity during emotional face processing. This study broadened this framework by examining the relationship between observed NE in early childhood and subsequent neural responses to emotional faces in both the amygdala and the fusiform face area (FFA) in a late childhood/early adolescent sample...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981882/electroconvulsive-therapy-selectively-enhanced-feedforward-connectivity-from-fusiform-face-area-to-amygdala-in-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Jiaojian Wang, Qiang Wei, Tongjian Bai, Xiaoqin Zhou, Hui Sun, Benjamin Becker, Yanghua Tian, Kai Wang, Keith Kendrick
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been widely used to treat the major depressive disorder (MDD), especially for treatment resistant depression. However, the neuroanatomical basis of ECT remains an open problem. In our study, we combined the voxel-based morphology (VBM), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), and granger causality analysis (GCA) to identify the longitudinal changes of structure and function in 23 MDD patients before and after ECT. In addition, multivariate pattern analysis using linear support vector machine (SVM) was applied to classify 23 depressed patients from 25 gender, age, and education matched healthy controls...
August 28, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968833/developmental-reorganization-of-the-core-and-extended-face-networks-revealed-by-global-functional-connectivity
#14
Xu Wang, Qi Zhu, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Prior studies on development of functional specialization in human brain mainly focus on age-related increases in regional activation and connectivity among regions. However, a few recent studies on the face network demonstrate age-related decrease in face-specialized activation in the extended face network (EFN), in addition to increase in activation in the core face network (CFN). Here we used a voxel-based global brain connectivity approach to investigate whether development of the face network exhibited both increase and decrease in network connectivity...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955269/category-selectivity-of-human-visual-cortex-in-perception-of-rubin-face-vase-illusion
#15
Xiaogang Wang, Na Sang, Lei Hao, Yong Zhang, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
When viewing the Rubin face-vase illusion, our conscious perception spontaneously alternates between the face and the vase; this illusion has been widely used to explore bistable perception. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have studied the neural mechanisms underlying bistable perception through univariate and multivariate pattern analyses; however, no studies have investigated the issue of category selectivity. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the Rubin face-vase illusion by introducing univariate amplitude and multivariate pattern analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951352/attentional-selection-of-multiple-objects-in-the-human-visual-system
#16
Xilin Zhang, Nicole Mlynaryk, Shruti Japee, Leslie G Ungerleider
Classic theories of object-based attention assume a single object of selection but real-world tasks, such as driving a car, often require attending to multiple objects simultaneously. However, whether object-based attention can operate on more than one object at a time remains unexplored. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address this question as human participants performed object-based attention tasks that required simultaneous attention to two objects differing in either their features or locations...
September 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933028/improving-fmri-in-signal-drop-out-regions-at-7%C3%A2-t-by-using-tailored-radio-frequency-pulses-application-to-the-ventral-occipito-temporal-cortex
#17
Catarina Rua, Stephen J Wastling, Mauro Costagli, Mark R Symms, Laura Biagi, Mirco Cosottini, Alberto Del Guerra, Michela Tosetti, Gareth J Barker
OBJECTIVE: Signal drop-off occurs in echo-planar imaging in inferior brain areas due to field gradients from susceptibility differences between air and tissue. Tailored-RF pulses based on a hyperbolic secant (HS) have been shown to partially recover signal at 3 T, but have not been tested at higher fields. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of an optimized tailored-RF gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (TRF GRE-EPI) sequence with standard GRE-EPI at 7 T, in a passive viewing of faces or objects fMRI paradigm in healthy subjects...
September 20, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893526/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-children-and-adolescents-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-fmri-study
#18
V Siffredi, M M Spencer-Smith, P Barrouillet, M J Vaessen, R J Leventer, V Anderson, P Vuilleumier
The ability to temporarily maintain relevant information in mind in the presence of interference or distracting information, also called working memory (WM), is critical for higher cognitive functions and cognitive development. In typically developing (TD) children, WM is underpinned by a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain regions. Developmental absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation resulting from disruption of corpus callosum formation...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891782/functional-preference-for-object-sounds-but-not-for-voices-in-the-occipitotemporal-cortex-of-early-blind-individuals
#19
Giulia Dormal, Maxime Pelland, Mohamed Rezk, Esther Yakobov, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Sounds activate occipital regions in early blind individuals. However, how different sound categories map onto specific regions of the occipital cortex remains a matter of debate. We used fMRI to characterize brain responses of early blind and sighted individuals to familiar object sounds, human voices, and their respective low-level control sounds. In addition, sighted participants were tested while viewing pictures of faces, objects, and phase-scrambled control pictures. In both early blind and sighted, a double dissociation was evidenced in bilateral auditory cortices between responses to voices and object sounds: Voices elicited categorical responses in bilateral superior temporal sulci, whereas object sounds elicited categorical responses along the lateral fissure bilaterally, including the primary auditory cortex and planum temporale...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882629/intracranial-markers-of-conscious-face-perception-in-humans
#20
Fabiano Baroni, Jochem van Kempen, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christopher K Kovach, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Ralph Adolphs, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Investigations of the neural basis of consciousness have greatly benefited from protocols that involve the presentation of stimuli at perceptual threshold, enabling the assessment of the patterns of brain activity that correlate with conscious perception, independently of any changes in sensory input. However, the comparison between perceived and unperceived trials would be expected to reveal not only the core neural substrate of a particular conscious perception, but also aspects of brain activity that facilitate, hinder or tend to follow conscious perception...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
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