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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914781/incident-air-kerma-to-absorbed-organ-dose-conversion-factors-for-breast-and-lung-in-pa-thorax-radiography-the-effect-of-patient-thickness-and-radiation-quality
#1
A Kelaranta, P Toroi, P Vock
PURPOSE: Converting the measurable quantities to patient organ doses in projection radiography is usually based on a standard-sized patient model and a specific radiation quality, which are likely to differ from the real situation. Large inaccuracies can therefore be obtained in organ doses, because organ doses are dependent on the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy. In this study, the effect of radiation quality and patient thickness on the organ dose conversion factors were determined...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843762/dangers-of-flying-high-and-diving-low-an-unusual-case-of-dyspnea
#2
Poornima Ramadas, Rumon Chakravarty, Prathik Krishnan, Anupa Nadkarni
Giant bullae are bullae that occupy at least 30 percent of a hemi thorax. This condition can rarely be idiopathic and not usually suspected in young patients with no risk factors. We describe a case of a giant solitary pulmonary bulla in a healthy young female with no known risk factors. 23-year-old female presented to the Emergency department with dyspnea and pleuritic right sided chest pain. She started experiencing these symptoms when she was on a 7-h flight and later experienced similar symptoms when she went scuba diving...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832558/a-comparative-study-of-tracheal-diameter-in-caucasian-and-chinese-patients
#3
A Tai, C Corke, G M Joynt, J Griffith, D Lunn, Pwy Tong
Ethnicity may be considered a factor when considering what size endotracheal tube to insert. In particular it has been suggested that Chinese patients have a smaller tracheal diameter, justifying the selection of smaller endotracheal tubes. We systematically evaluated transverse tracheal diameters in Chinese and Caucasian patients, utilising archived computer tomography images. A convenience sample of 100 Caucasian patients from Australia was compared with 100 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. Patients over 18 years of age who had undergone a computerised tomography scan of the neck and thorax, and also had accurate body height and weight recorded, were studied...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690714/can-ems-providers-provide-appropriate-tidal-volumes-in-a-simulated-adult-sized-patient-with-a-pediatric-sized-bag-valve-mask
#4
Jeffrey Siegler, Melissa Kroll, Susan Wojcik, Hawnwan Philip Moy
INTRODUCTION: In the prehospital setting, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals rely on providing positive pressure ventilation with a bag-valve-mask (BVM). Multiple emergency medicine and critical care studies have shown that lung-protective ventilation protocols reduce morbidity and mortality. Our primary objective was to determine if a group of EMS professionals could provide ventilations with a smaller BVM that would be sufficient to ventilate patients. Secondary objectives included 1) if the pediatric bag provided volumes similar to lung-protective ventilation in the hospital setting and 2) compare volumes provided to the patient depending on the type of airway (mask, King tube, and intubation)...
October 3, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575451/an-unusual-chest-x-ray-showing-part-of-a-drain-tube-still-in-the-thorax-after-its-removal-and-some-suggestive-ultrasound-findings
#5
Daniele G Biasucci, Alessandro Pizza, Andrea Scapigliati, Francesca Bevilacqua, Bruno ROMANò, Maria E Antoniucci, Michele Corrado, Sergio Guarneri, Roberto Zamparelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511340/an-experimental-comparative-study-on-classic-tube-thoracostomy-and-thoracostomy-with-a-newly-designed-thorax-drainage-catheter
#6
Mahmut Tokur, Mehmet Ergin, Mehmet Okumuş, Zerrin Defne Dündar
BACKGROUND/AIM: The collection of fluids, blood, pus, or air in the pleural cavity is a pathological condition requiring pleural drainage. A newly designed thorax drainage catheter in the prototype phase was used in this experimental study to test its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hemopneumothorax was first caused by a penetrating injury on the frontal axis of the sixth intercostal space on the right hemithorax with a scalpel on 6 female Sus domesticus swine subjects...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473367/evaluation-of-gantry-speed-on-image-quality-and-imaging-dose-for-4d-cone-beam-ct-acquisition
#7
Andrew P Santoso, Kwang H Song, Yujiao Qin, Stephen J Gardner, Chang Liu, Indrin J Chetty, Benjamin Movsas, Munther Ajlouni, Ning Wen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of gantry speed on 4DCBCT image quality and dose for the Varian On-Board Imager®. METHODS: A thoracic 4DCBCT protocol was designed using a 125 kVp spectrum. Image quality parameters were evaluated for 4DCBCT acquisition using Catphan® phantom with real-time position management™ system for gantry speeds varying between 1.0 to 6.0°/s. Superior-inferior motion of the phantom was executed using a sinusoidal waveform with five second period...
2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448342/fast-variance-prediction-for-iteratively-reconstructed-ct-images-with-locally-quadratic-regularization
#8
Stephen Schmitt, Mitchell Goodsitt, Jeffrey Fessler
Predicting noise properties of iteratively reconstructed CT images is useful for analyzing reconstruction methods; for example, local noise power spectrum (NPS) predictions may be used to quantify the detectability of an image feature, to design regularization methods, or to determine dynamic tube current adjustment during a CT scan. This paper presents a method for fast prediction of reconstructed image variance and local NPS for statistical reconstruction methods using quadratic or locally quadratic regularization...
July 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419065/spontaneous-bacterial-empyema-in-a-non-cirrhotic-end-stage-renal-disease-patient-with-immunosuppression
#9
Dennis Lourdusamy, Lubna B Munshi, Sherif Ali Eltawansy
Spontaneous Bacterial Empyema (SBEM) denotes infection of the pleural fluid in the absence of pneumonia. Almost all cases of SBEM in literature are described in a background of ascites secondary to cirrhosis. Contiguous spread of the infected ascitic fluid through defects in the diaphragm is the most likely mechanism of SBEM. Most of these cases are transudative in nature and are managed with antibiotics. Literature on SBEM in the absence of cirrhosis or ascites is very limited so far. We describe a 59 year old female with ESRD status post renal transplant, on chronic immunosuppression for renal allograft rejection who was admitted with pleuritic chest pain that turned to be secondary to right sided pleural effusion...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185991/clinical-profile-etiology-and-management-of-hydropneumothorax-an-indian-experience
#10
Vasunethra Kasargod, Nilkanth Tukaram Awad
INTRODUCTION: Hydropneumothorax is an abnormal presence of air and fluid in the pleural space. Even though the knowledge of hydro-pneumothorax dates back to the days of ancient Greece, not many national or international literatures are documented. AIM: To study clinical presentation, etiological diagnosis, and management of the patients of hydropneumothorax. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital with diagnosis of hydropneumothorax between 2012 and 2014 were prospectively studied...
May 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147323/development-of-a-method-to-estimate-organ-doses-for-pediatric-ct-examinations
#11
Antonios E Papadakis, Kostas Perisinakis, John Damilakis
PURPOSE: To develop a method for estimating doses to primarily exposed organs in pediatric CT by taking into account patient size and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). METHODS: A Monte Carlo CT dosimetry software package, which creates patient-specific voxelized phantoms, accurately simulates CT exposures, and generates dose images depicting the energy imparted on the exposed volume, was used. Routine head, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations in 92 pediatric patients, ranging from 1-month to 14-yr-old (49 boys and 43 girls), were simulated on a 64-slice CT scanner...
May 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075785/a-massive-haemothorax-as-an-unusual-complication-of-infective-endocarditis-caused-by-streptococcus-sanguinis
#12
Kyoung Jin Kim, Kang Won Lee, Ju Hee Choi, Jang Wook Sohn, Min Ja Kim, Young Kyung Yoon
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Infective endocarditis involving the tricuspid valve is an uncommon condition, and a consequent haemothorax associated with pulmonary embolism is extremely rare. Particularly, there are no guidelines for the management of this complication. We describe a rare case of pulmonary embolism and infarction followed by a haemothorax due to infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve caused by Streptococcus sanguinis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old man with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) presented with fever...
August 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069268/primary-spontaneous-pneumothorax-presenting-to-a-chiropractic-clinic-as-undifferentiated-thoracic-spine-pain-a-case-report
#13
Ryan Larson
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of primary spontaneous pneumothorax presenting to a chiropractic clinic as undifferentiated thoracic spine pain. CLINICAL FEATURES: A tall thin 25-year-old male anxiously presented to a chiropractic clinic with six days of sudden unexplained left thorax pain. His breathing was laboured and his dry cough aggravating. After assessment a high clinical suspicion of primary spontaneous pneumothorax prevailed. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was referred to hospital for further investigation and primary spontaneous pneumothorax was confirmed on chest radiograph...
March 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058341/-very-rare-and-life-threatening-complications-of-bocavirus-bronchiolitis-pneumomediastinum-and-bilateral-pneumothorax
#14
Osman Yeşilbaş, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Sevim Meşe, Esra Şevketoğlu
Human bocavirus (HBoV), that was first identified in 2005 and classified in Parvoviridae family, is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus, responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children. Although HBoV generally causes self-limited influenza-like illness, it may also lead to pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup and asthma attacks. In this report, a case of acute bronchiolitis complicated with pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by HBoV has been presented...
January 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011160/high-intrathoracic-anastomosis-with-thoracoscopy-is-safe-and-feasible-for-treatment-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Hyun Woo Jeon, Jae Kil Park, Kyo Young Song, Sook Whan Sung
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer surgery. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high incidence of earlier lymphatic spread and is usually located more proximal to the incisor than esophageal adenocarcinoma; consequently, the anastomosis should be made more proximal in the thorax or in the neck. We adopted the proximal intrathoracic anastomotic technique using thoracoscopy for mid-to-lower ESCC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986188/the-effect-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-post-thoracotomy-pain
#16
Sevilay Erden, Sevilay Senol Celik
BACKGROUND: Pain guidelines suggest transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a reliable analgesic method in postoperative pain. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled study to determine the effect of TENS on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption in patients who have undergone posterolateral thoracotomy (PLT). DESIGN: The study was conducted in the Thoracic Surgery Clinic of a university hospital with 40 patients (test group: 20, control group: 20) and its power was 99%...
October 2015: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936711/effect-of-reconstruction-methods-and-x-ray-tube-current-time-product-on-nodule-detection-in-an-anthropomorphic-thorax-phantom-a-crossed-modality-jafroc-observer-study
#17
J D Thompson, D P Chakraborty, K Szczepura, A K Tootell, I Vamvakas, D J Manning, P Hogg
PURPOSE: To evaluate nodule detection in an anthropomorphic chest phantom in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR(3D)) and filtered back projection (FBP) over a range of tube current-time product (mAs). METHODS: Two phantoms were used in this study: (i) an anthropomorphic chest phantom was loaded with spherical simulated nodules of 5, 8, 10, and 12 mm in diameter and +100, -630, and -800 Hounsfield units electron density; this would generate CT images for the observer study; (ii) a whole-body dosimetry verification phantom was used to ultimately estimate effective dose and risk according to the model of the BEIR VII committee...
March 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891671/clinics-in-diagnostic-imaging-165-oesophageal-rupture-secondary-to-malposition-of-an-sb-tube-gastric-balloon
#18
Wan Ying Chan, Hsueh Wen Cheong, Tien Jin Tan
Oesophageal rupture is a life-threatening complication of balloon tamponade for bleeding oesophageal varices. We herein describe the clinical course and imaging findings in a 33-year-old Indian man who had a Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube inserted for uncontrolled haematemesis, which was unfortunately complicated by malposition of the gastric balloon with resultant oesophageal rupture. The inflated SB tube gastric balloon was visualised within the right hemithorax on chest radiography after the SB tube insertion...
February 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860113/occult-pneumothorax-in-blunt-trauma-is-there-a-need-for-tube-thoracostomy
#19
M Zhang, L T Teo, M H Goh, J Leow, K T S Go
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Occult pneumothorax (OPTX) is defined as air within the pleural cavity that is undetectable on normal chest X-rays, but identifiable on computed tomography. Currently, consensus is divided between tube thoracostomy and conservative management for OPTX. METHODS: The aim of this retrospective study is to determine whether OPTX can be managed conservatively and whether any adverse events occur under conservative management. Data on all trauma patients from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from our hospital's trauma registry...
December 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26699546/a-measurement-based-x-ray-source-model-characterization-for-ct-dosimetry-computations
#20
Mitchell Sommerville, Yannick Poirier, Mauro Tambasco
The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes...
2015: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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