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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920783/genomic-tools-in-pearl-millet-breeding-for-drought-tolerance-status-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Desalegn D Serba, Rattan S Yadav
Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920782/acclimation-of-biochemical-and-diffusive-components-of-photosynthesis-in-rice-wheat-and-maize-to-heat-and-water-deficit-implications-for-modeling-photosynthesis
#2
Juan A Perdomo, Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Carmen Hermida-Carrera, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés
The impact of the combined effects of heat stress, increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and water deficit on the physiology of major crops needs to be better understood to help identifying the expected negative consequences of climate change and heat waves on global agricultural productivity. To address this issue, rice, wheat, and maize plants were grown under control temperature (CT, 25°C, VPD 1.8 kPa), and a high temperature (HT, 38°C, VPD 3.5 kPa), both under well-watered (WW) and water deficit (WD) conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920339/identification-of-chlorophyll-dephytylase-involved-in-chlorophyll-turnover-in-arabidopsis
#3
Yao-Pin Lin, Meng-Chen Wu, Yee-Yung Charng
Chlorophyll turns over in green organs during photosystem repair and is salvaged via de- and re-phytylation, but the enzyme involved in de-phytylation is unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid protein with a putative hydrolase domain that can dephytylate chlorophyll in vitro and in vivo. The corresponding locus, CHLOROPHYLL DEPHYTYLASE1 (CLD1), was identified by mapping a semi-dominant, heat-sensitive, missense allele (cld1-1). CLD1 is conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, sharing structural similarity with pheophytinase, which functions in chlorophyll breakdown during leaf senescence...
December 5, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920337/effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#4
Y He, D Tan, Y Mi, B Bai, D Jiang, X Zhou, S Ji
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical intermediate utilized in industry. ACR is also formed during heating of foods containing carbohydrates and amino acids. Therefore, humans are widely exposed to ACR, and ACR neurotoxicity in humans is a significant public health issue attracting wide attention. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic compound in green tea, in PC12 cells treated with ACR. ACR-treated PC12 cells pretreated with various concentrations of EGCG (2...
December 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918628/phenotypic-and-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-spike-ethylene-in-diverse-wheat-genotypes-under-heat-stress
#5
Ravi Valluru, Matthew P Reynolds, William J Davies, Sivakumar Sukumaran
The gaseous phytohormone ethylene plays an important role in spike development in wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, the genotypic variation and the genomic regions governing spike ethylene (SET) production in wheat under long-term heat stress remain unexplored. We investigated genotypic variation in the production of SET and its relationship with spike dry weight (SDW) in 130 diverse wheat elite lines and landraces under heat-stressed field conditions. We employed an Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array to identify the genetic loci for SET and SDW through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a subset of the Wheat Association Mapping Initiative (WAMI) panel...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917903/global-dna-methylation-variations-after-short-term-heat-shock-treatment-in-cultured-microspores-of-brassica-napus-cv-topas
#6
Jun Li, Qian Huang, Mengxiang Sun, Tianyao Zhang, Hao Li, Biyun Chen, Kun Xu, Guizhen Gao, Feng Li, Guixin Yan, Jiangwei Qiao, Yongping Cai, Xiaoming Wu
Heat stress can induce the cultured microspores into embryogenesis. In this study, whole genome bisulphite sequencing was employed to study global DNA methylation variations after short-term heat shock (STHS) treatments in cultured microspores of Brassica napus cv. Topas. Our results indicated that treatment on cultured Topas microspores at 32 °C for 6 h triggered DNA hypomethylation, particularly in the CG and CHG contexts. And the total number of T32 (Topas 32 °C for 6 h) vs. T0 (Topas 0 h) differentially methylated region-related genes (DRGs) was approximately two-fold higher than that of T18 (Topas 18 °C for 6 h) vs...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917888/heterotrophy-promotes-the-re-establishment-of-photosynthate-translocation-in-a-symbiotic-coral-after-heat-stress
#7
Pascale Tremblay, Andrea Gori, Jean François Maguer, Mia Hoogenboom, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
Symbiotic scleractinian corals are particularly affected by climate change stress and respond by bleaching (losing their symbiotic dinoflagellate partners). Recently, the energetic status of corals is emerging as a particularly important factor that determines the corals' vulnerability to heat stress. However, detailed studies of coral energetic that trace the flow of carbon from symbionts to host are still sparse. The present study thus investigates the impact of heat stress on the nutritional interactions between dinoflagellates and coral Stylophora pistillata maintained under auto- and heterotrophy...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917177/progress-on-optimizing-miscanthus-biomass-production-for-the-european-bioeconomy-results-of-the-eu-fp7-project-optimisc
#8
Iris Lewandowski, John Clifton-Brown, Luisa M Trindade, Gerard C van der Linden, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Karl Müller-Sämann, Alexander Anisimov, C-L Chen, Oene Dolstra, Iain S Donnison, Kerrie Farrar, Simon Fonteyne, Graham Harding, Astley Hastings, Laurie M Huxley, Yasir Iqbal, Nikolay Khokhlov, Andreas Kiesel, Peter Lootens, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Hilde Muylle, Chris Nunn, Mensure Özgüven, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan Tarakanov, Tim van der Weijde, Moritz Wagner, Qingguo Xi, Olena Kalinina
This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917163/severely-heat-injured-survivors-of-e-coli-o157-h7-atcc-43888-display-variable-and-heterogeneous-stress-resistance-behavior
#9
Elisa Gayán, Sander K Govers, Chris W Michiels, Abram Aertsen
Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916855/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-porcine-jejunum-tissues-in-response-to-a-virulent-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-its-attenuated-strain
#10
Zhonghua Li, Fangzhou Chen, Shiyi Ye, Xiaozhen Guo, Atta Muhanmmad Memon, Meizhou Wu, Qigai He
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a predominant cause of acute enteric infection, leads to severe dehydrating diarrhea and mortality in piglets all over the world. A virulent PEDV YN13 strain, isolated in our laboratory, was attenuated to yield an attenuated PEDV strain YN144. To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism and the virus-host interaction during infection with both PEDV YN13 and YN144 strains, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes produced in the primary target organ, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916788/effects-of-dietary-oregano-essential-oil-and-vitamin-e-supplementation-on-meat-quality-stress-response-and-intestinal-morphology-in-pigs-following-transport-stress
#11
Yi Zou, Xiao Ming Hu, Ting Zhang, Hong Kui Wei, Yuan Fei Zhou, Zhong Xin Zhou, Jian Peng
This study investigates the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress. A total of 288 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to three groups: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented either with 200 mg/kg Vit E or 25 mg/kg OEO. After a 28-day feeding trial, total of 132 finishing pigs according diet and transport stress were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) control treatment without transport stress (Control group), 2) control treatment with 5-hr transport stress (Negative group), 3) Vit E treatment with 5-hr transport stress and 4) OEO treatment with 5-hr transport stress...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915403/a-simple-approach-for-the-development-of-urban-climatic-maps-based-on-the-urban-characteristics-in-tainan-taiwan
#12
Yu-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Chien-Ting Lin
Motivated by the increasing thermal load in urban environment, this work established Urban Climatic map (UCmap) focusing on thermal environment issues based on urban development factors, e.g., land cover and building characteristics, representing thermal load of human body and ventilation path in the urban structures. In the established process of UCmap in this work, Tainan city, which is a highly developed city in southern Taiwan, is selected as the research area. A 50-m resolution grid is used to capture urban development factors and the climate data based on 1 year of mobile and fix-point measurements, from which the thermal load and the wind environment map are constructed...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#13
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909914/association-of-snp-variants-of-mhc-class-ii-drb-gene-with-thermo-physiological-traits-in-tropical-goats
#14
Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Adebowale E Salako, Marcos De Donato, Sunday O Peters, Michael I Takeet, Mathew Wheto, Moses Okpeku, Ikhide G Imumorin
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909733/nitrogen-gas-plasma-treatment-of-bacterial-spores-induces-oxidative-stress-that-damages-the-genomic-dna
#15
Akikazu Sakudo, Yoichi Toyokawa, Tetsuji Nakamura, Yoshihito Yagyu, Yuichiro Imanishi
Gas plasma, produced by a short high‑voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply [1.5 kilo pulse/sec (kpps)], was demonstrated to inactivate Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores (decimal reduction time at 15 min, 2.48 min). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays further indicated that nitrogen gas plasma treatment for 15 min decreased the level of intact genomic DNA and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a major product of DNA oxidation...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908721/stress-response-in-honeybees-is-associated-with-changes-in-task-related-physiology-and-energetic-metabolism
#16
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908666/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-five-heat-shock-protein-70-hsp70-family-members-in-lateolabrax-maculatus-with-vibrio-harveyi-infection
#17
Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Chen Du, Jun-Quan Zhu
Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70s) are molecular chaperones that aid in protection against environmental stress. In this study, we cloned and characterized five members of the HSP70 family (designated as HSPa1a, HSC70-1, HSC70-2, HSPa4 and HSPa14) from Lateolabrax maculatus using rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all members of the HSP70 family had a conserved domain architecture, with some distinguishing features unique to each HSP70. Quantitative real-time (qPCR) analysis revealed that all members of the HSP70 family were ubiquitously and differentially expressed in all major types of tissues, including testicular tissue...
November 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908260/-a-proteomics-approach-to-discover-drought-tolerance-proteins-in-wheat-pollen-grain-at-meiosis-stage
#18
Reza Fotovat, Mehdi Alikhani, Mostafa Valizadeh, Mehdi Mirzaei, Ghasem Hossein Salekdeh
Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis...
November 30, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908119/atomistic-formulas-for-local-properties-in-systems-with-many-body-interactions
#19
Robert J Hardy
Atomistic formulas are derived for the local densities and fluxes used in the continuum description of energy and momentum transport. Two general methods for the distribution of potential energy among a system's constituent particles are presented and analyzed. The resulting formulas for the heat flux and stress tensor and the equations for energy and momentum transport are exact consequences of the definitions of the densities and the equations of classical mechanics. The formulas and equations obtained are valid for systems with very general types of many-body interactions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907902/active-5-splice-sites-regulate-the-biogenesis-efficiency-of-arabidopsis-micrornas-derived-from-intron-containing-genes
#20
Katarzyna Knop, Agata Stepien, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Michal Taube, Dawid Bielewicz, Michal Michalak, Jan W Borst, Artur Jarmolowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Arabidopsis, miR402 that is encoded within the first intron of a protein-coding gene At1g77230, is induced by heat stress. Its upregulation correlates with splicing inhibition and intronic proximal polyA site selection. It suggests that miR402 is not processed from an intron, but rather from a shorter transcript after selection of the proximal polyA site within this intron. Recently, introns and active 5' splice sites (5'ss') have been shown to stimulate the accumulation of miRNAs encoded within the first exons of intron-containing MIR genes...
October 5, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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