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Yang Si, Zheng Zhang, Wanrong Wu, Qiuxia Fu, Kang Huang, Nitin Nitin, Bin Ding, Gang Sun
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Most present personal protective equipment used to prevent EID transmission and infections is typically devoid of antimicrobial activity. We report on green bioprotective nanofibrous membranes (RNMs) with rechargeable antibacterial and antiviral activities that can effectively produce biocidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) solely driven by the daylight. The premise of the design is that the photoactive RNMs can store the biocidal activity under light irradiation and readily release ROS under dim light or dark conditions, making the biocidal function "always online...
March 2018: Science Advances
Chul-Hyun Cho, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Seung-Gul Kang, Leen Kim, Eun-Il Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee
Objective: Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. Methods: The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2)...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Minqi Yang, Ning Ma, Yingying Zhu, Ying-Chu Su, Qingwei Chen, Fan-Chi Hsiao, Yanran Ji, Chien-Ming Yang, Guofu Zhou
Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniela Schulz
Similar doses of caffeine have been shown to produce either anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in rats. The reasons for these conflicting results are not known. We hypothesized that food deprivation stress interacts with the stimulant effects of caffeine to increase anxiety-like behavior. We tested 32 female Sprague Dawley rats in a dim open field for 10 min. Half of the animals were food deprived for 24 h and injected (intraperitoneal) with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=7) or deionized water (n=8) 20 min before the open field test...
March 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The dependence of fringe contrast on the state of polarization (SOP) can be altered when more than two beams interfere, and it is possible to achieve high contrast fringes. We use a six-pinhole interferometer, in which a judicious choice (but not unique) of SOPs for the interfering beams is made to realize the lattice of C points at intensity nulls. These dark C points occur due to overlapping of singularities. These are not simply a minor variation of bright C points, in which the intensity dims to zero, but are poorly understood, unusual objects in their own right...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Takeshi Yamazaki, Hisato Takeda, Koichi Hagiya, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Osamu Sasaki
Objective: Because lactation periods in dairy cows lengthen with increasing total milk production, it is important to predict individual productivities after 305 days in milk (DIM) to determine the optimal lactation period. We therefore examined whether the random regression (RR) coefficient from 306 to 450 DIM (M2) can be predicted from those during the first 305 DIM (M1) by using a random regression model. Methods: We analyzed test-day milk records from 85690 Holstein cows in their first lactations and 131727 cows in their later (second to fifth) lactations...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Enrique Barragán-Garza, Douglas D Koch, Luis G Vargas, Alan Lang, Adam Roy
PURPOSE: To assess the clinically acceptable range of inlay decentration with respect to the light-constricted pupil center and the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR) for an inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay; ReVision Optics, Inc., Lake Forest, CA) that reshapes the anterior corneal surface. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational cohort study of 115 patients with emmetropic or low hyperopic presbyopia who were implanted with a shape-changing corneal inlay, visual acuity, task performance (in good and dim light), reports of halos and glare, and satisfaction data were collected from the preoperative and 3-month postoperative examinations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Peter M DiGeronimo, Simone R R Pisano, Nicola Di Girolamo, Carl F Spielvogel, Gordon J Pirie, Rene Carter
Indian flying foxes ( Pteropus giganteus) are adapted to visual foraging in dim light. Nine Indian flying foxes were taken from a captive colony of 25 animals and placed in quarantine, off exhibit, in preparation for shipment to another institution. The exhibit had indirect, natural sunlight and was large enough to allow for flight. The quarantine enclosure was subject to >12 hr/day artificial lighting and did not allow for flight or gliding. Diet was identical between groups. After 13 mo, ophthalmic examination was performed on each animal including evaluation of the anterior chamber, rebound tonometry in upright and hanging positions, measurement of palpebral fissure length, and vertical and horizontal corneal diameters...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
Sleep timing shifts later during adolescence (second decade). This trend reverses at ~20 years and continues to shift earlier into adulthood. The current analysis examined the hypothesis that a longer free-running circadian period during late adolescence (14-17 years) compared with adulthood (30-45 years) accounts for sleep timing differences. Sex and ancestry were also examined because previous reports find that women and those with African-American ancestry have shorter free-running periods. Circadian period was measured using an ultradian dark-light protocol (2 hr dark/sleep, 2 hr dim room light [~20 lux]/wake) over 3...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Helen J Burgess, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence indicates that daytime sleep disturbance associated with night shift work may arise from both circadian misalignment and sleep reactivity to stress. This presents an important clinical challenge because there are limited means of predicting and distinguishing between the two mechanisms, and the respective treatments differ categorically; however, there is support that a polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene ( PER3 ) may indicate differences in vulnerability to daytime sleep disturbance in shift workers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Lameese D Akacem, Kenneth P Wright, Monique K LeBourgeois
Although the light-induced melatonin suppression response is well characterized in adults, studies examining the dynamics of this effect in children are scarce. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of evening light-induced melatonin suppression in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 10; 7 females; 4.3 ± 1.1 years) participated in a 7-day protocol. On days 1-5, children followed a strict sleep schedule. On day 6, children entered a dim light environment (<15 lux) for 1-h before providing salivary samples every 20- to 30-min from the afternoon until 50-min after scheduled bedtime...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
A Valldecabres, J A A Pires, N Silva-Del-Río
The effects of prophylactic oral Ca supplementation on blood mineral status and markers of energy balance were evaluated on 205 multiparous Jersey cows at a commercial dairy. Postpartum, cows were systematically assigned to control (n = 105) or oral Ca supplementation (CaOS; 50 to 60 g of Ca as boluses; n = 100) at 0 and 1 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples for analysis of serum minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, and Cu) were collected before and 1 h after treatment at 0 and 1 DIM, and at 2 DIM. Urine pH was measured immediately before and 1 h after treatment administration (n = 96)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Catarina C V Oliveira, Filipe Figueiredo, Florbela Soares, Wilson Pinto, Maria Teresa Dinis
The present study reveals the first characterization of the plasma melatonin rhythms of the meagre (Argyrosomus regius) under aquaculture conditions. Melatonin levels were monitored during a 24 h cycle under a photoperiod of 16 L:8D and under constant darkness (DD), respectively to characterize the daily rhythm of this indoleamine and to test its endogenous origin. Besides, to identify which light intensities are perceived as night or day by this species, the degree of inhibition of nocturnal melatonin production caused by increasing intensities of light was tested (3...
March 2, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Joo Yeon Kim, Nam Sung Cho, Seungmin Cho, Kisoo Kim, Sanghoon Cheon, Kyuwon Kim, Seung-Youl Kang, Seong M Cho, Jeong-Ik Lee, Ji-Young Oh, Yong-Hae Kim, Hojun Ryu, Chi-Sun Hwang, Sujung Kim, Chil Seong Ah, Tae-Youb Kim
For environmental reason, buildings increasingly install smart windows, which can dim incoming daylight based on active electrochromic devices (ECDs). In this work, multi-layered graphene (MLG) was investigated as an ECD window electrode, to minimize carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions by decreasing the electricity consumption for building space cooling and heating and as an alternative to the transparent conductor tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) in order to decrease dependence on it. Various MLG electrodes with different numbers of graphene layers were prepared with environmentally friendly poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to produce ECD cells...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriela Gainaru, Antonios Papadopoulos, Iraklis Tsangaris, Malvina Lada, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Aikaterini Pistiki
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the changes in the absolute counts of monocyte subpopulations in sepsis is missing. METHODS: Firstly, absolute counts of circulating CD14pos /HLA-DRpos /CD45pos monocytes were measured by flow cytometry in 70 patients with Gram-negative sepsis and in 10 healthy volunteers. In the second phase, immunophenotyping was performed and the absolute count of circulating inflammatory monocytes and of circulating CD14dim /CD16pos /CD45pos patrolling monocytes were measured in another 55 patients and 10 healthy volunteers...
March 3, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Eyup Eren Gultepe, Cangir Uyarlar, İsmail Bayram
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary chromium methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on the production and immunological parameters of dairy cows during the dry and postpartum period and their offspring. Forty-five Holstein transition cows were randomly assigned to experimental groups with control, positive control (levamisole-injected cows), and treatment groups (5 g dietary Cr-Met/day/cow). Production, immunological, and biochemical parameters were analyzed during the dry and postpartum period...
March 1, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ananya Deb, Nirmala Grace Andrews, Vimala Raghavan
The present study focuses on the development of a chitosan functionalized nanobiocomposite for the co-delivery of two anti-cancer drugs camptothecin (CPT) and 3,3'‑Diindolylmethane (DIM). The difference in the mechanism of action of the two drugs makes them a promising candidate to produce a synergistic effect against breast cancer. Herein a nanobiocomposite was developed by functionalizing a natural polymer chitosan to graphene oxide nanoparticles and decorated with folic acid. The nanobiocomposite thus synthesized was loaded with camptothecin and 3,3'‑Diindolylmethane and characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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