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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719868/quantitative-meta-analytic-approaches-for-the-systematic-synthesis-of-data-and-hazard-identification-a-case-study-of-decreased-pain-sensitivity-due-to-trimethylbenzene-exposure
#1
J Allen Davis, Andrew Kraft
Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, which involves weight of evidence determinations that integrate evidence across multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses, to help summarize and evaluate the results of a systematic review. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated after consideration of multiple potential confounding factors in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates a chemical is a hazard...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719863/evaluation-of-platelet-adhesion-and-activation-on-polymers-round-robin-study-to-assess-inter-center-variability
#2
S Braune, C Sperling, M F Maitz, U Steinseifer, J Clauser, B Hiebl, S Krajewski, H P Wendel, F Jung
The regulatory agencies provide recommendations rather than protocols or standard operation procedures for the hemocompatibility evaluation of novel materials e.g. for cardiovascular applications. Thus, there is a lack of specifications with regard to test setups and procedures. As a consequence, laboratories worldwide perform in vitro assays under substantially different test conditions, so that inter-laboratory and inter-study comparisons are impossible. Here, we report about a prospective, randomized and double-blind multicenter trial which demonstrates that standardization of in vitro test protocols allows a reproducible assessment of platelet adhesion and activation from fresh human platelet rich plasma as possible indicators of the thrombogenicity of cardiovascular implants...
July 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719808/activated-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-pathways-at-the-end-of-term-are-associated-with-inflammation-and-physio-somatic-and-depression-symptoms-while-predicting-outcome-characteristics-in-mother-and-baby
#3
Chutima Roomruangwong, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, André de Souza Nogueira, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira, Michael Maes
OBJECTIVES: To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. METHODS: We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719804/maternal-obesity-attenuates-predelivery-inflammatory-reaction-in-c57bl-6n-mice
#4
Sarah Appel, Merle Schulze-Edinghausen, Tobias Kretschmer, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Marion Handwerk, Maria Wohlfarth, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Malte Heykants, Esther Mahabir, Jörg Dötsch
Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to increase before labour. Whether gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) participates in this process and whether labour-related processes in placental and adipose tissue are altered in obese women is unknown. In our mouse model, lean mice display elevated placental inflammation and oxidative stress towards the end of pregnancy, accompanied by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors in gWAT. Obese mice also display elevated levels of pro-inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in placentas shortly before birth...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719787/in-vivo-performance-of-a-novel-anatomically-shaped-total-meniscal-prosthesis-made-of-polycarbonate-urethane-a-12-month-evaluation-in-goats
#5
Anne C T Vrancken, Gerjon Hannink, Wojciech Madej, Nico Verdonschot, Tony G van Tienen, Pieter Buma
BACKGROUND: Injury or loss of the meniscus generally leads to degenerative osteoarthritic changes in the knee joint. However, the treatment options for symptomatic patients with total meniscectomy are limited. Therefore, we developed a novel, anatomically shaped, total meniscal implant made of polycarbonate urethane. PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo performance of this novel total meniscal implant. The assessment particularly focused on the implant's response to long-term physiological loading in a goat model and its chondroprotective capacity in comparison to clinically relevant controls...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719766/energy-expenditure-of-standing-compared-to-sitting-while-conducting-office-tasks
#6
Jill Burns, Cuisle Forde, Sara Dockrell
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits...
July 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#7
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719736/cd326-epcam-testing-by-flow-cytometric-berep4-antibody-is-a-useful-and-rapid-adjunct-to-histopathology
#8
Pranav Dorwal, Helen Moore, Pam Stewart, Barbara Harrison, Julie Monaghan
Flow cytometry has been traditionally used to diagnose leukaemia and lymphoma in peripheral blood, bone marrow, body fluids and tissue samples. The diagnosis of a malignant epithelial tumour is usually made by correlation between histopathologic appearance and the use of immunohistochemical staining. A CE approved BerEP4 antibody (anti-EpCAM, CD326) is available for flow cytometric testing, but has been evaluated predominantly in body fluids in the current literature. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of this antibody in detecting the presence of epithelial cells in tissue samples which have traditionally been reported as CD45 negative cells by flow cytometry...
July 18, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719693/effect-of-high-dose-vs-standard-dose-wintertime-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-viral-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-young-healthy-children
#9
Mary Aglipay, Catherine S Birken, Patricia C Parkin, Mark B Loeb, Kevin Thorpe, Yang Chen, Andreas Laupacis, Muhammad Mamdani, Colin Macarthur, Jeffrey S Hoch, Tony Mazzulli, Jonathon L Maguire
Importance: Epidemiological studies support a link between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and a higher risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections. However, whether winter supplementation of vitamin D reduces the risk among children is unknown. Objective: To determine whether high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of wintertime upper respiratory tract infections in young children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted during the winter months between September 13, 2011, and June 30, 2015, among children aged 1 through 5 years enrolled in TARGet Kids!, a multisite primary care practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719668/epidemiology-and-distribution-of-10-superantigens-among-invasive-streptococcus-pyogenes-disease-in-germany-from-2009-to-2014
#10
Matthias Imöhl, Christina Fitzner, Stephanie Perniciaro, Mark van der Linden
A nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive S. pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n = 719) were obtained between 2009 and 2014. Most isolates were obtained from blood (92.1%). The proportions of isolates from cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid were 3.9%, 1.8%, 1.7% and 0.6%, respectively. The most common emm types were emm 1 (31.8%), emm 28 (15.4%) and emm 89 (14.5%). The most common superantigen genes (speA, speC, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, ssa) identified from S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719610/a-decade-of-hiv-care-in-rural-tanzania-trends-in-clinical-outcomes-and-impact-of-clinic-optimisation-in-an-open-prospective-cohort
#11
Fiona Vanobberghen, Emilio Letang, Anna Gamell, Dorcas K Mnzava, Diana Faini, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Kim Mwamelo, George Sikalengo, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Hansjakob Furrer, Manuel Battegay, Tracy R Glass
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to describe trends in enrolment and clinical outcomes in the open, prospective Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in the Morogoro region of southern Tanzania, and identify strengths and areas for improvement in the care of HIV-positive individuals in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included adults (≥15 years) and children (<15 years) enrolled in the cohort in 2005-2014. The cohort underwent significant changes from autumn 2012 to optimise care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719524/establishing-obstetric-anesthesiology-practice-guidelines-in-the-republic-of-armenia-a-global-health-collaboration
#12
Gordon Yuill, Ashot Amroyan, Simon Millar, Emil Vardapetyan, Ashraf S Habib, Medge D Owen
BACKGROUND: Disparity exists in anesthesia practices between high- and low-to-middle income countries, and awareness has been raised within the global health community to improve the standards of anesthesia care and patient safety. The establishment of international collaborations and appropriate practice guidelines may help address clinical care deficiencies. This report's aim was to assess the impact of a multiyear collaboration on obstetric anesthesia practices in the Republic of Armenia...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719510/evaluation-of-the-clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-of-previously-followed-up-thalassemia-intermedia-patients-to-provide-them-better-care-in-the-future
#13
Özlem Tüfekçi, Berna Atabay, Meral Türker, Şebnem Yilmaz Bengoa, Salih Gözmen, Tuba Karapinar, Hale Ören, Gülersu İrken
The increased awareness about the severity of complications in thalassemia intermedia patients led authorities to develop strategies for better management and follow-up of these patients. In this study, we aimed to define the clinical and laboratory characteristics in previously followed-up β-thalassemia intermedia patients and wanted to gain an insight about the follow-up of this patient population in a developing country to provide them better care in the future. The mean age at diagnosis was 4 years, and the mean hemoglobin was 7...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719379/critical-evaluation-of-metallization-in-electric-injury
#14
Sigitas Laima, Jana Bytautaite, Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Dmitrij Fomin, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Arturas Jukna, Sandra Mazeikiene, Jurgita Stasiuniene
The article presents 3 forensic medicine cases in the field of electric injury. In addition to traditional findings in electric injury (electric mark and histological findings), the forensic medicine experts in Lithuania also perform an atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. This method confirms the effects of electric current to the body through the electric conductor. Typical macroscopic finding in the skin is electric mark. Histologically, the damaged skin possesses characteristic features of thermal burns...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#15
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719315/analysis-of-clinical-and-laboratory-alterations-related-to-dengue-case-severity-comparison-between-serotypes-2-and-4-in-brazil
#16
Nieli Rodrigues da Costa Faria, Victor Edgar Fiestas Solorzano, Luiz José de Souza, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Fernanda de Bruycker-Nogueira, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Jaqueline Bastos Santos Simões, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Luzia Maria de Oliveira Pinto, Claire Fernandes Kubelka, Manoela Heringer, Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos
The increase in severe dengue (SD) cases has caused great impact on public health and has concerned authorities of countries where the disease is endemic and epidemics reach high proportions. The recognition of progression signs of this severe disease during the initial febrile phase can be difficult, since the symptoms are often indistinguishable from other febrile diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in patients from two dengue outbreaks and their association with the disease...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719293/case-report-clinical-features-of-a-case-of-suspected-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease-in-hokkaido-japan
#17
Kimiaki Yamano, Takuya Ito, Kaori Kiyanagi, Hirotaka Yamazaki, Mutsubu Sugawara, Takashige Saito, Norio Ohashi, Aya Zamoto-Niikura, Kozue Sato, Hiroki Kawabata
We herein report a case of suspected Borrelia miyamotoi disease in Hokkaido, Japan. The patient complained of lassitude, arthralgia, and high fever after a tick bite. Furthermore, at the time of consultation, the patient exhibited momentary loss of consciousness and low blood pressure. Laboratory tests revealed elevation of liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein. Seroconversion to B. miyamotoi glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase antigen suggested the patient was infected with a relapsing fever group Borrelia species...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719290/performance-of-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-detection-of-20-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-clinical-samples-from-senegal
#18
Doudou Sow, Philippe Parola, Khadime Sylla, Magatte Ndiaye, Pascal Delaunay, Philippe Halfon, Sabine Camiade, Thérèse Dieng, Roger C K Tine, Babacar Faye, Jean Louis Ndiaye, Yémou Dieng, Oumar Gaye, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Gastrointestinal parasite infections represent one of the biggest public health problems in the world. Therefore, appropriate innovative tools are needed for assessing interventions to control these infections. This study aims to compare the performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to microscopic examination for detection of intestinal parasites. A direct microscopic examination and stool concentration was performed on 98 stool samples from patients attending Senegalese hospitals. Negative microscopic control samples were also collected in Nice and Marseille (France)...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719278/evaluation-of-the-field-performance-of-immunocard-stat-%C3%A2-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-rotavirus-in-dadaab-refugee-camp-and-at-the-kenya-somalia-border
#19
Maurice Ope, Raymond Nyoka, Ahmed Unshur, Fredrick O Oyier, Shafe A Mowlid, Brian Owino, Steve B Ochieng, Charles I Okello, Joel M Montgomery, Burton Wagacha, Aleksandar Galev, Abdikadir Abdow, Mathew D Esona, Jacqueline Tate, David Fitter, Susan T Cookson, Balajee Arunmozhi, Nina Marano
AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged < 5 years hospitalized with acute diarrhea, defined as ≥ 3 episodes of loose stool in 24 hours for < 7 days...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719262/evaluation-of-a-mobile-phone-based-microscope-for-screening-of-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-rural-ghana
#20
Isaac I Bogoch, Hatice C Koydemir, Derek Tseng, Richard K D Ephraim, Evans Duah, Joseph Tee, Jason R Andrews, Aydogan Ozcan
AbstractSchistosomiasis affects over 170 million people in Africa. Here we compare a novel, low-cost mobile phone microscope to a conventional light microscope for the label-free diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infections in a rural Ghanaian school setting. We tested the performance of our handheld microscope using 60 slides that were randomly chosen from an ongoing epidemiologic study in school-aged children. The mobile phone microscope had a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1-84...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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