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Janina Braatz, Hans-Joachim Harloff, Nazgol Emrani, Chirlon Elisha, Lars Heepe, Stanislav N Gorb, Christian Jung
This study elucidates the influence of indehiscent mutations on rapeseed silique shatter resistance. A phenotype with enlarged replum-valve joint area and altered cell dimensions in the dehiscence zone is described. Silique shattering is a major factor reducing the yield stability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Attempts to improve shatter resistance often include the use of mutations in target genes identified from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A variety of phenotyping methods assessing the level of shatter resistance were previously described...
January 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sarmento Júnior Mazivila
Discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend is challenging due to the great similarity in the spectral profile as well as digital image profile of each type of feedstock employed in biodiesel production. Once the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is subsidized, in which motivates adulteration in biofuel blend by cheaper supplies with high solubility to obtain profits associated with the subsidies involved in biodiesel production. Non-destructive analytical methods based on qualitative and quantitative analysis for detecting marketed diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration are reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
Muhammad Shaaban, Yupeng Wu, Muhammad Salman Khalid, Qi-An Peng, Xiangyu Xu, Lei Wu, Aneela Younas, Saqib Bashir, Yongliang Mo, Shan Lin, Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad Abid, Ronggui Hu
Several studies have been carried out to examine nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils in the past. However, the emissions of N2O particularly during amelioration of acidic soils have been rarely studied. We carried out the present study using a rice-rapeseed rotation soil (pH 5.44) that was amended with dolomite (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 soil) under 60% water filled pore space (WFPS) and flooding. N2O emissions and several soil properties (pH, NH4+N, NO3--N, and nosZ gene transcripts) were measured throughout the study...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shahbaz Khan, Sumera Anwar, Jie Kuai, Ali Noman, Muhammad Shahid, Mairaj Din, Ahmed Ali, Guangsheng Zhou
Lodging is a factor that negatively affects yield, seed quality, and harvest ability in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we quantified the lodging-induced yield losses, changes in fatty acid composition, and oil quality in rapeseed under different nitrogen application rates and planting densities. Field experiments were conducted in 2014-2017 for studying the effect of manually-induced lodging angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), 10, 20 and 30 d post-flowering at different densities and nitrogen application rates...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thierry Douki, Cécile Corbière, David Preterre, Perrine J Martin, Valérie Lecureur, Véronique André, Yann Landkocz, Ivannah Pottier, Veronika Keravec, Olivier Fardel, Silvestre Moreira-Rebelo, Didier Pottier, Cathy Vendeville, Frédéric Dionnet, Pierre Gosset, Sylvain Billet, Christelle Monteil, François Sichel
The contribution of diesel exhaust to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for public health, especially in terms of occurrence of lung cancers. The present study aimed at addressing the toxic effects of a repeated exposure to these emissions in an animal study performed under strictly controlled conditions. Rats were repeatedly exposed to the exhaust of diesel engine. Parameters such as the presence of a particle filter or the use of gasoil containing rapeseed methyl ester were investigated. Various biological parameters were monitored in the lungs to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of the exposure...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
D Ruan, Y J Hu, A M Fouad, C X Lin, Z P Xu, W Chen, Q L Fan, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Xi-Qiong Liu, Cheng-Yu Yu, Jun-Gang Dong, Ai-Xia Xu, Sheng-Wu Hu
Premise of the study: SP2S is a spontaneous thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) mutation that facilitates two-line hybrid breeding in Brassica napus (Brassicaceae). De novo assembly of the floral bud transcriptome of SP2S can provide a foundation for deciphering the transcriptional regulation of SP2S in response to temperature change. Methods: mRNAs of the young floral buds of SP2S and its near-isogenic line SP2F grown under cool (16°C)/warm (22°C) conditions were sequenced on an Illumina Solexa platform, producing 239...
December 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Na Liu, Wenyan Shang, Chuang Li, Lihua Jia, Xin Wang, Guozhen Xing, WenMing Zheng
Molecular and genomic studies have shown the presence of a large number of SPX gene family members in plants, some of which have been proved to act in P signalling and homeostasis. In this study, the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the SPX gene family in plants were comprehensively analysed, and the mechanisms underlying the function of SPX genes in P signalling and homeostasis in the model plant species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), and in important crops, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), soya beans (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus), were described...
January 2018: Open Biology
Marilyn García-Tenesaca, Eillen S Navarrete, Gabriel A Iturralde, Irina M Villacrés Granda, Eduardo Tejera, Pablo Beltrán-Ayala, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino, José M Alvarez-Suarez
Three types of monofloral honey from the Andean regions of Ecuador (Avocado, Eucalyptus, and Rapeseed honey) were analyzed to determine their floral origin, physicochemical parameters, chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and their capacity to reduce in vitro bacterial biofilms. The chemical composition varied considerably depending on floral origin. The highest values of bioactive compounds were found in Avocado honey, classified as dark amber in color, while the lowest values were found in Eucalyptus honey followed by Rapeseed honey, both classified as extra light amber...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Baocheng Xu, Liangxiao Zhang, Fei Ma, Wen Zhang, Xiupin Wang, Qi Zhang, Denglin Luo, Hongyan Ma, Peiwu Li
A method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) was developed to analyze steroidal compounds in vegetable oils, which could provide better separation and higher sensitivity than conventional one dimensional gas chromatography, and allowed determination of 31 sterols and triterpene alcohols in one injection. Furthermore, the approach also permitted separation and detection of small amounts of other compounds (may be steroidal compounds whose molecular structures have not been confirmed), which were obscured in the lower-resolution single-column technique...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Barbara Wozniak, Iwona Matraszek-Zuchowska, Sebastian Witek, Jan Zmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
Thyreostatic compounds, such as thiouracil (TU) are orally active drugs that can be used to increase the weight of cattle before slaughter. Due to potentially teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of their residues on public health, the use of thyreostats in animal production has been banned in the European Union since 1981. Systematic detection of low concentrations of thiouracil in the urine of livestock in many countries is believed to be of endogenous origin due to the use of Brassicaceae plants in the animal diet...
December 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Yonghai Fan, Mengna Yu, Miao Liu, Rui Zhang, Wei Sun, Mingchao Qian, Huichun Duan, Wei Chang, Jinqi Ma, Cunmin Qu, Kai Zhang, Bo Lei, Kun Lu
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Soon Huat Tiong, Norliza Saparin, Huey Fang Teh, Theresa Lee Mei Ng, Mohd Zairey Bin Md Zain, Bee Keat Neoh, Ahmadilfitri Md Noor, Chin Ping Tan, Oi-Ming Lai, David R Appleton
During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropandiol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chloride source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compounds identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yang Yang, Kaiyu Zhu, Huailin Li, Shaoqing Han, Qingwei Meng, Shahid Ullah Khan, Chuchuan Fan, Kabin Xie, Yongming Zhou
Multilocular silique is a desirable agricultural trait with great potential for the development of high-yield varieties of Brassica. To date, no spontaneous or induced multilocular mutants have been reported in Brassica napus, which likely reflects its allotetraploid nature and the extremely low probability of the simultaneous random mutagenesis of multiple gene copies with functional redundancy. Here, we present evidence for the efficient knockout of rapeseed homologues of CLAVATA3 (CLV3) for a secreted peptide and its related receptors CLV1 and CLV2 in the CLV signalling pathway using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and achieved stable transmission of the mutations across three generations...
December 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Xian Duo Zhang, Jin Guo Meng, Kai Xuan Zhao, Xi Chen, Zhi Min Yang
In higher plants, heavy metal transporters are responsible for metal uptake, translocation and homeostasis. These metals include essential metals such as zinc (Zn) or manganese (Mn) and non-essential metals like cadmium (Cd) or lead (Pb). Although a few heavy metal transporters have been well identified in model plants (e.g. Arabidopsis and rice), little is known about their functionality in rapeseed (Brassica napus). B. napus is an important oil crop ranking the third largest sources of vegetable oil over the world...
December 18, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Giordana Pagliuca, Carlotta Bozzi, Francesca Romana Gallo, Giuseppina Multari, Giovanna Palazzino, Rita Porrà, Alessia Panusa
The marketing of new argan-based products is greatly increased in the last few years and consequently, it has enhanced the number of control analysis aimed at detecting counterfeit products claiming argan oil as a major ingredient. Argan oil is produced in Morocco and it is quite expensive. Two simple methods for the rapid screening of pure oil and argan-oil based products, focused on the analysis of the triacylglycerol profile, have been developed. A three-minute-run by UHPLC-PDA allows the identification of a pure argan oil, while the same run with the MS detector allows also the analysis of products containing the oil down to 0...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nicasio R Geraldi, Linzi E Dodd, Ben Xu, David Wood, Gary Wells, Glen McHale, Michael I Newton
Much of the inspiration for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces has come from nature, from plant such as the Sacred Lotus (Nulembo nucifera), where the micro-scale papillae epidermal cells on the surfaces of the leaves are covered with nano-scale epicuticular wax crystalloids. The combination of the surface roughness and the hydrophobic wax coating produces a superhydrophobic wetting state on the leaves allowing them to self-clean and easily shed water. Here a simple scale-up carbon nanoparticle spray coating is presented that mimics the surface of the Sacred Lotus leaves and can be applied to a wide variety of materials, complex structures, and flexible substrates, rendering them superhydrophobic, with contact angles above 160°...
December 14, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Qinghong Zhou, Depeng Han, Annaliese S Mason, Can Zhou, Wei Zheng, Yazhen Li, Caijun Wu, Donghui Fu, Yingjin Huang
Life cycle timing is critical for yield and productivity of Brassica napus (rapeseed) cultivars grown in different environments. To facilitate breeding for earliness traits in rapeseed, SNP loci and underlying candidate genes associated with the timing of initial flowering, maturity and final flowering, as well as flowering period (FP) were investigated in two environments in a diversity panel comprising 300 B. napus inbred lines. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 201,817 SNP markers previously developed from SLAF-seq (specific locus amplified fragment sequencing) revealed a total of 131 SNPs strongly linked (P < 4...
December 11, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Kamel Rahali, Ghazi Ben Messaoud, Cyril J F Kahn, Laura Sanchez-Gonzalez, Mouna Kaci, Franck Cleymand, Solenne Fleutot, Michel Linder, Stéphane Desobry, Elmira Arab-Tehrany
Given the importance of the extracellular medium during tissue formation, it was wise to develop an artificial structure that mimics the extracellular matrix while having improved physico-chemical properties. That is why the choice was focused on gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), an inexpensive biocompatible hydrogel. Physicochemical and mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of nanoparticles developed from two innovative fabrication processes: High shear fluid and low frequencies/high frequencies ultrasounds...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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