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Diabetes technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782054/assessment-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-transmission-across-an-alginate-barrier-used-for-the-encapsulation-of-porcine-islets
#1
Claire Crossan, Nizar I Mourad, Karen Smith, Pierre Gianello, Linda Scobie
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantation of a macroencapsulated patch containing human allogenic islets has been successfully used to alleviate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a human recipient without the need for immunosuppression. The use of encapsulated porcine islets to treat T1DM has also been reported. Although no evidence of pathogen transfer using this technology has been reported to date, we deemed it appropriate to determine if the encapsulation technology would prevent the release of virus, in particular, the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)...
May 21, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781950/report-of-the-key-opinion-leaders-meeting-on-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells
#2
Jon Odorico, James Markmann, Douglas Melton, Julia Greenstein, Albert Hwa, Cristina Nostro, Alireza Rezania, Jose Oberholzer, Daniel Pipeleers, Luhan Yang, Chad Cowan, Danwei Huangfu, Dieter Egli, Uri Ben-David, Ludovic Vallier, Shane T Grey, Qizhi Tang, Bart Roep, Camilo Ricordi, Ali Naji, Giuseppe Orlando, Daniel G Anderson, Mark Poznansky, Barbara Ludwig, Alice Tomei, Dale L Greiner, Melanie Graham, Melissa Carpenter, Giovanni Migliaccio, Kevin D'Amour, Bernhard Hering, Lorenzo Piemonti, Thierry Berney, Mike Rickels, Thomas Kay, Ann Adams
Beta cell replacement has the potential to restore euglycemia in patients with insulin dependent diabetes. While great progress has been made in establishing allogeneic islet transplantation from deceased donors as the standard of care for those with the most labile diabetes, it is also clear that the deceased donor organ supply cannot possibly treat all those who could benefit from restoration of a normal beta cell mass, especially if immunosuppression were not required. Against this background, the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) in collaboration with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI), the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), and the Helmsley Foundation held a 2-day Key Opinion Leaders Meeting in Boston in 2016 to bring together experts in generating and transplanting beta cells derived from stem cells...
April 30, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779583/mouse-models-of-peripheral-metabolic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, David J Hodson
Metabolic disease risk is driven by defects in the function of cells that regulate energy homeostasis, as well as altered communication between the different tissues or organs that these cells occupy. Thus, it is desirable to use model organisms to understand the contribution of different cells, tissues and organs to metabolism. Mice are widely used for metabolic research, since well-characterised mouse strains (in terms of their genotype and phenotype) allow comparative studies and human disease modelling...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777363/high-level-production-of-single-chain-monellin-mutants-with-enhanced-sweetness-and-stability-in-tobacco-chloroplasts
#4
Daniela Castiglia, Serena Leone, Rachele Tamburino, Lorenza Sannino, Jole Fonderico, Chiara Melchiorre, Andrea Carpentieri, Stefania Grillo, Delia Picone, Nunzia Scotti
Plastid-based MNEI protein mutants retain the structure, stability and sweetness of their bacterial counterparts, confirming the attractiveness of the plastid transformation technology for high-yield production of recombinant proteins. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has dramatically increased the industrial demand for the development and use of alternatives to sugar and traditional sweeteners. Sweet proteins, such as MNEI, a single chain derivative of monellin, are the most promising candidates for industrial applications...
May 18, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773120/age-specific-association-between-blood-pressure-and-vascular-and-non-vascular-chronic-diseases-in-0%C3%A2-5-million-adults-in-china-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Ben Lacey, Sarah Lewington, Robert Clarke, Xiang Ling Kong, Yiping Chen, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Derrick Bennett, Fiona Bragg, Zheng Bian, Shaojie Wang, Hua Zhang, Junshi Chen, Robin G Walters, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: The age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular disease has been studied mostly in high-income countries, and before the widespread use of brain imaging for diagnosis of the main stroke types (ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage). We aimed to investigate this relationship among adults in China. METHODS: 512 891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 years were recruited into a prospective study from ten areas of China between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772673/reducing-amputations-in-people-with-diabetes-rapid-evaluation-of-a-new-care-pathway
#6
Sandra MacRury, Kate Stephen, Fiona Main, Jane Gorman, Sandra Jones, David Macfarlane
People with diabetes are at increased risk of foot ulcers, which, if left untreated, can lead to infection, gangrene, and subsequent amputation. Management by a multidisciplinary diabetes foot team has been shown to reduce amputation rates; however, accessing specialist treatment is made particularly difficult when living in remote and rural locations, such as many individuals cared for within NHS Highland. The RAPID project was made up of two phases: firstly, to evaluate the technical feasibility of a new integrated care pathway using innovative technology, and secondly, to establish process enhancement of the pathway to justify a larger-scale study...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769806/paediatric-type-1-diabetes-2018-clinical-and-research-insights
#7
Stephen J Zborovski, Farid H Mahmud
The management of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes continues to progress as clinical and technological innovations enter into practice. Variability in glucose readings can present a significant challenge for care providers, patients and families alike and recent research demonstrates that insulin selection and site-related lipohypertrophy can significantly influence blood glucose levels. New technology aims to improve both glycemic control and quality of life. New insulin analogues have been developed and insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring systems continue to evolve toward a fully closed-loop system...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768354/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-electrochemical-dermal-conductance-measurement-for-the-screening-of-diabetic-neuropathy-in-primary-care-decoding-study-dermal-electrochemical-conductance-in-diabetic-neuropathy-rationale-and-design
#8
Juan J Cabré, Teresa Mur, Bernardo Costa, Francisco Barrio, Charo López-Moya, Ramon Sagarra, Montserrat García-Barco, Jesús Vizcaíno, Immaculada Bonaventura, Nicolau Ortiz, Gemma Flores-Mateo
Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of polyneuropathy in the Western world. Diabetic neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes and may have great clinical transcendence due to pain and possible ulceration of the lower extremities. It is also a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Although the cause of polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes is only partially known, it has been associated with chronic hyperglycemia suggesting the possible etiopathogenic implication of advanced glycosylation end products...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765207/adherence-to-antihyperglycemic-medications-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-type-2-diabetes-clinical-consequences-and-strategies-for-improvement
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Giorgino, Alfred Penfornis, Valeria Pechtner, Raffaella Gentilella, Antonella Corcos
Adherence to antihyperglycemic medications is often suboptimal in patients with type 2 diabetes, and this can contribute to poor glycemic control, increased hospitalization, and the development of diabetic complications. Reported adherence rates to antihyperglycemics vary widely among studies, and this may be related to differences in methodology for measuring adherence, patient populations, and other factors. Poor adherence may occur regardless of the specific regimen used and whether therapy is oral or injectable, and can be especially common in chronic, asymptomatic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759007/contemporary-trends-emerging-in-epigenomics-and-metabolism
#10
Assam El-Osta
Diabetes is the disease of our time. It is a complex disorder. It is increasingly appreciated that genetic factors cannot fully explain susceptibility to diabetic complications. For almost a decade, the epigenetics field has grown tremendously becoming an alternative but integral component of how we interpret gene regulation. Some consider the field an epiphenomenon with an evidence base awaiting critical testing. The advent of experimental tools combined with the development of research methods have brought with the field technological advancements that allow scientists to assess ideas that have not yet been tested critically...
May 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758944/the-conundrum-of-gsk3-inhibitors-is-it-the-dawn-of-a-new-beginning
#11
Ratan V Bhat, Ulf Andersson, Shalini Andersson, Laurent Knerr, Udo Bauer, Anna Sundgren Andersson
Spanning over three decades of extensive drug discovery research, the efforts to develop a potent and selective GSK3 inhibitor as a therapeutic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease (AD), bipolar disorders and cancer have been futile. Since its initial discovery in 1980 and subsequent decades of research, one cannot underscore the importance of the target and the promise of a game changing disease modifier. Several pharmaceutical companies, biotech companies, and academic institutions raged in a quest to unravel the biology and discover potent and selective GSK3 inhibitors, some of which went through clinical trials...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753624/a-critical-review-and-analysis-of-ethical-issues-associated-with-the-artificial-pancreas
#12
REVIEW
A Quintal, V Messier, R Rabasa-Lhoret, E Racine
The artificial pancreas combines a hormone infusion pump with a continuous glucose ontinuous glucose monitoring, supported by a dosing algorithm currently installed on the pump. It allows for dynamic infusions of insulin (and possibly other hormones such as glucagon) tailored to patient needs. For patients with type 1 diabetes the artificial pancreas has been shown to prevent more effectively hypoglycaemic events and hyperglycaemia than insulin pump therapy and has the potential to simplify care. However, the potential ethical issues associated with the upcoming integration of the artificial pancreas into clinical practice have not yet been discussed...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753353/cost-effectiveness-of-a-technology-facilitated-depression-care-management-adoption-model-in-safety-net-primary-care-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Joel W Hay, Pey-Jiuan Lee, Haomiao Jin, Jeffrey J Guterman, Sandra Gross-Schulman, Kathleen Ell, Shinyi Wu
BACKGROUND: The Diabetes-Depression Care-Management Adoption Trial is a translational study of safety-net primary care predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an information and communication technology (ICT)-facilitated depression care management program. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness of the ICT-facilitated care (TC) delivery model was evaluated relative to a usual care (UC) and a supported care (SC) model...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750797/critical-depth-raman-spectroscopy-enables-home-use-non-invasive-glucose-monitoring
#14
Signe M Lundsgaard-Nielsen, Anders Pors, Stefan O Banke, Jan E Henriksen, Dietrich K Hepp, Anders Weber
One of the most ambitious endeavors in the field of diabetes technology is non-invasive glucose sensing. In the past decades, a number of different technologies have been assessed, but none of these have found its entry into general clinical use. We report on the development of a table-top confocal Raman spectrometer that was used in the home of patients with diabetes and operated for extended periods of time unsupervised and without recalibration. The system is based on measurement of glucose levels at a 'critical depth' in the skin, specifically in the interstitial fluid located below the stratum corneum but above the underlying adipose tissue layer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748905/diabetes-care-in-the-digital-era-a-synoptic-overview
#15
REVIEW
Farhad Fatehi, Anish Menon, Dominique Bird
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes care is undergoing a remarkable transformation by the advancements in information and communications technology (ICT). The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of various ICT-based interventions for diabetes care, challenges of their adoption, and consider future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of systematic reviews have examined studies on various aspects of telemedicine and eHealth for diabetes care, but they are generally focused on one specific type of technology application for diabetes care...
May 10, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745849/pathway-based-approach-using-hierarchical-components-of-rare-variants-to-analyze-multiple-phenotypes
#16
Sungyoung Lee, Yongkang Kim, Sungkyoung Choi, Heungsun Hwang, Taesung Park
BACKGROUND: As one possible solution to the "missing heritability" problem, many methods have been proposed that apply pathway-based analyses, using rare variants that are detected by next generation sequencing technology. However, while a number of methods for pathway-based rare-variant analysis of multiple phenotypes have been proposed, no method considers a unified model that incorporate multiple pathways. RESULTS: Simulation studies successfully demonstrated advantages of multivariate analysis, compared to univariate analysis, and comparison studies showed the proposed approach to outperform existing methods...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745848/automated-transition-analysis-of-activated-gene-regulation-during-diauxic-nutrient-shift-in-escherichia-coli-and-adipocyte-differentiation-in-mouse-cells
#17
Yoichi Takenaka, Kazuma Mikami, Shigeto Seno, Hideo Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of biological systems is among the biggest current challenges in biology and medicine. To acquire this understanding, researchers have measured the time-series expression profiles of cell lines of various organisms. Biological technologies have also drastically improved, providing a huge amount of information with support from bioinformatics and systems biology. However, the transitions between the activation and inactivation of gene regulations, at the temporal resolution of single time points, are difficult to extract from time-course gene expression profiles...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743320/prospective-longitudinal-study-of-the-pregnancy-dna-methylome-the-us-pregnancy-race-environment-genes-preg-study
#18
Dana M Lapato, Sara Moyer, Emily Olivares, Ananda B Amstadter, Patricia A Kinser, Shawn J Latendresse, Colleen Jackson-Cook, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Jerome F Strauss, Timothy P York
PURPOSE: The goal of the Pregnancy, Race, Environment, Genes study was to understand how social and environmental determinants of health (SEDH), pregnancy-specific environments (PSE) and biological processes influence the timing of birth and account for the racial disparity in preterm birth. The study followed a racially diverse longitudinal cohort throughout pregnancy and included repeated measures of PSE and DNA methylation (DNAm) over the course of gestation and up to 1 year into the postpartum period...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741879/reanalysis-of-global-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-data-identified-a-large-number-of-glycopeptides
#19
Yingwei Hu, Punit Shah, David J Clark, Minghui Ao, Hui Zhang
Protein glycosylation plays fundamental roles in many cellular processes, and previous reports have shown dysregulation to be associated with several human diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the vital role of glycosylation for proper protein function, the analysis of glycoproteins has been lagged behind to other protein modifications. In this study, we describe the re-analysis of global proteomic data from breast cancer xenograft tissues using recently developed software package GPQuest 2...
May 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740786/rapid-evidence-review-of-mobile-applications-for-self-management-of-diabetes
#20
Stephanie Veazie, Kara Winchell, Jennifer Gilbert, Robin Paynter, Ilya Ivlev, Karen B Eden, Kerri Nussbaum, Nicole Weiskopf, Jeanne-Marie Guise, Mark Helfand
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes lack information on which commercially available applications (apps) improve diabetes-related outcomes. We conducted a rapid evidence review to examine features, clinical efficacy, and usability of apps for self-management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults. METHODS: Ovid/Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for systematic reviews and technology assessments. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were examined for primary studies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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