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traumatic spinal cord injury

Christian B Theodotou, George M Ghobrial, Andrew L Middleton, Michael Y Wang, Allan D Levi
BACKGROUND: Cervical facet dislocations are among the most common traumatic spinal injuries. Posterior, anterior, and combined surgical approaches have been described and are widely debated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate efficacy in anterior-only surgical management for subaxial cervical facet dislocations. METHODS: A consistent surgical algorithm for cervical facet dislocation was applied over a 19-yr period and analyzed retrospectively in adults with acute unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
I S Lvov, A A Grin', M A Nekrasov, A Yu Kordonskiy, A V Sytnik
Compression of the caudal medulla oblongata and ventral portions of the spinal cord is the most dangerous complication of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). AIM: The study objective was to improve surgical management of patients with ventral compression of the spinal cord in the setting of AAD of various genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in 250 patients with C1 and C2 injuries and diseases for the period between 2002 and 2016. Persistent ventral compression of the neural structures in the setting of AAD was detected in 34 (13...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Tanziyah Muqeem, Biswarup Ghosh, Vitor Pinto, Angelo C Lepore, Manuel Covarrubias
Presynaptic voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are thought to regulate nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the Kv channel subtypes responsible for this critical role have not been identified. The Kv3.4 channel is particularly important because it is robustly expressed in DRG nociceptors, where it regulates action potential (AP) duration. Furthermore, Kv3.4 dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain in multiple pain models...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andre M Samuel, Pablo J Diaz-Collado, Raj J Gala, Matthew L Webb, Adam M Lukasiewicz, Bryce A Basques, Daniel D Bohl, Han Jo Kim, Jonathan N Grauer
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine the rate of venous thromboembolism event (VTE) and risk factors for their occurrence in patients with vertebral fractures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (VTE) events are a significant source of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. In patients with traumatic vertebral fractures, a common high-energy injury sometimes resulting in spinal cord injury, there is debate about what factors may be associated with such VTEs...
March 13, 2018: Spine
Nilisha Fernando, Riccardo Natoli, Tanja Racic, Yvette Wooff, Jan Provis, Krisztina Valter
The complement system is highly implicated in both the prevalence and progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Complement system inhibitors therefore have potential therapeutic value in managing excessive activation of the complement pathways in retinal degenerations. The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) has been shown to be effective as a complement inhibitor in neuroinflammatory models including traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. We aimed to investigate the potential of VCP as a therapeutic molecule for retinal degenerations...
2018: PloS One
Tiina Ihalainen, Teemu M Luoto, Irina Rinta-Kiikka, Antti Ronkainen, Anna-Maija Korpijaakko-Huuhka
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the recovery of penetration/aspiration and functional feeding outcome in patients with acute TCSCI. SETTING: Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland METHODS: Forty-six patients with TCSCI were enrolled. All the patients received speech therapeutic interventions based on their clinical needs and were examined with a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) at enrollment...
March 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Guolei Zhang, Junpu Zha, Junchuan Liu, Jun Di
One of the crucial mechanisms following spinal cord injury is mitochondria associated cell death. Minocycline, an anti-inflammatory drug is well known to impede the mitochondrial cell death. However, there has been no study on the effect of minocycline linking FAS-mediated cell death and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), the targets involved in mitochondrial cell death. Male Sprague Drawley rats (N = 18, divided into three groups) were subjected to traumatic spinal cord injury and were injected with minocycline (n = 6) (90 mg/kg, and later 45 mg/kg dose two times a day (every 12 h)...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Eliseo Portilla-de Buen, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, David González-Tapia, Caridad Leal-Cortés, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Stephanie Sánchez-Torres, Laura Álvarez-Mejía, Omar Fabela-Sánchez, Néstor I Martínez-Torres, Myrna M González-Ramírez, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Ignacio González-Burgos
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is highly incapacitating, and the neurobiological factors involved in an eventual functional recovery remain uncertain. Plastic changes to dendritic spines are closely related with the functional modifications of behavior. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the plastic response of dendritic spines in motoneurons after SCI. METHODS: Female rats were assigned to either of three groups: Intact (no manipulations), Sham (T9 laminectomy), and SCI (T9 laminectomy and spinal cord contusion)...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Lenore Hawley, Jessica M Ketchum, Clare Morey, Kathleen Collins Pharm D, Susan Charlifue
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of cannabis use in an adult sample with spinal cord injury (SCI) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Colorado, and to describe the self-reported reasons and side effects of cannabis use in this sample. DESIGN: Mixed methods observational study, using focus group data and telephone survey SETTING: Community PARTICIPANTS: Colorado adults who have sustained SCI or moderate to severe TBI and have received services through the rehabilitation hospital conducting the study...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Gabriella Smedfors, Lars Olson, Tobias E Karlsson
An appropriate strength of Nogo-like signaling is important to maintain synaptic homeostasis in the CNS. Disturbances have been associated with schizophrenia, MS and other diseases. Blocking Nogo-like signaling may improve recovery after spinal cord injury, stroke and traumatic brain injury. To understand the interacting roles of an increasing number of ligands, receptors and modulators engaged in Nogo-like signaling, the transcriptional activity of these genes in the same brain areas from birth to old age in the normal brain is needed...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Stephanie Rigot, Lynn Worobey, Michael L Boninger
OBJECTIVES: To investigate relation of gait training (GT) during inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) to outcomes of people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Prospective observational study using the SCIRehab database. SETTING: Six IPR facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with new SCI receiving initial rehabilitation (n=1376). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were divided into groups of who did and did not receive GT...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Mohammad Naeem Ur Razaq, Bahadar Ali, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Muhammad Waqar, Abdul Satar, Muhammad Arif Khan
BACKGROUND: Spinal injuries are the most devastating injuries and affect every aspect of patients' lives. This may cause lifelong disability due to spinal cord injury. Recovery of neurological functions is highly desirable. Early or late surgical intervention is still debatable, but majority recommend early intervention. The result of late surgical intervention in term of neurological recovery is not clear. This study focuses on neurological recovery after late surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to assess neurological recovery in term of ASIA grading in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Yutaka Igarashi, Takahiro Kanaya, Shoji Yokobori, Takeshi Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Yokota
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular ischaemia is a rare but serious complication of damage to the carotid or vertebral arteries in the neck caused by blunt injury to the neck. Screening for blunt cerebrovascular injury should be performed in patients with certain signs or symptoms and risk factors. We described a case of traumatic bilateral vertebral artery injury (VAI) including unilateral vertebral arterial occlusion that resolved 3 months post-injury with antiplatelet and direct oral anticoagulant therapy...
March 1, 2018: European Spine Journal
Kathia Cordero, Gemma G Coronel, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Jennifer Cruz-Bracero, Johnny D Figueroa, Marino De León
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks...
February 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
A Taha, S L M Bakker
In patients with pre-existent cervical spinal canal stenosis, minimal trauma, leading to neck hyperextension, can cause a significant increase of spinal cord compression. However, spinal cord injury is generally associated with major trauma and is usually not expected in patients with minor trauma. The resulting symptoms are diverse, making it even more difficult to diagnose. To illustrate the variety in symptoms at presentation, we describe two male patients aged 66 and 69. Rapid diagnosis is important as acute neurosurgical intervention may be indicated...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Christina Mousele, Miltiadis Georgiopoulos, Constantine Constantoyannis
CONTEXT: Syringobulbia is a very rare progressive disorder of central nervous system, with several possible underlying conditions. Rarely, it is also encountered as a late complication of syringomyelia. FINDINGS: In the present manuscript, a case of a paraplegic patient, due to traumatic spinal cord injury (thoracolumbar fracture), presenting after years progressively developing symptoms of the lower cranial nerves and upper extremities, owed to syringomyelia and syringobulbia, the surgical treatment applied and its outcomes are described...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Wenzhao Wang, Ronghan Liu, Yanlin Su, Hongfei Li, Wei Xie, Bin Ning
Little regeneration of transected axons occurs after the damage caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), and unidirectional and irreversible fibrotic scars are thought to be the main chemical and physical obstacle for axonal regrowth in SCI pathology. We previously demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-21-5p and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a central pathological mediator of fibrotic diseases, were significantly up-regulated in the lesion epicenter after SCI. Here, we found that TGF-β1 enhanced miR-21-5p expression in primary spinal fibroblasts, and regulated the expression of fibrosis-related genes...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yue Cao, Jillian M R Clark, James S Krause
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship of frequency of prescription medication use to treat pain, spasticity, sleep, and depression/stress, and change in prescription medication use with risk of all-cause mortality. SETTING: This study was initiated at a specialty hospital in the Southeastern USA, with follow-up and data analysis at an academic medical center in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: Prospective data were collected in 1997-1998 (Time 1) and 2007-2009 (Time 2), with mortality determined as of 31 December 2014...
February 26, 2018: Spinal Cord
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