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Ingeborg N Kluts, Marnix L J Brinkman, Sierk A de Jong, H Martin Junginger
Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others) biorefinery purposes in the European Union. The main application of these feedstocks is currently the production of biofuels for road transport. Biodiesel makes up 80% of the European biofuel production, mainly from rapeseed oil, and the remaining part is bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Lei Kang, Pengfei Li, Aifan Wang, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sung Ho Do, Byeong Ock Kim, Lin Hu Fang, Dong Hyeon You, Jin Su Hong, Y Y Kim
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of rapeseed meal (RSM) supplementation in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profile, carcass characteristics and economic analysis on weaning to finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 120 cross bred ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) weaning pigs were allotted to 5 treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Each treatment had 4 replications with 6 pigs per pen. Five different levels of RSM (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) were used as dietary treatments...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Evelyne Mazurier, Virginie Rigourd, Paul Perez, Rachel Buffin, Leslie Couedelo, Carole Vaysse, Wafae Belcadi, Rémi Sitta, Fabienne Nacka, Delphine Lamireau, Gilles Cambonie, Jean-Charles Picaud, Claude Billeaud
BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important for newborn neurosensory development. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers' diets with omega-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), may increase their concentration in human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess human milk composition after 15-day supplementation regimens containing either omega-3 PUFAs or olive oil, which does not provide ALA. METHODS: A multicenter factorial randomized trial was conducted with four groups of breastfeeding women, with each group containing 19 to 22 women...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Małgorzata Wroniak, Agnieszka Rękas
The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene], polychlorinated biphenyls (6 marker and 12 dioxin-like), pesticides (74 compounds) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Fe, Cu), in the cold-pressed rapeseed oils from conventional (RC) and ecological cultivations (RE). Similar level of PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals was found in the investigated cold-pressed oils; moreover, no effect of rapeseeds cultivation practice on the level of pesticide residues was found...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Gulam Rabbani, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Arif Tasleem Jan, Eun Ju Lee, Mohsin Vahid Khan, Masihuz Zaman, Abd-ElAziem Farouk Gad, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Inho Choi
Erucic acid (EA) is one of the key fatty acids usually found in canola oil, mustard oil and rapeseed oil. Consumption of EA in primates was found to cause myocardial lipidosis and cardiac steatosis. To have an insight of the effect of EA in humans, we performed in vitro interaction studies of EA with the primary plasma protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Spectroscopic (UV-vis and fluorescence) analysis of the EA-HSA interaction revealed a static mode of quenching, with binding constant Kb ∼10(4) reflecting high affinity of EA for HSA...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M Brahim, B L Checa Fernandez, O Regnier, N Boussetta, N Grimi, C Sarazin, E Husson, E Vorobiev, N Brosse
In this study, ultrasound (US) and high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) were combined with chemical treatments (soda or organosolv) for rapeseed straw delignification. Delignification was improved by both physical pretreatments. US increased the extractability of hemicelluloses and HVED induced a partial degradation of cellulose. Best synergies were observed for HVED-soda and US-organosolv treatments. The obtained lignin fractions were characterized with (13)C NMR and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC. It was observed that the physical treatments affected the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratios...
April 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Piotr Kaczyński
A simple, sensitive and rapid method is proposed for simultaneous determination of 120 various classes of herbicides in oilseed samples. A one-step QuEChERS-based approach to extraction and cleanup has been developed. LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the proposed sample treatment methodologies. The new one-step QuEChERS strategy was compared to other methodologies previously used for elimination of co-extracts from fatty matrices. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at 5, 50 and 500µgkg(-1) levels for rapeseed, sunflower seeds and soybean...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
Yan Zhao, Li-Hong Wan, Xiao-Lin Bai, Yi-Ming Liu, Feng-Ping Zhang, Yao-Min Liu, Xun Liao
Detection of mycotoxin contamination in foodstuffs is highly significant for public health. Herein we report an analytical method based on magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and UPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins, including fumonisins B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in vegetable oil. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with double layers of silicon dioxide were synthesized and found to be an effective MSPE adsorbent for mycotoxins. The proposed MSPE procedure serves not only for sample cleanup, but also for mycotoxin enrichment that enhances greatly the assay sensitivity...
April 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Hongbo Chao, Hao Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Liangxing Guo, Jianwei Gu, Weiguo Zhao, Baojun Li, Dengyan Chen, Nadia Raboanatahiry, Maoteng Li
High-density linkage maps can improve the precision of QTL localization. A high-density SNP-based linkage map containing 3207 markers covering 3072.7 cM of the Brassica napus genome was constructed in the KenC-8 × N53-2 (KNDH) population. A total of 67 and 38 QTLs for seed oil and protein content were identified with an average confidence interval of 5.26 and 4.38 cM, which could explain up to 22.24% and 27.48% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Thirty-eight associated genomic regions from BSA overlapped with and/or narrowed the SOC-QTLs, further confirming the QTL mapping results based on the high-density linkage map...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sergio Salazar-Villanea, Erik M A M Bruininx, Harry Gruppen, Patrick Carré, Alain Quinsac, Antonius F B van der Poel
Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was performed with pancreatic proteases to represent in vitro protein digestibility. Increasing the toasting time of RSM linearly decreased the rate of protein hydrolysis of RSM and the insoluble protein fractions. The extent of hydrolysis was, on average, 44% higher for the insoluble compared with the soluble protein fraction...
2017: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Xiyuan Ni, Han Liu, Jixiang Huang, Jianyi Zhao
In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions...
April 7, 2017: Genetica
Peng Hu, Xuebing Xu, Liangli Lucy Yu
In order to obtain margarine free of trans-fatty acids, four interesterified basestocks were prepared by chemical interesterification (CIE) of oil blends. Different ratios of palm stearin, palm olein and soybean oil were mixed without and with 1) fully hydrogenated Acer truncatum oil (FHATO), 2) fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil or 3) palm kernel oil containing a similar amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but different saturated fatty acid length for CIE. Compared to the physical blends, the CIE samples demonstrated lower slip melting points and decreased solid fat contents, especially at high temperatures, indicating that the CIE samples might have improved mouthfeel...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Tian Tian, Lingtong Wu, Michael Henke, Basharat Ali, Weijun Zhou, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a fast and dynamic method to predict plant growth under varying environmental conditions. Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. In the present study, we used three different temperature treatments (10/14°C, 18/22°C, and 26/30°C) to test the effect of temperature on growth and development of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Plants were sampled at regular intervals (every 3 days) to obtain growth data during the length of the experiment (1 month in total)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhiwei Wang, Yan Qiao, Jingjing Zhang, Wenhui Shi, Jinwen Zhang
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important cash crop considered as the third largest oil crop worldwide. Rapeseed oil contains various saturation or unsaturation fatty acids, these fatty acids, whose could incorporation with TAG form into lipids stored in seeds play various roles in the metabolic activity. The different fatty acids in B. napus seeds determine oil quality, define if the oil is edible or must be used as industrial material. miRNAs are kind of non-coding sRNAs that could regulate gene expressions through post-transcriptional modification to their target transcripts playing important roles in plant metabolic activities...
April 1, 2017: Gene
S Li, A Schiller Vestergren, H Wall, S Trattner, J Pickova, E Ivarsson
This study investigated the dietary effect of steam-pelleted rapeseed (RS) diets with different inclusion levels on the fatty acid composition of chicken meat and the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver. Experimental diets included 6 different wheat-soybean meal based diets either in nonpelleted or steam-pelleted form supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 g RS/kg feed and one nonpelleted wheat-soybean meal based diet without RS supplementation as the control. These diets were fed to newly hatched broiler chickens (Ross 308) for 34 days...
March 24, 2017: Poultry Science
Wenchao Yang, Yuanyuan Tian, Mingfeng Han, Xiaoqing Miao
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers...
2017: PeerJ
Filip Pošćić, Henk Schat, Luca Marchiol
Cerium (Ce) has been reported to be both beneficial and harmful to plants. This contradiction deserves explanation in the light of increased anthropogenic release of Ce in the environment. Ce tolerance and accumulation were evaluated in hydroponically cultivated Brassica napus L. (rapeseed). Ce and other nutrient concentrations were measured with increasing Ce concentration in the nutrient solution. Moreover, Ce and calcium (Ca) accumulation were evaluated at different Ca and Ce concentrations in nutrient solution and a Michaelis-Menten type inhibition model considering Ce and Ca competition was tested...
March 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Aleksander Siger, Marta Józefiak, Paweł Górnaś
BACKGROUND: The paper looks at the levels of canolol, tocopherols and antioxidant activity in cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oils produced from seeds of various moisture levels (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). The paper also considers the effects of seed roasting on the levels of these compounds. METHODS: The material used for the tests was rapeseed cv. Adrianna. The quality of the oils obtained is determined using peroxide and acid values. The levels of canolol and tocopherols are analyzed using HPLC...
January 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
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