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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079163/steady-state-and-dynamic-network-modes-for-perceptual-expectation
#1
Uk-Su Choi, Yul-Wan Sung, Seiji Ogawa
Perceptual expectation can attenuate repetition suppression, the stimulus-induced neuronal response generated by repeated stimulation, suggesting that repetition suppression is a top-down modulatory phenomenon. However, it is still unclear which high-level brain areas are involved and how they interact with low-level brain areas. Further, the temporal range over which perceptual expectation can effectively attenuate repetition suppression effects remains unclear. To elucidate the details of this top-down modulatory process, we used two short and long inter-stimulus intervals for a perceptual expectation paradigm of paired stimulation...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071765/neural-codes-of-seeing-architectural-styles
#2
Heeyoung Choo, Jack L Nasar, Bardia Nikrahei, Dirk B Walther
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051770/disentangling-the-representation-of-identity-from-head-view-along-the-human-face-processing-pathway
#3
J Swaroop Guntupalli, Kelsey G Wheeler, M Ida Gobbini
Neural models of a distributed system for face perception implicate a network of regions in the ventral visual stream for recognition of identity. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural decoding study in humans that shows that this pathway culminates in the right inferior frontal cortex face area (rIFFA) with a representation of individual identities that has been disentangled from variable visual features in different images of the same person. At earlier stages in the pathway, processing begins in early visual cortex and the occipital face area with representations of head view that are invariant across identities, and proceeds to an intermediate level of representation in the fusiform face area in which identity is emerging but still entangled with head view...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011742/the-superior-temporal-sulcus-is-causally-connected-to-the-amygdala-a-combined-tbs-fmri-study
#4
David Pitcher, Shruti Japee, Lionel Rauth, Leslie G Ungerleider
: Non-human primate neuroanatomical studies have identified a cortical pathway from the superior temporal sulcus (STS) projecting into dorsal sub-regions of the amygdala, but whether this same pathway exists in humans is unknown. Here, we addressed this question by combining thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the prediction that the STS and amygdala are functionally connected during face perception. Human participants (N=17) were scanned, over two sessions, while viewing 3-second video clips of moving faces, bodies and objects...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989842/recognizing-approaching-walkers-neural-decoding-of-person-familiarity-in-cortical-areas-responsive-to-faces-bodies-and-biological-motion
#5
Carina A Hahn, Alice J O'Toole
In natural viewing environments, we recognize other people as they move through the world. Behavioral studies indicate that the face, body, and gait all contribute to recognition. We examined the neural basis of person recognition using a decoding approach aimed at discriminating the patterns of neural activity elicited in response to seeing visually familiar versus unfamiliar people in motion. Participants learned 30 identities by viewing multiple videos of the people in action. Recognition was tested inside a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner using 8-second videos of 60 people (30 learned and 30 novel) approaching from a distance (~13 m)...
October 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956263/functional-modulation-of-contralateral-bias-in-early-and-object-selective-areas-after-stroke-of-the-occipital-ventral-cortices
#6
Maren Praß, Cathleen Grimsen, Manfred Fahle
Object agnosia is a rare symptom, occurring mainly after bilateral damage of the ventral visual cortex. Most patients suffering from unilateral ventral lesions are clinically non-agnosic. Here, we studied the effect of unilateral occipito-temporal lesions on object categorization and its underlying neural correlates in visual areas. Thirteen non-agnosic stroke patients and twelve control subjects performed an event-related rapid object categorization task in the fMRI scanner where images were presented either to the left or to the right of a fixed point...
December 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923928/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#7
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behaviour. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behaviour is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been directly studied in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye movements were simultaneously monitored...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909005/repetition-suppression-and-memory-for-faces-is-reduced-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#8
Michael P Ewbank, Philip J Pell, Thomas E Powell, Elisabeth A H von dem Hagen, Simon Baron-Cohen, Andrew J Calder
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are associated with a number of atypicalities in face processing, including difficulties in face memory. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this difficulty are unclear. In neurotypical individuals, repeated presentation of the same face is associated with a reduction in activity, known as repetition suppression (RS), in the fusiform face area (FFA). However, to date, no studies have investigated RS to faces in individuals with ASC, or the relationship between RS and face memory...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843696/position-selectivity-in-face-sensitive-visual-cortex-to-facial-and-nonfacial-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#9
David F Nichols, Lisa R Betts, Hugh R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evidence for position sensitivity in object-selective visual areas has been building. On one hand, most of the relevant studies have utilized stimuli for which the areas are optimally selective and examine small sections of cortex. On the other hand, visual field maps established with nonspecific stimuli have been found in increasingly large areas of visual cortex, though generally not in areas primarily responsive to faces. METHODS: fMRI was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of synthetic facial stimuli...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810354/human-sensory-cortex-structure-and-top-down-controlling-brain-network-determine-individual-differences-in-perceptual-alternations
#10
Na Sang, Lijie Zhang, Lei Hao, Yongchao Wang, Xiaogang Wang, Fan Zhang, Hui Huang, Xin Hou, Yu Mao, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
Bistable perception is a type of subjective perception that spontaneously alternates between two perceptual interpretations of an ambiguous sensory input. Past functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined the activation patterns underlying bistable perception, yet the variability between individuals in the alternations is not well understood. Therefore, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was introduced in this study to correlate the GM of the sensory cortex with the alternations of Rubin face-vase illusion in a large group of young adults...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781139/mandarin-functional-mri-language-paradigms
#11
He Ci, Andre van Graan, Gloria Gonzálvez, Pamela Thompson, Andrea Hill, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency-character (VFC), and verbal fluency-letter (VFL). All functional images were preprocessed by SPM 8, followed by first- and second-level analyses and lateralization index calculation...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779618/a-studyforrest-extension-retinotopic-mapping-and-localization-of-higher-visual-areas
#12
Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Michael B Hoffmann, Christian Häusler, Jörg Stadler, Michael Hanke
The studyforrest (http://studyforrest.org) dataset is likely the largest neuroimaging dataset on natural language and story processing publicly available today. In this article, along with a companion publication, we present an update of this dataset that extends its scope to vision and multi-sensory research. 15 participants of the original cohort volunteered for a series of additional studies: a clinical examination of visual function, a standard retinotopic mapping procedure, and a localization of higher visual areas-such as the fusiform face area...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756696/preferential-coding-of-eye-hand-motor-actions-in-the-human-ventral-occipito-temporal-cortex
#13
Annalisa Tosoni, Roberto Guidotti, Cosimo Del Gratta, Giorgia Committeri, Carlo Sestieri
The human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) contains areas specialized for particular perceptual/semantic categories, such as faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and places (parahippocampal place area, PPA). This organization has been interpreted as reflecting the visual structure of the world, i.e. perceptual similarity and/or eccentricity biases. However, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown not only that regions of the OTC are modulated by non-visual, action-related object properties but also by motor planning and execution, although the functional role and specificity of this motor-related activity are still unclear...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748031/functional-connectivity-differences-in-autism-during-face-and-car-recognition-underconnectivity-and-atypical-age-related-changes
#14
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707978/impact-of-visual-corticostriatal-loop-disruption-on-neural-processing-within-the-parahippocampal-place-area
#15
Shahin Nasr, Herminia D Rosas
: The caudate nucleus is a part of the visual corticostriatal loop (VCSL), receiving input from different visual areas and projecting back to the same cortical areas via globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and thalamus. Despite perceptual and navigation impairments in patients with VCSL disruption due to caudate atrophy (e.g., Huntington's disease, HD), the relevance of the caudate nucleus and VCSL on cortical visual processing is not fully understood. In a series of fMRI experiments, we found that the caudate showed a stronger functional connection to parahippocampal place area (PPA) compared with adjacent regions (e...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699206/smooth-versus-textured-surfaces-feature-based-category-selectivity-in-human-visual-cortex
#16
Cesar Echavarria, Shahin Nasr, Roger Tootell
In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636006/contributions-of-feature-shapes-and-surface-cues-to-the-recognition-and-neural-representation-of-facial-identity
#17
Timothy J Andrews, Heidi Baseler, Rob Jenkins, A Mike Burton, Andrew W Young
A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619004/cognitive-control-modulates-preferential-sensory-processing-of-affective-stimuli
#18
Marco Steinhauser, Tobias Flaisch, Marcus Meinzer, Harald T Schupp
Adaptive human behavior crucially relies on the ability of the brain to allocate resources automatically to emotionally significant stimuli. This ability has consistently been demonstrated by studies showing preferential processing of affective stimuli in sensory cortical areas. It is still unclear, however, whether this putatively automatic mechanism can be modulated by cognitive control processes. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether preferential processing of an affective face distractor is suppressed when an affective distractor has previously elicited a response conflict in a word-face Stroop task...
September 10, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618278/the-neurobiology-of-self-face-recognition-in-depressed-adolescents-with-low-or-high-suicidality
#19
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Jodi Martin, Garry Smyda, Matt Keener, Caroline W Oppenheimer
This study sought to test whether the neurobiology of self-processing differentiated depressed adolescents with high suicidality (HS) from those with low suicidality (LS) and healthy controls (HC; N = 119, MAGE = 14.79, SD = 1.64, Min = 11.3, Max = 17.8). Participants completed a visual self-recognition task in the scanner during which they identified their own or an unfamiliar adolescent face across 3 emotional expressions (happy, neutral or sad). A 3-group (HS, LS, HC) by 2 within-subject factors (2 Self conditions [self, other] and 3 Emotions [happy, neutral, sad]) GLM yielded (a) a main effect of Self condition with all participants showing higher activity in the right occipital, precuneus and fusiform during the self- versus other-face conditions; (b) a main effect of Group where all depressed youth showed higher dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity than HC across all conditions, and with HS showing higher cuneus and occipital activity versus both LS and HC; and (c) a Group by Self by Emotion interaction with HS showing lower activity in both mid parietal, limbic, and prefrontal areas in the Happy self versus other-face condition relative to the LS group, who in turn had less activity compared to HC youth...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608601/a-systematic-measure-of-perceptual-relatedness-in-false-memories
#20
Indira C Turney, Nancy A Dennis
Previous memory research has exploited the perceptual similarities between lures and targets in order to evoke false memories. Nevertheless, while some studies have attempted to use lures that are objectively more similar than others, no study has systematically controlled for perceptual overlap between target and lure items and its role in accounting for false alarm rates or the neural processes underlying such perceptual false memories. The current study looked to fill this gap in the literature by using a face-morphing program to systematically control for the amount of perceptual overlap between lures and targets...
September 5, 2016: NeuroImage
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