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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089290/assessing-circumstances-and-causes-of-dairy-cow-death-in-italian-dairy-farms-through-a-veterinary-practice-survey-2013-2014
#1
Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Valentina Lorenzi, Luca Bolzoni, Luigi Bertocchi
A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17...
January 6, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087628/id4-levels-dictate-the-stem-cell-state-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#2
Aileen R Helsel, Qi-En Yang, Melissa J Oatley, Tessa Lord, Fred Sablitzky, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis is a classic model of cycling cell lineages that depend on a balance between stem cell self-renewal for continuity and formation of progenitors as the initial step in production of differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms guiding the continuum of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) to progenitor spermatogonial transition and precise identifiers of subtypes in the process are undefined. Here we used an Id4-eGfp reporter mouse to discover that EGFP intensity is predictive of the subsets with the ID4-EGFP(Bright) population being mostly, if not purely, SSCs while the ID4-EGFP(Dim) population is in transition to the progenitor state...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079878/a-complete-workflow-for-high-resolution-spectral-stitching-nanoelectrospray-direct-infusion-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-and-lipidomics
#3
Andrew D Southam, Ralf J M Weber, Jasper Engel, Martin R Jones, Mark R Viant
Metabolomic and lipidomic studies measure and discover metabolic and lipid profiles in biological samples, enabling a better understanding of the metabolism of specific biological phenotypes. Accurate biological interpretations require high analytical reproducibility and sensitivity, and standardized and transparent data processing. Here we describe a complete workflow for nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) direct-infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) metabolomics and lipidomics. After metabolite and lipid extraction from tissues and biofluids, samples are directly infused into a high-resolution mass spectrometer (e...
February 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074063/direct-in-vivo-evidence-for-increased-proliferation-of-cll-cells-in-lymph-nodes-compared-to-bone-marrow-and-peripheral-blood
#4
T M Herndon, S-S Chen, N S Saba, J Valdez, C Emson, M Gatmaitan, X Tian, T E Hughes, C Sun, D C Arthur, M Stetler-Stevenson, C M Yuan, C U Niemann, G E Marti, G Aue, S Soto, M Z H Farooqui, S E M Herman, N Chiorazzi, A Wiestner
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a progressive malignancy of mature B-cells that involves the peripheral blood (PB), lymph nodes (LNs) and bone marrow (BM). While the majority of CLL cells are in a resting state, small populations of proliferating cells exist; however, the anatomical site of active cell proliferation remains to be definitively determined. Based on findings that CLL cells in LNs have increased expression of B-cell activation genes, we tested the hypothesis that the fraction of 'newly born' cells would be highest in the LNs...
January 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071711/transient-anhedonia-phenotype-and-altered-circadian-timing-of-behaviour-during-night-time-dim-light-exposure-in-per3-mice-but-not-wildtype-mice
#5
Bruno Jacson Martynhak, Alexandra L Hogben, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Roberto Andreatini, Ian Kitchen, Simon N Archer, Malcolm von Schantz, Alexis Bailey, Daan R van der Veen
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3(-/-) mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3(-/-)) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#6
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066585/the-comparison-between-novel-and-traditional-three-dimensional-image-system-in-thoracoscopy-glasses-less-vs-glass
#7
Jiaxi He, Keng Long Ang, Zhexue Hao, Jianfei Shen, Hui Pan, Jingpei Li, Jianxing He
BACKGROUND: Although three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic technology has been available for some time, it is not widely utilized in most centers. Dimness, unsatisfied visualization and discomfort associated with wearing 3D glasses might account for such phenomenon. We have recently developed a "Glass-less" 3D system for thoracoscopic surgery to avoid these in issues. METHODS: Surgical residents will be invited to perform a set of commonly used surgical procedures using "Glass-less" 3D and conventional 3D system...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian CLOCK, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian CLOCK in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063342/linking-genomic-responses-of-gonads-with-reproductive-impairment-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-exposed-chronically-to-the-chemopreventive-and-antifouling-agent-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim
#9
Lianguo Chen, Doris W T Au, Chenyan Hu, Weipeng Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou, Lin Cai, John P Giesy, Pei-Yuan Qian
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0μg/L or 8.5μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway...
December 30, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061512/assessment-of-rod-cone-and-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cell-contributions-to-the-canine-chromatic-pupillary-response
#10
Connie Y Yeh, Kristin L Koehl, Christine D Harman, Simone Iwabe, José M Guzman, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Randy H Kardon, András M Komáromy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chromatic pupillometry protocol for specific functional assessment of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in dogs. Methods: Chromatic pupillometry was tested and compared in 37 dogs in different stages of primary loss of rod, cone, and combined rod/cone and optic nerve function, and in 5 wild-type (WT) dogs. Eyes were stimulated with 1-s flashes of dim (1 cd/m2) and bright (400 cd/m2) blue light (for scotopic conditions) or bright red (400 cd/m2) light with 25-cd/m2 blue background (for photopic conditions)...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060506/controlled-generation-of-tm-2-ions-in-nanocrystalline-bafcl-tm-3-by-x-ray-irradiation
#11
Jun Zhang, Hans Riesen
An investigation of the photoluminescence properties of divalent thulium generated by X-irradiation (=X-ray irradiation) of nanocrystalline BaFCl:Tm3+ (250 ± 50 ppm) is reported. The X-irradiated sample shows typical Tm2+ f-f luminescence with an excited state lifetime τ = 0.98 ± 0.05 ms in the near infrared (~1140 nm) but no d-f luminescence is observed for the BaFCl host material within the visible range. The Tm2+ ions are relatively stable under dim room light but are photoionized rapidly by sunlight or by fluorescent tube lighting...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059527/avalanche-statistics-identify-intrinsic-stellar-processes-near-criticality-in-kic-8462852
#12
Mohammed A Sheikh, Richard L Weaver, Karin A Dahmen
The star KIC8462852 (Tabby's star) has shown anomalous drops in light flux. We perform a statistical analysis of the more numerous smaller dimming events by using methods found useful for avalanches in ferromagnetism and plastic flow. Scaling exponents for avalanche statistics and temporal profiles of the flux during the dimming events are close to mean field predictions. Scaling collapses suggest that this star may be near a nonequilibrium critical point. The large events are interpreted as avalanches marked by modified dynamics, limited by the system size, and not within the scaling regime...
December 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059301/spatial-dimming-scheme-for-optical-ofdm-based-visible-light-communication
#13
Yang Yang, Zhimin Zeng, Julian Cheng, Caili Guo
A new dimming control scheme termed spatial dimming orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SD-OFDM) is proposed for multiple-input and multiple output OFDM based visible light communication. The basic idea of SD-OFDM is that the illumination can be represented by the number of glared light emitting diodes (LEDs) in an LED lamp. As the biasing level of LEDs does not adjust to represent the required illumination level, the proposed scheme can significantly mitigate the clipping noise compared to analogue dimming schemes...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059234/multiexposure-imaging-and-parameter-optimization-for-intensified-star-trackers
#14
Wenbo Yu, Jie Jiang, Guangjun Zhang
Due to the introduction of the intensified image detector, the dynamic performance of the intensified star tracker is effectively improved. However, its attitude update rate is still seriously restricted by the transmission and processing of pixel data. In order to break through the above limitation, a multiexposure imaging approach for intensified star trackers is proposed in this paper. One star image formed by this approach actually records N different groups of star positions, and then N corresponding groups of attitude information can be acquired...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058998/subjective-assessments-of-floor-slipperiness-before-and-after-walk-under-two-lighting-conditions
#15
Kai Way Li, Caijun Zhao, Lu Peng, Ai-Qun Liu
A gait experiment was performed. The participants were tested under shoes, floors, surface, and lighting conditions. They gave floor slipperiness ratings before and after a gait trial. The perceived sense of slip (PSOS) was collected. It was found that the perceived floor slipperiness (PFS) before walking was affected significantly by the lighting, floor, and surface conditions. Relative low PFS values were recorded under wet and detergent contaminated conditions at normal daylight condition as compared to those in the dimmed condition...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057644/efficacy-of-topical-cysteamine-in-nephropathic-cystinosis
#16
Amal Al-Hemidan, Samir S Shoughy, Igor Kozak, Khalid F Tabbara
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops in the treatment of corneal cystine crystal deposits in patients with nephropathic cystinosis. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with nephropathic cystinosis were prospectively included in the study. Patients with corneal cystinosis were treated with topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops. They were examined before treatment, on each monthly visit and after treatment at the last follow-up...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051112/pigmentation-plasticity-enhances-crypsis-in-larval-newts-associated-metabolic-cost-and-background-choice-behaviour
#17
Nuria Polo-Cavia, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
In heterogeneous environments, the capacity for colour change can be a valuable adaptation enhancing crypsis against predators. Alternatively, organisms might achieve concealment by evolving preferences for backgrounds that match their visual traits, thus avoiding the costs of plasticity. Here we examined the degree of plasticity in pigmentation of newt larvae (Lissotriton boscai) in relation to predation risk. Furthermore, we tested for associated metabolic costs and pigmentation-dependent background choice behaviour...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045194/the-effect-of-increasing-levels-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-seed-on-the-performance-ruminal-fermentation-antioxidant-status-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-of-saanen-dairy-goats
#18
M Sharifi, M Bashtani, A A Naserian, H Farhangfar
This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043367/effectiveness-of-intrauterine-treatment-with-cephapirin-in-dairy-cows-with-purulent-vaginal-discharge
#19
N Tison, E Bouchard, L DesCôteaux, R C Lefebvre
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of cephapirin intrauterine treatment preceding a timed artificial insemination protocol in lactating dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharges (PVDs). Holstein dairy cows (n = 1247) from 18 herds were enrolled in a controlled randomized clinical trial. At 34 days in milk (DIM; ±7 days), cows had a genital examination (transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy, and uterine bacteriology). They were randomly assigned to either the control group (CONT, no treatment) or the treatment group (CEPH) consisting of 1 intrauterine infusion of 500-mg cephapirin benzathine (RCL) (Metricure, Merck Animal Health, Montreal, Canada) regardless of the uterine health status...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042611/bedtime-and-evening-light-exposure-influence-circadian-timing-in-preschool-age-children-a-field-study
#20
Lameese D Akacem, Kenneth P Wright, Monique K LeBourgeois
Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5-5.0 years (4.7 ± 0.2 years; 9 females). Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
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