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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909005/repetition-suppression-and-memory-for-faces-is-reduced-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#1
Michael P Ewbank, Philip J Pell, Thomas E Powell, Elisabeth A H von dem Hagen, Simon Baron-Cohen, Andrew J Calder
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are associated with a number of atypicalities in face processing, including difficulties in face memory. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this difficulty are unclear. In neurotypical individuals, repeated presentation of the same face is associated with a reduction in activity, known as repetition suppression (RS), in the fusiform face area (FFA). However, to date, no studies have investigated RS to faces in individuals with ASC, or the relationship between RS and face memory...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843696/position-selectivity-in-face-sensitive-visual-cortex-to-facial-and-nonfacial-stimuli-an-fmri-study
#2
David F Nichols, Lisa R Betts, Hugh R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evidence for position sensitivity in object-selective visual areas has been building. On one hand, most of the relevant studies have utilized stimuli for which the areas are optimally selective and examine small sections of cortex. On the other hand, visual field maps established with nonspecific stimuli have been found in increasingly large areas of visual cortex, though generally not in areas primarily responsive to faces. METHODS: fMRI was used to study the position sensitivity of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) to both standard rotating wedge retinotopic mapping stimuli and quadrant presentations of synthetic facial stimuli...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810354/human-sensory-cortex-structure-and-top-down-controlling-brain-network-determine-individual-differences-in-perceptual-alternations
#3
Na Sang, Lijie Zhang, Lei Hao, Yongchao Wang, Xiaogang Wang, Fan Zhang, Hui Huang, Xin Hou, Yu Mao, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
Bistable perception is a type of subjective perception that spontaneously alternates between two perceptual interpretations of an ambiguous sensory input. Past functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined the activation patterns underlying bistable perception, yet the variability between individuals in the alternations is not well understood. Therefore, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was introduced in this study to correlate the GM of the sensory cortex with the alternations of Rubin face-vase illusion in a large group of young adults...
October 31, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781139/mandarin-functional-mri-language-paradigms
#4
He Ci, Andre van Graan, Gloria Gonzálvez, Pamela Thompson, Andrea Hill, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency-character (VFC), and verbal fluency-letter (VFL). All functional images were preprocessed by SPM 8, followed by first- and second-level analyses and lateralization index calculation...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779618/a-studyforrest-extension-retinotopic-mapping-and-localization-of-higher-visual-areas
#5
Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Michael B Hoffmann, Christian Häusler, Jörg Stadler, Michael Hanke
The studyforrest (http://studyforrest.org) dataset is likely the largest neuroimaging dataset on natural language and story processing publicly available today. In this article, along with a companion publication, we present an update of this dataset that extends its scope to vision and multi-sensory research. 15 participants of the original cohort volunteered for a series of additional studies: a clinical examination of visual function, a standard retinotopic mapping procedure, and a localization of higher visual areas-such as the fusiform face area...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756696/preferential-coding-of-eye-hand-motor-actions-in-the-human-ventral-occipito-temporal-cortex
#6
Annalisa Tosoni, Roberto Guidotti, Cosimo Del Gratta, Giorgia Committeri, Carlo Sestieri
The human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) contains areas specialized for particular perceptual/semantic categories, such as faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and places (parahippocampal place area, PPA). This organization has been interpreted as reflecting the visual structure of the world, i.e. perceptual similarity and/or eccentricity biases. However, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown not only that regions of the OTC are modulated by non-visual, action-related object properties but also by motor planning and execution, although the functional role and specificity of this motor-related activity are still unclear...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748031/functional-connectivity-differences-in-autism-during-face-and-car-recognition-underconnectivity-and-atypical-age-related-changes
#7
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707978/impact-of-visual-corticostriatal-loop-disruption-on-neural-processing-within-the-parahippocampal-place-area
#8
Shahin Nasr, Herminia D Rosas
: The caudate nucleus is a part of the visual corticostriatal loop (VCSL), receiving input from different visual areas and projecting back to the same cortical areas via globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and thalamus. Despite perceptual and navigation impairments in patients with VCSL disruption due to caudate atrophy (e.g., Huntington's disease, HD), the relevance of the caudate nucleus and VCSL on cortical visual processing is not fully understood. In a series of fMRI experiments, we found that the caudate showed a stronger functional connection to parahippocampal place area (PPA) compared with adjacent regions (e...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699206/smooth-versus-textured-surfaces-feature-based-category-selectivity-in-human-visual-cortex
#9
Cesar Echavarria, Shahin Nasr, Roger Tootell
In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636006/contributions-of-feature-shapes-and-surface-cues-to-the-recognition-and-neural-representation-of-facial-identity
#10
Timothy J Andrews, Heidi Baseler, Rob Jenkins, A Mike Burton, Andrew W Young
A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619004/cognitive-control-modulates-preferential-sensory-processing-of-affective-stimuli
#11
Marco Steinhauser, Tobias Flaisch, Marcus Meinzer, Harald T Schupp
Adaptive human behavior crucially relies on the ability of the brain to allocate resources automatically to emotionally significant stimuli. This ability has consistently been demonstrated by studies showing preferential processing of affective stimuli in sensory cortical areas. It is still unclear, however, whether this putatively automatic mechanism can be modulated by cognitive control processes. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether preferential processing of an affective face distractor is suppressed when an affective distractor has previously elicited a response conflict in a word-face Stroop task...
September 10, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618278/the-neurobiology-of-self-face-recognition-in-depressed-adolescents-with-low-or-high-suicidality
#12
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Jodi Martin, Garry Smyda, Matt Keener, Caroline W Oppenheimer
This study sought to test whether the neurobiology of self-processing differentiated depressed adolescents with high suicidality (HS) from those with low suicidality (LS) and healthy controls (HC; N = 119, MAGE = 14.79, SD = 1.64, Min = 11.3, Max = 17.8). Participants completed a visual self-recognition task in the scanner during which they identified their own or an unfamiliar adolescent face across 3 emotional expressions (happy, neutral or sad). A 3-group (HS, LS, HC) by 2 within-subject factors (2 Self conditions [self, other] and 3 Emotions [happy, neutral, sad]) GLM yielded (a) a main effect of Self condition with all participants showing higher activity in the right occipital, precuneus and fusiform during the self- versus other-face conditions; (b) a main effect of Group where all depressed youth showed higher dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity than HC across all conditions, and with HS showing higher cuneus and occipital activity versus both LS and HC; and (c) a Group by Self by Emotion interaction with HS showing lower activity in both mid parietal, limbic, and prefrontal areas in the Happy self versus other-face condition relative to the LS group, who in turn had less activity compared to HC youth...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608601/a-systematic-measure-of-perceptual-relatedness-in-false-memories
#13
Indira C Turney, Nancy A Dennis
Previous memory research has exploited the perceptual similarities between lures and targets in order to evoke false memories. Nevertheless, while some studies have attempted to use lures that are objectively more similar than others, no study has systematically controlled for perceptual overlap between target and lure items and its role in accounting for false alarm rates or the neural processes underlying such perceptual false memories. The current study looked to fill this gap in the literature by using a face-morphing program to systematically control for the amount of perceptual overlap between lures and targets...
September 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590719/consecutive-tms-fmri-reveals-remote-effects-of-neural-noise-to-the-occipital-face-area
#14
Lily M Solomon-Harris, Sara A Rafique, Jennifer K E Steeves
The human cortical system for face perception comprises a network of connected regions including the middle fusiform gyrus ("fusiform face area" or FFA), the inferior occipital gyrus ("occipital face area" or OFA), and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Here, we sought to investigate how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the OFA affects activity within the face processing network. We used offline repetitive TMS to temporarily introduce neural noise in the right OFA in healthy subjects. We then immediately performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal across the face network using an fMR-adaptation (fMR-A) paradigm...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588001/scene-selectivity-and-retinotopy-in-medial-parietal-cortex
#15
Edward H Silson, Adam D Steel, Chris I Baker
Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585292/being-bold-the-neural-dynamics-of-face-perception
#16
Francesco Gentile, Justin Ales, Bruno Rossion
According to a non-hierarchical view of human cortical face processing, selective responses to faces may emerge in a higher-order area of the hierarchy, in the lateral part of the middle fusiform gyrus (fusiform face area [FFA]) independently from face-selective responses in the lateral inferior occipital gyrus (occipital face area [OFA]), a lower order area. Here we provide a stringent test of this hypothesis by gradually revealing segmented face stimuli throughout strict linear descrambling of phase information [Ales et al...
September 1, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547502/neural-correlates-of-text-based-emoticons-a-preliminary-fmri-study
#17
Ko Woon Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jeewook Choi, Tae Min Kim, Bumseok Jeong
INTRODUCTION: Like nonverbal cues in oral interactions, text-based emoticons, which are textual portrayals of a writer's facial expressions, are commonly used in electronic device-mediated communication. Little is known, however, about how text-based emoticons are processed in the human brain. With this study, we investigated whether the text-based emoticons are processed as face expressions using fMRI. METHODS: During fMRI scan, subjects were asked to respond by pressing a button, indicating whether text-based emoticons represented positive or negative emotions...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460558/integrated-analysis-of-eeg-and-fmri-using-sparsity-of-spatial-maps
#18
S Samadi, H Soltanian-Zadeh, C Jutten
Integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an open problem, which has motivated many researches. The most important challenge in EEG-fMRI integration is the unknown relationship between these two modalities. In this paper, we extract the same features (spatial map of neural activity) from both modality. Therefore, the proposed integration method does not need any assumption about the relationship of EEG and fMRI. We present a source localization method from scalp EEG signal using jointly fMRI analysis results as prior spatial information and source separation for providing temporal courses of sources of interest...
September 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450379/the-relationship-between-repetition-suppression-and-face-perception
#19
Petra Hermann, Mareike Grotheer, Gyula Kovács, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Repetition of identical face stimuli leads to fMRI response attenuation (fMRI adaptation, fMRIa) in the core face-selective occipito-temporal visual cortical network, involving the bilateral fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA). However, the functional relevance of fMRIa observed in these regions is unclear as of today. Therefore, here we aimed at investigating the relationship between fMRIa and face perception ability by measuring in the same human participants both the repetition-induced reduction of fMRI responses and identity discrimination performance outside the scanner for upright and inverted face stimuli...
July 23, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445209/slow-to-warm-up-the-role-of-habituation-in-social-fear
#20
Suzanne N Avery, Jennifer Urbano Blackford
Neural habituation allows familiar information to be ignored in favor of salient or novel stimuli. In contrast, failure to rapidly habituate likely reflects deficits in the ability to learn that an environment is predictable, familiar and safe. Differences in habituation rate may underlie individual differences in the tendency to approach or avoid novelty; however, many questions remain unanswered. Given the importance of adaptive social functioning, here we tested whether habituation differences to social stimuli are associated with differences in social fearfulness, a trait that ranges from low social fear-the adaptive tendency to approach novel social stimuli-to high social fear-the maladaptive tendency to avoid novel social stimuli...
November 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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