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Melvin Khee Shing Leow
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reflects the cumulative glucose exposure of erythrocytes over a preceding time frame proportional to erythrocyte survival. HbA1c is thus an areal function of the glucose-time curve, an educationally useful concept to aid teaching and clinical judgment. METHODS: An ordinary differential equation is formulated as a parsimonious model of HbA1c. The integrated form yields HbA1c as an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of a glucose-time profile...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Dukhabandhu Naik, Hesarghatta Shyamasynder Asha, Mahesh Doddabelavangala Mruthyunjaya, Rita Gupta Patil L, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Flory Christina, Mercy Inbakumari, Ruby Jose, Jessie Lionel, Annie Regi, P Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Nihal Thomas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypoglycemia is a major hindrance for optimal glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus[GDM] on insulin. We objectively estimated masked hypoglycemia [glucose < 2.77mmol/L for ≥30minutes] in pregnant women using a continuous glucose monitoring system[CGMS]. METHODS: Twenty pregnant women with GDM on insulin [cases] and ten age-matched euglycemic pregnant women [controls] between 24-36 weeks of gestation were recruited...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
S Bacon, M P Kyithar, E M Condron, N Vizzard, M Burke, M M Byrne
AIMS: HNF4A is an established cause of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Congenital hyperinsulinism can also be associated with mutations in the HNF4A gene. A dual phenotype is observed in HNF4A-MODY with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period progressing to diabetes in adulthood. The nature and timing of the transition remain poorly defined. We performed an observational study to establish changes in glycaemia and insulin secretion over a 6-year period. We investigated glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemia in HNF4A-MODY using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS)...
August 23, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Sophie Heinke, Barbara Ludwig, Undine Schubert, Janine Schmid, Thomas Kiss, Anja Steffen, Stefan Bornstein, Stefan Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Safe and reliable diabetes models are a key prerequisite for advanced preclinical studies on diabetes. Chemical induction is the standard model of diabetes in rodents and also widely used in large animal models of non-human primates and minipigs. However, uncertain efficacy, the potential of beta-cell regeneration, and relevant side effects are debatable aspects particularly in large animals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a surgical approach of total pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy for diabetes induction in an exploratory study in Goettingen minipigs...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
L Sekhar, B M Khadi, Rajesh S Patil, I S Katageri, Ganapati Mukri
Diploid cotton, due to its inherent problem of stamen brittleness, its found unsuitable for traditional method of hybrid seed production which involves hand emasculation followed by pollination. Due to shortfall in other methods viz., Genetic Male Sterility (GMS), as well as, Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS), hybrid seed production in diploid cotton becomes costly and thereby, covers less area among the total cotton grown area. Thermo-sensitive genetic male sterility, which overcomes the drawbacks of both GMS and CGMS can be an effective tool in coming years for hybrid cotton research...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Yeong Deuk Jo, Yeaseong Ha, Joung-Ho Lee, Minkyu Park, Alex C Bergsma, Hong-Il Choi, Sandra Goritschnig, Bjorn Kloosterman, Peter J van Dijk, Doil Choi, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Using fine mapping techniques, the genomic region co-segregating with Restorer - of - fertility ( Rf ) in pepper was delimited to a region of 821 kb in length. A PPR gene in this region, CaPPR6 , was identified as a strong candidate for Rf based on expression pattern and characteristics of encoding sequence. Cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CGMS) has been used for the efficient production of hybrid seeds in peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Although the mitochondrial candidate genes that might be responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) have been identified, the nuclear Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene has not been isolated...
October 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Makoto Watanabe, Yasuyuki Kawai, Michihiko Kitayama, Hironubu Akao, Atsushi Motoyama, Minoru Wakasa, Ryuhei Saito, Hirofumi Aoki, Kousuke Fujibayashi, Taketsugu Tsuchiya, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Kazuyuki Saito, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Kouji Kajinami
BACKGROUND: Glucose fluctuation (GF) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it remains unknown whether specific indices of GF are risk factors for CAD. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between GF, as determined by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) or the glucose level at 2h after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75g OGTT 120), and the severity of CAD in prediabetic patients. We also evaluated whether nitrotyrosine (NT) and glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products (Glycer-AGE) were induced by GF...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Eman Alfadhli, Eman Osman, Taghreed Basri
BACKGROUND: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are required to control their blood glucose shortly after GDM diagnosis to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes. A real time-continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) provides the patient with continuous information about the alterations in levels of the blood glucose. This visibility may empower the patient to modify her lifestyle and engage in therapeutic management. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single application of RT-CGMS to pregnant women shortly after GDM diagnosis is useful as an educational and motivational tool...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Amie Koenig, Margarethe E Hoenig, David A Jimenez
OBJECTIVE To identify variations in glucose values concurrently obtained by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at the same site, reliability of results for each site, lag time for each site, and influence of site thickness on CGMS accuracy. ANIMALS 8 random-source research dogs. PROCEDURES In experiment 1, 8 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at 1 site (4 sensors/side) in 4 dogs. In experiment 2, 2 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at each of 4 sites (1 sensor/side) in 8 dogs; 4 of those 8 dogs then were subjected to a glycemic clamp technique...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Igor F Tsigelny, Valentina L Kouznetsova, Nathan Lian, Santosh Kesari
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays a pivotal role in glioma development. Here we conducted a comprehensive study of the critical gene regulatory networks involving OLIG2. These include the networks responsible for OLIG2 expression, its translocation to nucleus, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, and Rho-pathway interactions. We described positive feedback loops including OLIG2: loops of epigenetic regulation and loops involving receptor tyrosine kinases. These loops may be responsible for the prolonged oncogenic activity of OLIG2...
July 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah S Farabi, David W Carley, Lauretta Quinn
OBJECTIVE: To determine the coupling between brain activity and glucose variations during sleep in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: 27 participants, age 18-30, wore a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and underwent in-laboratory overnight polysomnography (PSG). Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) metrics were determined from the PSG and included Delta, Theta, Alpha, Sigma, Beta and Gamma Band power at 5-min intervals. Wavelet Coherence Analysis was employed to determine the time varying and frequency specific coupling between glucose and EEG Band power...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yannian Wang, Fenfen Wei, Changqing Sun, Quanzhong Li
Diabetes may result in some complications and increase the risk of many serious health problems. The purpose of clinical treatment is to carefully manage the blood glucose concentration. If the blood glucose concentration is predicted, treatments can be taken in advance to reduce the harm to patients. For this purpose, an improved grey GM (1, 1) model is applied to predict blood glucose with a small amount of data, and especially in terms of improved smoothness it can get higher prediction accuracy. The original data of blood glucose of type 2 diabetes is acquired by CGMS...
2016: BioMed Research International
Manuel Varela, Luis Vigil, Carmen Rodriguez, Borja Vargas, Rafael García-Carretero
Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) measures the complexity of a glucose time series obtained by means of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) and has proven to be a sensitive marker of glucoregulatory dysfunction. Furthermore, some authors have observed a crossover point in the DFA, signalling a change of dynamics, arguably dependent on the beta-insular function. We investigate whether the characteristics of this crossover point have any influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Johan Jendle, Marcia A Testa, Sherry Martin, Honghua Jiang, Zvonko Milicevic
AIM: To conduct a substudy, using 24-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), of the AWARD-4 trial, which was designed to compare insulin + glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment with an insulin-only regimen. METHODS: The AWARD-4 trial randomized 884 conventional insulin regimen-treated patients to dulaglutide 1.5 mg, dulaglutide 0.75 mg and glargine, all in combination with prandial insulin lispro. The CGM substudy included 144 patients inserted with a Medtronic CGMS iPro CGM device to enable 3-day glucose monitoring...
October 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Min Kyeong Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim
BACKGROUND: The identification of a marker for hypoglycemia could help patients achieve strict glucose control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) reflects postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with well-controlled diabetes, which contributes to glycemic variability. Because glycemic variability is related to hypoglycemia, we aimed to evaluate the value of 1,5-AG as a marker of hypoglycemia. METHODS: We enrolled 18 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving insulin therapy and assessed the occurrence of hypoglycemia within a 3-month period...
June 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dirk Wackernagel, Martina Dube, Mats Blennow, Ylva Tindberg
AIM: Postnatal hypoglycaemia increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes in newborn infants, and adequate glucose control requires repetitive and painful blood sampling. This study evaluated a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that aims to improve glucose control and decrease the frequency of blood samples taken from neonates. METHODS: CGMS sensors, which measure glucose values every five minutes and require calibration twice a day, were placed on 20 infants at risk of hypoglycaemia...
August 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Sandrine Ding, Michael Schumacher
Diabetic individuals need to tightly control their blood glucose concentration. Several methods have been developed for this purpose, such as the finger-prick or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs). However, these methods present the disadvantage of being invasive. Moreover, CGMs have limited accuracy, notably to detect hypoglycemia. It is also known that physical exercise, and even daily activity, disrupt glucose dynamics and can generate problems with blood glucose regulation during and after exercise...
2016: Sensors
Jian-Wei Zhang, Yu-Jie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients might be associated with increased cardiovascular events. It is not clear whether episodes of silent hypoglycemia had greater prognostic value on cardiac events compared with normoglycemia or hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients, so the aim of this study was to investigate the association of silent hypoglycemia and cardiac events in non-diabetic patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Erika Kusunoki, Kitakata Hidenori, Mayuko Kusano, Rie Teranishi, Hiromi Shibuya, Toshiki Okada
BACKGROUND: Recently ERAS protocol has become common, and patients in our hospital drink preoperative oral fluid with carbohydrate nutrition. The present study evaluates interstitial subcutaneous fluid glucose (ISFG) with CGMS-Gold and ISFG variability is relevant to oral fluid. METHODS: The data was ISFG measurement with CGMS-Gold from 29 patients undergoing esophagus operation, liver resection, and pancreaticoduodenectomy in September 2011 to September 2012. We divided them into two groups...
March 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Ravi B Anjanappa, Devang Mehta, M N Maruthi, Edward Kanju, Wilhelm Gruissem, Hervé Vanderschuren
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting...
July 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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