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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148065/improvement-in-low-upright-baroreflex-sensitivity-is-associated-with-positive-clinical-effect-of-orthostatic-training
#1
Peter Mitro, Miloš Simurda, Ervin Muller
AIM: To assess the clinical efficacy of orthostatic training (OT) and its effect on the autonomic activity. METHODS: OT was performed in 38 patients (13 males, age 36.4 ± 15.2 years). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability and quality of life (SF 36) was assessed before and after 6 months of OT. Patients with no recurrence of syncope and reduction of the presyncope number to one-third or less were classified as responders. RESULTS: Compliance to OT was low...
November 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147581/review-of-and-updates-on-hypertension-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
REVIEW
Masood Ahmad, Devan Makati, Sana Akbar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136223/baroreceptors-in-the-carotid-and-hypertension-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-on-blood-pressure
#3
Manuel Wallbach, Michael J Koziolek
Activation of baroreceptors in the carotid modulates the autonomic nervous system. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), which activates baroreceptors in the carotid, has become available in the treatment of resistant hypertension. Besides this, a carotid implant modulating baroreceptors as well as pharmacological modulation of carotid bodies were quite recently presented. This review will underscore currently available and promising approaches that activate baroreceptors in the carotid, and thereby contribute to beneficial effects in patients with arterial hypertension, and discusses potential organoprotective BAT effects beyond blood pressure (BP) reduction...
November 9, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134979/amlodipine-corrects-changes-in-blood-pressure-and-baroreceptor-reflex-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#4
A A Adejare, O A Sofola
High dietary salt ingestion causes elevated blood pressure both in humans and in experimental animals.Following reports that Calcium Channel Blockers may exhibit differences in the response of blood vessels to pressor agents,this study sought to test the effects of amlodipine on blood pressure (BP) and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) responsesto high salt ingestion. Three groups of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats i.e. control rats (CR), salt loaded rats (SR) and saltloaded rats concomitantly administered orally with amlodipine (SR+Am) were used...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119875/effects-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-intraoperative-core-temperature-in-patients-undergoing-posterior-spine-surgery-prospective-randomised-trial
#5
Hyungseok Seo, Je Do Son, Hyung-Chul Lee, Hyung-Min Oh, Chul-Woo Jung, Hee-Pyoung Park
Objective Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) causes carotid baroreceptor unloading, which leads to thermoregulatory peripheral vasoconstriction. However, the effects of PEEP on intraoperative thermoregulation in the prone position remain unknown. Methods Thirty-seven patients undergoing spine surgery in the prone position were assigned at random to receive either 10 cmH2O PEEP (Group P) or no PEEP (Group Z). The primary endpoint was core temperature 180 minutes after intubation. Secondary endpoints were delta core temperature (difference in core temperature between 180 minutes and immediately after tracheal intubation), incidence of intraoperative hypothermia (core temperature of <36°C), and peripheral vasoconstriction-related data...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118300/improvement-of-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-by-baroreflex-activation-therapy-in-a-young-man-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Marcel Halbach, Thorsten Fritz, Navid Madershahian, Roman Pfister, Hannes Reuter
The progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is promoted by sympathovagal imbalance. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) by the electrical stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus significantly improved exercise capacity and NT-proBNP levels in a randomized trial; however, no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) between groups was found. Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old man with a long history of dilated cardiomyopathy and severely reduced LV-EF despite optimal medical therapy, who was treated with BAT since October 2014 and showed a remarkable improvement in both symptoms and LV-EF under this treatment...
November 8, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118022/tonic-aortic-depressor-nerve-stimulation-does-not-impede-baroreflex-dynamic-characteristics-concomitantly-mediated-by-the-stimulated-nerve
#7
Toru Kawada, Michael J Turner, Shuji Shimizu, Atsunori Kamiya, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074424/effect-of-baroreceptor-sensitivity-on-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Yun-Ru Lai, Yu-Jun Lin, Fu-Yuan Shih, Hung-Chen Wang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chia-Te Kung, Wei-Che Lin, Ben-Chung Cheng, Yu-Jih Su, Ya-Ting Chang, Chih-Min Su, Sheng-Yuan Hsiao, Chih-Cheng Huang, Cheng-Hsien Lu
BACKGROUND: Reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has been reported in patients with acute cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that BRS is substantially reduced in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and that BRS can predict treatment outcomes. METHODS: We examined BRS and other cardiovascular autonomic parameters in 35 patients with ICH over the course of 30 days. Cardiovascular autonomic parameters were also evaluated in 30 healthy volunteer subjects during the study period...
October 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060770/comparison-of-frequency-based-techniques-for-assessment-of-baroreceptor-sensitivity-and-heart-rate-variability
#9
Harish Ramachandran, Mark Butlin, Barry Quinn, Alberto P Avolio, Graham Town
Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) quantify autonomic variability in heart pacing and the autonomic response to blood pressure changes respectively. By necessity, the signals used to calculate HRV and BRS (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR interval) have one data point every cardiac cycle. Due to inherent variability in heart rate, these are non-uniformly sampled data. A number of calculation methods exist that adjust for non-uniform sampled signals. This study compared frequency domain methods of HRV and BRS calculation to ascertain whether more complex methods resulted in different results to simpler methods...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053723/heart-rate-variability-and-baroreceptor-reflex-sensitivity-in-early-versus-late-onset-preeclampsia
#10
Thomas Michael Weber, Helmut Karl Lackner, Andreas Roessler, Ilona Papousek, Vassiliki Kolovetsiou-Kreiner, Miha Lucovnik, Karin Schmid-Zalaudek, Uwe Lang, Manfred Georg Moertl
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are differences in autonomic nervous system function in early- versus late-onset preeclampsia. METHODS: Matched case-control study. Cases were defined as singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia at < 34+0 weeks of gestation (early-onset preeclampsia) and ≥ 34+0 weeks of gestation (late-onset preeclampsia). For each case in each of the preeclampsia subgroups, three "control"uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were matched by maternal age, height, and week of gestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038360/carotid-sinus-hypersensitivity-block-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-does-not-affect-responses-to-carotid-sinus-massage-in-healthy-young-adults
#11
Matthew G Lloyd, James M Wakeling, Michael S Koehle, Robert J Drapala, Victoria E Claydon
The arterial baroreflex is crucial for short-term blood pressure control - abnormal baroreflex function predisposes to syncope and falling. Hypersensitive responses to carotid baroreflex stimulation using carotid sinus massage (CSM) are common in older adults and may be associated with syncope. The pathophysiology of this hypersensitivity is unknown, but chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in elderly patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), and is proposed to interfere with normal integration of afferent firing from the carotid baroreceptors with proprioceptive feedback from the sternocleidomastoids, producing large responses to CSM...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025783/syncope-from-radiation-induced-baroreceptor-failure
#12
Scott E Janus, Taishi Hirai, Verghese Mathew, Mark Rabbat
Orthostatic hypotension has a vast differential that has been previously described throughout the literature. However, baroreceptor failure as a sequela of head and neck radiation is not often recognised as an important cause of dramatic haemodynamic variability. As a result, individuals suffering from baroreceptor failure likely have been undertreated. Herein, we report a case of a patient with a history of radiation to the neck for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and resultant baroreceptor failure resulting in syncope...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991052/somatostatin-2-receptor-activation-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-does-not-mediate-the-decompensatory-phase-of-haemorrhage
#13
Phillip Bokiniec, Peter Gr Burke, Anita J Turner, Simon McMullan, Ann K Goodchild
Decompensation, a critical phase in the response to haemorrhage, is characterized by profound sympathoinhibition and the overriding of baroreflex mediated compensation. As sympathoexcitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintain vasomotor tone and are essential for sympathetic baroreceptor reflex function, the RVLM is the likely mediator. However, how decompensation occurs is a mystery. Our previous work demonstrated that the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SST), evokes potent sympathoinhibition (1)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947079/evidence-for-aerobic-exercise-training-on-the-autonomic-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Jibril Mohammed, Eric Derom, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Hellen Da Silva, Patrick Calders
OBJECTIVE: To assess evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic exercise training (AET) on the autonomic function (AF) outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DATA SOURCES: Online databases of PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched for all years till 26th of January, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Clinical studies assessing any measure of AF following exercise training in patients with COPD were included...
July 22, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936180/mouse-anaphylactic-hypotension-is-characterized-by-initial-baroreflex-independent-renal-sympathoinhibition-followed-by-sustained-renal-sympathoexcitation
#15
Tao Zhang, Mamoru Tanida, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yoshiro Suzuki, Wei Yang, Yuhichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Makoto Tominaga, Toshishige Shibamoto
Aim: The hemodynamic response to mouse systemic anaphylaxis is characterized by an initial hypertension followed by sustained hypotension. However, the defense mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system against this circulatory disturbance is not known. Here, we investigated the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) response to mouse systemic anaphylaxis, along with the roles of carotid sinus baroreceptor, vagal nerves and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1). Methods: Male ovalbumin-sensitized C57BL/6N mice were used under pentobarbital anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#16
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919267/post-carotid-endarterectomy-hypertension-part-2-association-with-peri-operative-clinical-anaesthetic-and-transcranial-doppler-derived-parameters
#17
Jeremy E Newman, Mathew J Bown, Robert D Sayers, Jonathan P Thompson, Thompson G Robinson, Bryan Williams, Ronney Panerai, Peter Lacy, A Ross Naylor
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The first paper in this series observed that pre-operative baroreceptor dysfunction and poorly controlled hypertension were independently predictive for identifying patients who went on to require treatment for post-endarterectomy hypertension (PEH). The second paper examines the influence of intra-operative patient, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, and anaesthetic variables on the incidence of PEH. METHODS: In total, 106 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under general anaesthesia...
November 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#18
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Romanian journal of anaesthesia and intensive care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885986/estimation-of-baroreflex-sensitivity-by-the-bivariate-phase-rectified-signal-averaging-method-a-comparison-with-the-phenylephrine-method
#19
Roberto Maestri, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Grzegorz Raczak, Ludmiła Danilowicz-Szymanowicz, Gian Domenico Pinna
Background A novel technique to assess spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) by bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA-BRS) has been recently proposed and its independent prognostic power demonstrated. This method, however, has never been compared with the Phenyleprine test (Phe-BRS), commonly regarded as the reference method in clinical and research applications. Methods In 192 heart failure (HF) and 41 post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients we compared PRSA-BRS with Phe-BRS, assessing both association and agreement...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872781/armax-a-method-for-assessment-of-the-dynamic-response-of-the-arterial-baroreflex
#20
Morten T Lund, Max Salomonsson, Thomas E N Jonassen, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou
AIM: The baroreflex is a key mechanism in cardiovascular regulation and alterations in baroreceptor function are seen in many diseases, including heart failure, obesity and hypertension. We propose a new method for analyzing baroreceptor function from continuous blood pressure and heart rate in both health and disease. METHODS: 48-hour data series of blood pressure and heart rate were collected with telemetry. Sprague-Dawley rats on standard chow (n=11) served as controls, while rats on a high-fat, high-fructose diet (n=6) constituted the obese-hypertensive model...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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