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Friedrich Schöne, Kathrin Spörl, Matthias Leiterer
Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Sabina Galus, Justyna Kadzińska
The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
J Esperschuetz, S Bulman, C Anderson, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, B H Robinson
Increasing production of biowastes, particularly biosolids (sewage sludge), requires sustainable management strategies for their disposal. Biosolids can contain high concentrations of nutrients; hence, land application can have positive effects on plant growth and soil fertility, especially when applied to degraded soils. However, high rates of biosolids application may result in excessive nitrogen (N) leaching, which can be mitigated by blending biosolids with other biowastes, such as sawdust. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and sawdust on growth and N uptake by sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass as well as N losses via leaching...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
J Esperschuetz, C Anderson, S Bulman, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, R Hofmann, B H Robinson
Land application of biosolids to low-fertility soil can improve soil quality by increasing concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements. Mixing biosolids with sawdust could reduce the risks of contaminant accumulation posed by rebuilding soils using biosolids alone. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and biosolids-sawdust on the plant quality and chemical composition of sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass. Plants were grown in a greenhouse over a 5-mo period in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids (1250 kg N ha), biosolids-sawdust (0...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sophie Jasinski, Alain Lécureuil, Monique Durandet, Patrick Bernard-Moulin, Philippe Guerche
Seed storage compounds are of crucial importance for human diet, feed and industrial uses. In oleo-proteaginous species like rapeseed, seed oil and protein are the qualitative determinants that conferred economic value to the harvested seed. To date, although the biosynthesis pathways of oil and storage protein are rather well-known, the factors that determine how these types of reserves are partitioned in seeds have to be identified. With the aim of implementing a quantitative genetics approach, requiring phenotyping of 100s of plants, our first objective was to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) predictive equations in order to estimate oil, protein, carbon, and nitrogen content in Arabidopsis seed with high-throughput level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bo-Yang Chen, Bao-Cheng Zhao, Ming-Fei Li, Qiu-Yun Liu, Run-Cang Sun
The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of combined treatments on fermentable sugar production from rapeseed straw. An optimum condition was found to be the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 45min and post-treatment by 2% NaOH at 100°C for 2h, which was based on the quantity of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. As compared with the raw material without treatment, the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali post-treatment resulted in a significant increase of the saccharification rate by 5...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jindong Yan, Xiaoying Liao, Reqing He, Ming Zhong, Panpan Feng, Xinmei Li, Dongying Tang, Xuanming Liu, Xiaoying Zhao
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xuesong Luo, Shun Han, Songsong Lai, Qiaoyun Huang, Wenli Chen
Nitrospira are the most widespread and well known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and putatively key nitrite-oxidizers in acidic ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecology in agriculture soils has not been well studied. To understand the impact of straw incorporation on soil Nitrospira-like bacterial community, a cloned library analysis of the nitrite oxidoreductase gene-nxrB was performed for a long-term rapeseed-rice rotation system. In this study, most members of the Nitrospira-like NOB in the paddy soils from the Wuxue field experiment station were phylogenetically related with Nitrospira lineages II...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ya Gao, Cong Li, Bang Chen, Ye-Hua Shen, Jing Han, Ming-Gao Zhao
This study attempts to evaluate the beneficial effects of Amygdalus pedunculata seed oil (AO) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of high-fat fed rats and d-galactose (d-gal)-induced oxidative mice. The anti-hyperlipidemia effects of AO were evaluated. AO supplementation (2%, 4%, and 8%) for three weeks significantly decreased the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in the high fat diet rats unlike in the model group...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
Cunmin Qu, Huiyan Zhao, Fuyou Fu, Kai Zhang, Jianglian Yuan, Liezhao Liu, Rui Wang, Xinfu Xu, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are extensively distributed in the plant kingdom and contribute to seed coat color formation in rapeseed. To decipher the genetic networks underlying flavonoid biosynthesis in rapeseed, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with 1089 polymorphic loci (including 464 SSR loci, 97 RAPD loci, 451 SRAP loci, and 75 IBP loci) using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The map consists of 19 linkage groups and covers 2775 cM of the B. napus genome with an average distance of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jun Zou, Yusheng Zhao, Peifa Liu, Lei Shi, Xiaohua Wang, Meng Wang, Jinling Meng, Jochen Christoph Reif
Improving seed oil yield and quality are central targets in rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding. The primary goal of our study was to examine and compare the potential and the limits of marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction of six important seed quality traits of B. napus. Our study is based on a bi-parental population comprising 202 doubled haploid lines and a diverse validation set including 117 B. napus inbred lines derived from interspecific crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata. We used phenotypic data for seed oil, protein, erucic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content...
2016: PloS One
Jing Wang, Cheng Long, Haijun Zhang, Yanan Zhang, Hao Wang, Hongyuan Yue, Xiaocui Wang, Shugeng Wu, Guanghai Qi
Genetic variant T329S in flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) impairs trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism in birds. The TMA metabolism that under complex genetic and dietary regulation, closely linked to cardiovascular disease risk. We determined whether the genetic defects in TMA metabolism may change other metabolic traits in birds, determined whether the genetic effects depend on diets, and to identify genes or gene pathways that underlie the metabolic alteration induced by genetic and diet factors. We used hens genotyped as FMO3 c...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Xiaofu Wang, Zhenfang Fu, Xiaoyun Chen, Cheng Peng, Xiaoli Xu, Wei Wei, Feiwu Li, Junfeng Xu
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a widely used isothermal nucleic acid amplification method. Here we developed a new closed-tube colorimetric method for judging LAMP with a novel metal indicator. First, the metal indicator, acid chrome blue K (ACBK), was evaluated in the LAMP reaction with various combinations of reaction reagents, such as reaction buffer, dNTP mixtures, primer mixtures, or Mg(2+). We found that the solution color of the LAMP reaction with ACBK changed from red to blue based on a decrease in the Mg(2+) concentration in the reaction solution...
November 21, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mette Krogh Larsen, Stefania Vogdanou, Anne Louise F Hellwing, Iga Rybicka, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
The composition of grass/clover silage varies depending on time of harvest time. In particular silage from late regrowths is expected to contain lower fibre and higher linolenic acid concentrations compared to spring growth, thereby autumn silage is expected to increase linolenic acid content of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Helena Libalova, Pavel Rossner, Kristyna Vrbova, Tana Brzicova, Jitka Sikorova, Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Vit Beranek, Jiri Klema, Miroslav Ciganek, Jiri Neca, Katerina Pencikova, Miroslav Machala, Jan Topinka
This study used toxicogenomics to identify the complex biological response of human lung BEAS-2B cells treated with organic components of particulate matter in the exhaust of a diesel engine. First, we characterized particles from standard diesel (B0), biodiesel (methylesters of rapeseed oil) in its neat form (B100) and 30% by volume blend with diesel fuel (B30), and neat hydrotreated vegetable oil (NEXBTL100). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in organic extracts was the lowest for NEXBTL100 and higher for biodiesel...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lunwen Qian, Kai Voss-Fels, Yixin Cui, Habib U Jan, Birgit Samans, Christian Obermeier, Wei Qian, Rod J Snowdon
Chlorophyll levels provide important information about plant growth and physiological plasticity in response to changing environments. The stay-green gene NONYELLOWING 1 (NYE1) is believed to regulate chlorophyll degradation during senescence, concomitantly affecting the disassembly of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and hence indirectly affecting photosynthesis. We identified Brassica napus accessions carrying an NYE1 deletion associated with increased chlorophyll content, and with upregulated expression of LHC and photosynthetic reaction center (PSI and PSII) genes...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Plant
Yuguang Lin, Diny Knol, Elke A Trautwein
1To evaluate the content of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) of foods with added phytosterols, in total 14 studies measuring POP contents of foods with added phytosterols were systematically reviewed. In non-heated or stored foods, POP contents were low, ranging from (medians) 0.03-3.6 mg/100 g with corresponding oxidation rates of phytosterols (ORP) of 0.03-0.06%. In fat-based foods with 8% of added free plant sterols (FPS), plant sterol esters (PSE) or plant stanol esters (PAE) pan-fried at 160-200°C for 5-10 min, median POP contents were 72...
October 2016: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology: EJLST
Z He, L Wang, A L Harper, L Havlickova, A K Pradhan, I A P Parkin, I Bancroft
Polyploidy, the possession of multiple sets of chromosomes, has been a predominant factor in the evolution and success of the angiosperms. Although artificially formed allopolyploids show a high rate of genome rearrangement, the genomes of cultivars and germplasm used for crop breeding were assumed stable and genome structural variation under the artificial selection process of commercial breeding has remained little studied. Here we show, using a repurposed visualization method based on transcriptome sequence data, that genome structural rearrangement occurs frequently in varieties of three polyploid crops (oilseed rape, mustard rape and bread wheat), meaning that the extent of genome structural variation present in commercial crops is much higher than expected...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
W Liermann, A Berk, J Frahm, V Böschen, S Dänicke
The impact of technical feed treatment and diet on stomach lesions and traits of the local and systemic immune system were investigated in fattening pigs. Feeding groups differed in technical feed treatment (standard ground meal vs. finely ground and pelleted feed) and diet (soya bean meal vs. rapeseed meal/DDGS/soya beans). Pigs were fattened approximately 10 weeks by ad libitum feeding and slaughtered subsequently. Gastric alterations were assessed by a macroscopic scoring system [macroscopic stomach score (MSC) 0 =  normal to 4 =  severe lesions]...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Fumihiko Ogata, Naohito Kawasaki
In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated...
2016: Journal of Oleo Science
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