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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336526/identification-of-unipotent-megakaryocyte-progenitors-in-human-hematopoiesis
#1
Kohta Miyawaki, Hiromi Iwasaki, Takashi Jiromaru, Hirotake Kusumoto, Ayano Yurino, Takeshi Sugio, Yasufumi Uehara, Jun Odawara, Shinya Daitoku, Yuya Kunisaki, Yasuo Mori, Yojiro Arinobu, Hirofumi Tsuzuki, Yoshikane Kikushige, Tadafumi Iino, Koji Kato, Katsuto Takenaka, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Takahiro Maeda, Koichi Akashi
The developmental pathway for human megakaryocytes remains unclear and the definition of pure unipotent megakaryocyte progenitor is still controversial. Using single-cell transcriptome analysis, we have identified a cluster of cells within immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations that specifically express genes related to the megakaryocyte lineage. We used CD41 as a positive marker to identify these cells within the CD34(+)CD38(+)IL-3Rα(dim)CD45RA(-) common myeloid progenitor (CMP) population...
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334493/glucose-metabolism-in-mammalian-photoreceptor-inner-and-outer-segments
#2
REVIEW
Daniel S Narayan, Glyn Chidlow, John Pm Wood, Robert J Casson
Photoreceptors are the first order neurons of the visual pathway, converting light into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two main types of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Rods are specialized for sensitivity at the expense of resolution and are responsible for vision in dimly lit conditions. Cones are responsible for high acuity central vision and colour vision. Many human retinal diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of photoreceptors. Photoreceptors consist of four primary regions: outer segments, inner segments, cell bodies, and synaptic terminals...
March 23, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333363/evaluation-of-the-%C3%AE-carba%C3%A2-test-a-colorimetric-test-for-the-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-activity-in-gram-negative-bacilli
#3
Sandrine Bernabeu, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas
Objectives: There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated a novel colorimetric test (the β-CARBA™ test; Bio-Rad) to detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli from cultured colonies. Methods: The performance of the β-CARBA™ test was compared with that of the Carba NP test (or the CarbAcineto NP test) and RAPIDEC ® CARBA NP (bioMérieux) using a collection of 290 isolates with characterized β-lactamase content...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331380/classical-conditioning-for-preserving-the-effects-of-short-melatonin-treatment-in-children-with-delayed-sleep-a-pilot-study
#4
Annette van Maanen, Anne Marie Meijer, Marcel G Smits, Frans J Oort
Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. After a baseline week, 16 children (mean age: 9.92 years, 31% ADHD/autism) received melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then gradually discontinued the treatment...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#5
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323187/activation-of-cytotoxic-natural-killer-cells-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#6
Daniel Spitzer, Nina Johanna Spitzer, Monika Deininger, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Ralph König, Timo Burster, Thomas Kapapa
OBJECTIVE: Cell-mediated inflammation is critical in development of cerebrovascular complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). We analysed the course for activated CD16(bright)CD56(dim) cytotoxic NKCSF cells (NK) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 patients. METHODS: Patients were classified by occurrence of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. NK were monitored by flow cytometry between day 1 and 14 after haemorrhage. RESULTS: 12 (80%) patients developed CV with a mean day of detection at 3...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322863/deep-immune-profiling-by-mass-cytometry-links-human-t-and-nk-cell-differentiation-and-cytotoxic-molecule-expression-patterns
#7
Bertram Bengsch, Takuya Ohtani, Ramin Sedaghat Herati, Niels Bovenschen, Kyong-Mi Chang, E John Wherry
The elimination of infected or tumor cells by direct lysis is a key T and NK cell effector function. T and NK cells can kill target cells by coordinated secretion of cytotoxic granules containing one or both pore-forming proteins, perforin and granulysin and combinations of granzyme (Gzm) family effector proteases (in humans: Gzm A, B, K, M and H). Understanding the pattern of expression of cytotoxic molecules and the relationship to different states of T and NK cells may have direct relevance for immune responses in autoimmunity, infectious disease and cancer...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318721/-physiology-of-the-visual-retinal-signal-from-phototransduction-to-the-visual-cycle
#8
REVIEW
C Salesse
The retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) are responsible for light absorption and transduction of the signal, which is transmitted to the other retinal nerve cells and then to the brain. The chromophore of visual pigments of rods and cones is a particular isomer of a vitamin A derivative. Light absorption by this chromophore leads to its isomerization and to a phototransduction cascade, which results in photoreceptor hyperpolarization and cessation of glutamate secretion at their synaptic terminals. Phototransduction of cones and rods differs in their signal amplification and inactivation, which is consistent with their respective functions...
March 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318582/purulent-vaginal-discharge-in-grazing-dairy-cows-risk-factors-reproductive-performance-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-treatment
#9
M J Giuliodori, M Magnasco, R P Magnasco, I M Lacau-Mengido, R L de la Sota
The objectives of this study were to assess the association of a 4-point scale of vaginal discharge score (VDS) with time to pregnancy to define criteria for a practical case of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) in dairy cows, to test the risk factors for PVD, and, finally, the effect of a dose of PGF2α on cure and reproductive performance. In experiment 1, grazing Holstein cows (n = 2,414) had their vaginal discharge scored at ∼32 d in milk (DIM) on a 4-point scale, the effect of VDS on the hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was then assessed to derive a case definition of PVD...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318576/risk-factors-associated-with-postpartum-subclinical-hypocalcemia-in-dairy-cows
#10
R C Neves, B M Leno, T Stokol, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our study objectives were to evaluate the association of prepartum plasma Mg concentrations with subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) classification at parturition and to evaluate the association of other cow-level risk factors with SCH classification at calving or at 2 d in milk (DIM). A total of 301 animals from 2 dairy herds located in New York were enrolled in a cohort study. Blood samples were collected at approximately 1 wk before the expected calving date, within 4 h of calving, and at 2 DIM. Prepartum samples had plasma macromineral concentrations (Ca, K, Mg, P), albumin, and β-hydroxybutyrate analyzed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302678/bright-flash-response-recovery-of-mammalian-rods-in-vivo-is-rate-limited-by-rgs9
#11
Gabriel Peinado Allina, Christopher Fortenbach, Franklin Naarendorp, Owen P Gross, Edward N Pugh, Marie E Burns
The temporal resolution of scotopic vision is thought to be constrained by the signaling kinetics of retinal rods, which use a highly amplified G-protein cascade to transduce absorbed photons into changes in membrane potential. Much is known about the biochemical mechanisms that determine the kinetics of rod responses ex vivo, but the rate-limiting mechanisms in vivo are unknown. Using paired flash electroretinograms with improved signal-to-noise, we have recorded the amplitude and kinetics of rod responses to a wide range of flash strengths from living mice...
March 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296912/infants-perception-of-lightness-changes-related-to-cast-shadows
#12
Kazuki Sato, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi
When humans perceive the lightness of an object's surface in shadows there is an implicit assumption that cast shadows dim the surface. In two experiments, we investigated whether 5- to 8-month-old infants make this assumption about shadows. According to this shadow assumption, the apparent change in lightness produced by shadows on an object's surface are attributed to blocked light sources. If infants can use the shadow assumption to perceive the object's lightness in shadows, they will also be able to detect unnatural lightness changes in shadows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296058/a-comparison-between-the-larval-eyes-of-the-dimly-luminescent-keroplatus-nipponicus-and-the-brightly-luminescent-arachnocampa-luminosa-diptera-keroplatidae
#13
V Benno Meyer-Rochow, Yumi Yamahama
Larvae of the weakly blue-luminescent fungus gnat Keroplatus nipponicus possess on either side of their heads a small black stemmatal eye with a plano-convex lens approximately 25 μm in diameter. In total, 12-14 retinula cells give rise to a centrally fused rhabdom of up to 8 μm in diameter. The rhabdom's constituent microvilli, approximately 70 nm in width, are roughly orthogonally oriented, a requirement for polarization sensitivity. Screening pigment granules are abundant in the retinula cells and measure at least 1 μm in diameter...
March 9, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295969/identification-and-characterization-of-the-luc2-type-luciferase-in-the-japanese-firefly-luciola-parvula-involved-in-a-dim-luminescence-in-immobile-stages
#14
Manabu Bessho-Uehara, Yuichi Oba
Nocturnal Japanese fireflies, Luciola parvula, emit from their lanterns a yellow light, one of the most red-shifted colors found among fireflies. Previously, we isolated and characterized two different types of luciferase gene, Luc1 and Luc2, from the fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis; Luc1 is responsible for the green-yellow luminescence of larval and adult lanterns, whereas Luc2 is responsible for the dim greenish glow of eggs and pupal bodies. The biological role of firefly lanterns in adults is related to sexual communication, but why the eggs and pupae glow remains uncertain...
March 9, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295268/the-impact-of-community-health-educators-on-uptake-of-cervical-and-breast-cancer-prevention-services-in-nigeria
#15
Chibuike O Chigbu, Azubuike K Onyebuchi, Tonia C Onyeka, Boniface U Odugu, Cyril C Dim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of trained community health educators on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A prospective population-based intervention study, with a before-and-after design, involved four randomly selected communities in southeast Nigeria from February 2014 to February 2016. Before the intervention, baseline data were collected on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294984/defining-the-baseline-and-oxidant-perturbed-lipidomic-profiles-of-daphnia-magna
#16
Nadine S Taylor, Thomas A White, Mark R Viant
Recent technological advancement has enabled the emergence of lipidomics as an important tool for assessing molecular stress, one which has yet to be assessed fully as an approach in an environmental toxicological context. Here we have applied a high-resolution, non-targeted, nanoelectrospray ionisation (nESI) direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) technique to assess the effects of oxidative stress to Daphnia magna both in vitro (air exposure of daphniid extracts) and in vivo (Cu(2+) exposure). Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were used to distinguish any perturbations including oxidation to the D...
March 15, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287491/natural-killer-cell-assessment-in-peripheral-circulation-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-case-control-study
#17
Paulo Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando Guimaraes, Caroline Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Anita Nishiyama, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes
Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286917/characterizing-sleep-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
S E Goldman, M L Alder, H J Burgess, B A Corbett, R Hundley, D Wofford, D B Fawkes, L Wang, M L Laudenslager, B A Malow
We studied 28 adolescents/young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 13 age/sex matched individuals of typical development (TD). Structured sleep histories, validated questionnaires, actigraphy (4 weeks), and salivary cortisol and melatonin (4 days each) were collected. Compared to those with TD, adolescents/young adults with ASD had longer sleep latencies and more difficulty going to bed and falling asleep. Morning cortisol, evening cortisol, and the morning-evening difference in cortisol did not differ by diagnosis (ASD vs...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285255/relationships-between-circadian-measures-depression-and-response-to-antidepressant-treatment-a-preliminary-investigation
#19
Leslie M Swanson, Helen J Burgess, Edward D Huntley, Holli Bertram, Ann Mooney, Jennifer Zollars, Richard Dopp, Robert Hoffmann, Roseanne Armitage, J Todd Arnedt
Few studies have examined relationships between circadian rhythms and unipolar major depressive disorder. Further, no study to date has examined circadian markers as predictors of response to depression treatment. In the present study, we examined associations between circadian timing and its alignment with sleep and depression severity in 30 adults with major depressive disorder who completed a randomized controlled trial of two weeks of time in bed (TIB) restriction administered adjunctive to fluoxetine, with a focus on sex differences...
March 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283577/distinct-roles-of-light-activated-channels-trp-and-trpl-in-photoreceptors-of-periplaneta-americana
#20
Paulus Saari, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Esa-Ville Immonen, Roman V Frolov
Electrophysiological studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Periplaneta americana have found that the receptor current in their microvillar photoreceptors is generated by two light-activated cationic channels, TRP (transient receptor potential) and TRPL (TRP-like), each having distinct properties. However, the relative contribution of the two channel types to sensory information coding by photoreceptors remains unclear. We recently showed that, in contrast to the diurnal Drosophila in which TRP is the principal phototransduction channel, photoreceptors of the nocturnal P...
March 10, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
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