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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908886/the-potential-role-of-substance-p-in-brainstem-homeostatic-control-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#1
REVIEW
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900692/direct-activation-of-tachykinin-receptors-within-baroreflex-afferent-pathway-and-neurocontrol-of-blood-pressure-regulation
#2
Mei Yuan, Mei-Na Ma, Ting-Yu Wang, Yan Feng, Pei Chen, Chao He, Sijie Liu, Yun-Xia Guo, Yue Wang, Yao Fan, Lu-Qi Wang, Xiao-Qiang E, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
AIM: Substance P (SP) causes vasodilation and blood pressure (BP) reduction. However, the involvement of tachykinin receptors (NKRs) within baroreflex afferent pathway in SP-mediated BP regulation is largely unknown. METHODS: Under control and hypertensive condition, NKRs' expressions were evaluated in nodose (NG) and nucleus of tractus solitary (NTS) of male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) rats; BP was recorded after microinjection of SP and NKRs agonists into NG; Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) was tested as well...
June 13, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886624/-establishment-and-evaluation-of-a-new-method-for-determining-hemodynamics-of-pulmonary-hypertension-rats
#3
Q Y Zheng, M D Kuang, Y Li, X T Wu, J Y Huang, C T Zhang, H W Liu, W J Lu, J Wang, Y Q Chen
Objective: By evaluating the hemodynamic parameters such as cardiac output (CO), right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and total pulmonary resistance index (TPRI) in pulmonary hypertension rat model, we established a more comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation system, which objectively evaluated the severity of disease and exercise tolerance in rats with pulmonary hypertension. Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and a model group with 5 rats in each group. The model group was intraperitoneally injected with SU5416 (20 mg/kg) and placed in an oxygen chamber at a 10% oxygen concentration for 21 days and then placed in a normoxic environment for 14 days...
June 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882635/efficacy-of-systolic-extinction-training-set-in-fibromyalgia-patients-with-elevated-blood-pressure-response-to-stress-a-tailored-rct-study
#4
Kati Thieme, Tina Meller, Ulrika Evermann, Robert Malinowski, Marc Mathys, Richard H Gracely, William Maixner, Dennis C Turk
AIM: An intrinsic pain regulatory system is modulated by both cardiovascular dynamics that influence baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and diminished in Fibromyalgia (FM). Baroreceptors relay cardiovascular output to the dorsal medial nucleus tractus solitarius reflex arcs that regulate pain, sleep, anxiety, and blood pressure. This study evaluated the effects of Systolic Extinction Training (SET), which combines operant treatment (OT) with BaroReflexTraining (BRT). BRT delivers peripheral electrical stimulation within a few milliseconds of the systolic or diastolic peak of the cardiac cycle...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874095/anuran-amphibians-as-comparative-models-for-understanding-extreme-dehydration-tolerance-a-negative-feedback-lymphatic-mechanism-for-blood-volume-regulation
#5
Stanley S Hillman
Anurans are the most terrestrial order of amphibians. Couple the high driving forces for evaporative loss in terrestrial environments and their low resistance to evaporation, dehydration is an inevitable stress on their water balance. Anurans have the greatest tolerances for dehydration of any vertebrate group, some species can tolerate evaporative losses up to 45% of their standard body mass. Anurans have remarkable capacities to regulate blood volume with hemorrhage and dehydration compared to mammals. Stabilization of blood volume is central to extending dehydration tolerance, since it avoids both the hypovolemic and hyperviscosity stresses on cardiac output and its consequential effects on aerobic capacity...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858771/astrocytes-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system-relevance-in-disease-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Ann Tenneil O'Connor, Michelle A Clark
The presence of a brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well documented. An overactive brain RAS contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal disorders among other conditions. In hypertension, an augmented brain RAS leads to an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity. In addition, impaired baroreceptor reflex function, increased vasopressin activity and neuroinflammation are important contributors as well. The relevance of angiotensins in central and peripheral systems, such as neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells, in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis is fairly understood...
June 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851869/exploring-the-association-of-hypertension-with-risk-for-depression-evidence-for-tamed-neurobehavioral-arousal-versus-central-emotional-dysregulation
#7
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Mustafa al'Absi
Depression is an established predictor of adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. Less is known about cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of depression. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Patel et al. report data indicating that pre-existing hypertension may be associated with the atypical but not typical form of depression. We highlight here the strengths and limitations of the article and discuss the findings in light of research linking blood pressure and emotion regulation. In general, evidence suggests that higher blood pressure is associated with reduced expression of negative emotions and pain...
May 30, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843507/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-valsalva-maneuver-for-attenuating-propofol-injection-pain-a-prospective-randomised-single-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#8
Sanjay Kumar, Sandeep Khuba, Anil Agarwal, Sujeet Gautam, Madhulika Yadav, Aanchal Dixit
Background: Pain on propofol injection is a limitation of propofol. So far, there has been no study about valsalva to reduce pain on propofol injection. Valsalva reduces pain via sinoaortic baroreceptor reflex arc and distraction both. We planned this study for assessing efficacy of Valsalva maneuver to reduce pain on propofol injection. Methods: Eighty American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I enrolled adult patients undergoing general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups of 40 each...
May 30, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791601/resting-spontaneous-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#9
Marcelo R Dos Santos, Ana L C Sayegh, Rafael Armani, Valéria Costa-Hong, Francis R de Souza, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Luiz A Bortolotto, Mauricio Yonamine, Carlos E Negrão, Maria-Janieire N N Alves
OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels...
May 21, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789952/carotid-body-ablation-a-new-target-to-address-central-autonomic-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782509/maternal-cardiovascular-and-endothelial-function-from-first-trimester-to-postpartum
#11
Vassiliki Kolovetsiou-Kreiner, Manfred Georg Moertl, Ilona Papousek, Karin Schmid-Zalaudek, Uwe Lang, Dietmar Schlembach, Mila Cervar-Zivkovic, Helmut Karl Lackner
OBJECTIVE: To explore noninvasively the complex interactions of the maternal hemodynamic system throughout pregnancy and the resulting after-effect six weeks postpartum. METHODS: Eighteen women were tested beginning at the 12th week of gestation at six time-points throughout pregnancy and six weeks postpartum. Heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, pulse transit time (PTT), respiration, and baroreceptor sensitivity were analyzed in resting conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781840/cardiovascular-autonomic-profile-in-women-with-constitutional-hypotension
#12
Giris Jacob, Franca Barbic, Meytal Glago, Franca Dipaola, Alberto Porta, Raffaello Furlan
BACKGROUND: Constitutional hypotension (CHT) is defined as a SBP below 105 mmHg. As autonomic-related symptoms are frequently reported in CHT, these symptoms suggest that the cardiovascular autonomic control is perturbed in individuals with CHT. METHODS: We investigated the autonomic cardiovascular control of 15 women with CHT and 12 women with NBP (SBP >110 mmHg). We monitored BP and ECG for autonomic function test. Supine and head up tilt (HUT) spectral analysis of RR interval and BP variability, baroreflex sensitivity and plasma levels of plasma renin activity and aldosterone were determined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772319/baroreceptor-activation-therapy-two-decades-after-vascular-surgery-on-both-carotid-arteries-in-a-patient-with-resistant-hypertension-first-case-report-in-the-literature
#13
Christoph H Blanke, Frank Willeke, Michael Buerke, Ibrahim A Darwich
Patients with previous surgery of the carotids or significant stenosis are not included in the study populations of baroreceptor activation therapy. In this case report about a 78-year-old woman with implantation of a baroreceptor activation therapy system two decades after bilateral thrombendarterectomy, control of hypertensive dysregulation could be observed even 20 months after implantation. Successful modulation of the baroreceptors requires intact adventitial tissue near the carotid sinus. In our case with previous longitudinal incision and patch angioplasty, the nerval innervation had been preserved...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744599/endovascular-baroreflex-amplification-for-resistant-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Monique E A M van Kleef, Mark C Bates, Wilko Spiering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most hypertension devices have been designed to interrupt or modify the sympathetic nervous system, which seems to be unbalanced in hypertension. Carotid baroreceptors play a pivotal role in maintaining adrenergic balance via a direct feedback interface and would be an exceptional target for intervention. The purpose of this review is to define the role of the baroreceptor in hypertension, to examine device-based therapies targeting the baroreflex and to explore future promises of endovascular baroreflex amplification (EBA)...
May 9, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742028/learning-by-heart-cardiac-cycle-reveals-an-effective-time-window-for-learning
#15
Tomi Waselius, Jan Wikgren, Hanna Halkola, Markku Penttonen, Miriam S Nokia
Cardiac cycle phase is known to modulate processing of simple sensory information. This effect of the heartbeat on brain function is likely exerted via baroreceptors, the neurons sensitive for changes in blood pressure. From baroreceptors the signal is conveyed all the way to the forebrain and the medial prefrontal cortex. In the two experiments reported here, we examined whether learning, as a more complex form of cognition, can be modulated by the cardiac cycle phase. Human participants (Experiment 1) and rabbits (Experiment 2) were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, while neural activity was recorded...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672226/high-intensity-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-attenuates-cardiopulmonary-baroreflex-mediated-inhibition-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#16
Keisho Katayama, Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Thales C Barbosa, Shigehiko Ogoh, Paul J Fadel
Previous studies have shown that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is reduced during low- and mild-intensity dynamic leg exercise. It has been suggested that such inhibition is mediated by loading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors and that this effect is overridden by muscle metaboreflex activation with higher intensity exercise. However, limited data are available regarding the interaction between the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and the muscle metaboreflex. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated inhibition of MSNA is attenuated during high intensity muscle metaboreflex activation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672186/atherosclerosis-of-the-carotid-bulb-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-non-diabetic-adult-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Hideo Kobayashi, Koichiro Sumida, Minako Kagimoto, Yuki Okuyama, Yosuke Ehara, Mari Katsumata, Megumi Fujita, Akira Fujiwara, Sanae Saka, Keisuke Yatsu, Nobuhito Hirawa, Yoshiyuki Toya, Gen Yasuda, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
BACKGROUND: The carotid bulb has a high density of baroreceptors that play an important role in maintaining blood pressure. We hypothesized that atherosclerosis of the carotid bulb would reflect the severity of orthostatic hypotension more accurately than would atherosclerosis of other carotid artery segments. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 198 non-diabetic adults. We measured the cardio-vascular ankle index as an index of arterial stiffness, intima-media thickness in each carotid artery segment (internal carotid artery, carotid bulb, distal and proximal portions, respectively, of the common carotid artery) as a measure of atherosclerosis, and heart rate variability as a measure of cardiac autonomic function...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663677/the-carotid-sinus-nerve-structure-function-and-clinical-implications
#18
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Raffaele De Caro
Interest has been renewed in the anatomy and physiology of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and its targets (carotid sinus and carotid body, CB), due to recent proposals of surgical procedures for a series of common pathologies, such as carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, heart failure, and insulin resistance. The CSN originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve soon after its appearance from the jugular foramen. It shows frequent communications with the sympathetic trunk (usually at the level of the superior cervical ganglion) and the vagal nerve (main trunk, pharyngeal branches, or superior laryngeal nerve)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656272/characterisation-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-based-on-spontaneous-changes-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure
#19
Fatemeh Shirbani, Edward Barin, Yi-Ching Lee, Karl Ng, John Douglas Edward Parratt, Mark Butlin, Alberto P Avolio
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD) in multiple sclerosis (MS) varies between studies. Cardiac autonomic function is usually assessed by cardiovascular reflex tests. We hypothesized that MS is associated with CAD, quantifiable by non-invasive means including quantification of baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability. METHODS: In this study a comprehensive suite of cardiovascular autonomic tests based only on the spontaneous changes of heart rate and blood pressure was applied to 23 MS patients and age and gender-matched controls...
May 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643979/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-as-a-result-of-mild-hypercaloric-challenge-in-absence-of-signs-of-diabetes-modulation-by-antidiabetic-drugs
#20
Ola Al-Assi, Rana Ghali, Ali Mroueh, Abdullah Kaplan, Nahed Mougharbil, Ali H Eid, Fouad A Zouein, Ahmed F El-Yazbi
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an early cardiovascular complication of diabetes occurring before metabolic derangement is evident. The cause of CAN remains elusive and cannot be directly linked to hyperglycemia. Recent clinical data report cardioprotective effects of some antidiabetic drugs independent of their hypoglycemic action. Here, we used a rat model receiving limited daily increase in calories from fat (HC diet) to assess whether mild metabolic challenge led to CAN in absence of interfering effects of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, or obesity...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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