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Baroreceptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053723/heart-rate-variability-and-baroreceptor-reflex-sensitivity-in-early-versus-late-onset-preeclampsia
#1
Thomas Michael Weber, Helmut Karl Lackner, Andreas Roessler, Ilona Papousek, Vassiliki Kolovetsiou-Kreiner, Miha Lucovnik, Karin Schmid-Zalaudek, Uwe Lang, Manfred Georg Moertl
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are differences in autonomic nervous system function in early- versus late-onset preeclampsia. METHODS: Matched case-control study. Cases were defined as singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia at < 34+0 weeks of gestation (early-onset preeclampsia) and ≥ 34+0 weeks of gestation (late-onset preeclampsia). For each case in each of the preeclampsia subgroups, three "control"uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were matched by maternal age, height, and week of gestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038360/carotid-sinus-hypersensitivity-block-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-does-not-affect-responses-to-carotid-sinus-massage-in-healthy-young-adults
#2
Matthew G Lloyd, James M Wakeling, Michael S Koehle, Robert J Drapala, Victoria E Claydon
The arterial baroreflex is crucial for short-term blood pressure control - abnormal baroreflex function predisposes to syncope and falling. Hypersensitive responses to carotid baroreflex stimulation using carotid sinus massage (CSM) are common in older adults and may be associated with syncope. The pathophysiology of this hypersensitivity is unknown, but chronic denervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscles is common in elderly patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), and is proposed to interfere with normal integration of afferent firing from the carotid baroreceptors with proprioceptive feedback from the sternocleidomastoids, producing large responses to CSM...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025783/syncope-from-radiation-induced-baroreceptor-failure
#3
Scott E Janus, Taishi Hirai, Verghese Mathew, Mark Rabbat
Orthostatic hypotension has a vast differential that has been previously described throughout the literature. However, baroreceptor failure as a sequela of head and neck radiation is not often recognised as an important cause of dramatic haemodynamic variability. As a result, individuals suffering from baroreceptor failure likely have been undertreated. Herein, we report a case of a patient with a history of radiation to the neck for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and resultant baroreceptor failure resulting in syncope...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991052/somatostatin-2-receptor-activation-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-does-not-mediate-the-decompensatory-phase-of-haemorrhage
#4
Phillip Bokiniec, Peter Gr Burke, Anita J Turner, Simon McMullan, Ann K Goodchild
Decompensation, a critical phase in the response to haemorrhage, is characterized by profound sympathoinhibition and the overriding of baroreflex mediated compensation. As sympathoexcitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintain vasomotor tone and are essential for sympathetic baroreceptor reflex function, the RVLM is the likely mediator. However, how decompensation occurs is a mystery. Our previous work demonstrated that the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SST), evokes potent sympathoinhibition (1)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947079/evidence-for-aerobic-exercise-training-on-the-autonomic-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jibril Mohammed, Eric Derom, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Hellen Da Silva, Patrick Calders
OBJECTIVE: To assess evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic exercise training (AET) on the autonomic function (AF) outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DATA SOURCES: Online databases of PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched for all years till 26th of January, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Clinical studies assessing any measure of AF following exercise training in patients with COPD were included...
July 22, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936180/mouse-anaphylactic-hypotension-is-characterized-by-initial-baroreflex-independent-renal-sympathoinhibition-followed-by-sustained-renal-sympathoexcitation
#6
Tao Zhang, Mamoru Tanida, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yoshiro Suzuki, Wei Yang, Yuhichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Makoto Tominaga, Toshishige Shibamoto
Aim: The hemodynamic response to mouse systemic anaphylaxis is characterized by an initial hypertension followed by sustained hypotension. However, the defense mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system against this circulatory disturbance is not known. Here, we investigated the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) response to mouse systemic anaphylaxis, along with the roles of carotid sinus baroreceptor, vagal nerves and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1). Methods: Male ovalbumin-sensitized C57BL/6N mice were used under pentobarbital anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#7
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919267/post-carotid-endarterectomy-hypertension-part-2-association-with-peri-operative-clinical-anaesthetic-and-transcranial-doppler-derived-parameters
#8
Jeremy E Newman, Mathew J Bown, Robert D Sayers, Jonathan P Thompson, Thompson G Robinson, Bryan Williams, Ronney Panerai, Peter Lacy, A Ross Naylor
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The first paper in this series observed that pre-operative baroreceptor dysfunction and poorly controlled hypertension were independently predictive for identifying patients who went on to require treatment for post-endarterectomy hypertension (PEH). The second paper examines the influence of intra-operative patient, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, and anaesthetic variables on the incidence of PEH. METHODS: In total, 106 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under general anaesthesia...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#9
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885986/estimation-of-baroreflex-sensitivity-by-the-bivariate-phase-rectified-signal-averaging-method-a-comparison-with-the-phenylephrine-method
#10
Roberto Maestri, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Grzegorz Raczak, Ludmiła Danilowicz-Szymanowicz, Gian Domenico Pinna
Background A novel technique to assess spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) by bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA-BRS) has been recently proposed and its independent prognostic power demonstrated. This method, however, has never been compared with the Phenyleprine test (Phe-BRS), commonly regarded as the reference method in clinical and research applications. Methods In 192 heart failure (HF) and 41 post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients we compared PRSA-BRS with Phe-BRS, assessing both association and agreement...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872781/armax-a-method-for-assessment-of-the-dynamic-response-of-the-arterial-baroreflex
#11
Morten T Lund, Max Salomonsson, Thomas E N Jonassen, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou
AIM: The baroreflex is a key mechanism in cardiovascular regulation and alterations in baroreceptor function are seen in many diseases, including heart failure, obesity and hypertension. We propose a new method for analyzing baroreceptor function from continuous blood pressure and heart rate in both health and disease. METHODS: 48-hour data series of blood pressure and heart rate were collected with telemetry. Sprague-Dawley rats on standard chow (n=11) served as controls, while rats on a high-fat, high-fructose diet (n=6) constituted the obese-hypertensive model...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870716/endovascular-baroreflex-amplification-for-resistant-hypertension-a-safety-and-proof-of-principle-clinical-study
#12
Wilko Spiering, Bryan Williams, Jan Van der Heyden, Monique van Kleef, Rob Lo, Jorie Versmissen, Adriaan Moelker, Abraham Kroon, Hannes Reuter, Gary Ansel, Gregg W Stone, Mark Bates
BACKGROUND: Carotid baroreflex activation lowers blood pressure and might have potential application for the treatment of resistant hypertension. We did a proof-of-principle trial with a novel endovascular baroreceptor amplification device, MobiusHD (Vascular Dynamics, Mountain View, CA, USA), in patients with resistant hypertension. METHODS: CALM-FIM_EUR was a prospective, first-in-human, open-label study done at six European centres. Eligible patients were adults with resistant hypertension (office systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg despite taking at least three antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic)...
September 1, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860965/resetting-of-the-baroreflex-control-of-sympathetic-vasomotor-activity-during-natural-behaviors-description-and-conceptual-model-of-central-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Roger A L Dampney
The baroreceptor reflex controls arterial pressure primarily via reflex changes in vascular resistance, rather than cardiac output. The vascular resistance in turn is dependent upon the activity of sympathetic vasomotor nerves innervating arterioles in different vascular beds. In this review, the major theme is that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not constant, but varies according to the behavioral state of the animal. In contrast to the view that was generally accepted up until the 1980s, I argue that the baroreflex control of sympathetic vasomotor activity is not inhibited or overridden during behaviors such as mental stress or exercise, but instead is reset under those conditions so that it continues to be highly effective in regulating sympathetic activity and arterial blood pressure at levels that are appropriate for the particular ongoing behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842735/-postoperative-blood-pressure-alterations-after-carotid-endarterectomy-implications-of-different-reconstruction-methods
#14
REVIEW
J A Celi de la Torre, D A Skrypnik, R A Vinogradov, D Böckler, S Demirel
BACKGROUND: Postoperative blood pressure alterations after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To outline the influence of the two commonly used surgical reconstruction techniques, conventional CEA with patch plasty (C-CEA) and eversion CEA (E-CEA), as well as the innovative carotid sinus-preserving eversion CEA (SP-E-CEA) technique on postoperative hemodynamics, taking the current scientific knowledge into consideration...
August 25, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835975/-baroreceptor-activation-therapy-for-therapy-resistant-hypertension-indications-and-patient-selection-recommendations-of-the-bat-consensus-group-2017
#15
REVIEW
M Koziolek, J Beige, M Wallbach, D Zenker, G Henning, M Halbach, N Mader, F Mahfoud, G Schlieper, V Schwenger, M Hausberg, J Börgel, M Lodde, M van der Giet, J Müller-Ehmsen, J Passauer, S Parmentier, S Lüders, B K Krämer, S Büttner, F Limbourg, J Jordan, O Vonend, H-G Predel, H Reuter
Baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) has been available for several years for treatment of therapy-refractory hypertension (trHTN). This procedure is currently being carried out in a limited number of centers in Germany, also with the aim of offering a high level of expertise through sufficient experience; however, a growing number of patients who are treated with BAT experience problems that treating physicians are confronted with in routine medical practice. In order to address these problems, a consensus conference was held with experts in the field of trHTN in November 2016, which summarizes the current evidence and experience as well as the problem areas in handling BAT patients...
August 23, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834014/asymmetries-in-reciprocal-baroreflex-mechanisms-and-chronic-pain-severity-focusing-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
D M Davydov, B Naliboff, L Shahabi, D Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Objective measures of pain severity remain ill defined, although its accurate measurement is critical. Reciprocal baroreflex mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) control were found to impact differently on pain regulation, and thus their asymmetry was hypothesized to also connect to chronic pain duration and severity. METHODS: Seventy-eight female patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 27 healthy women were assessed for IBS severity and chronicity, negative affect, and various measures of resting autonomic function including BP, heart rate and its variability (HRV), baroreceptor-sensitivity to activations and inhibitions, gains of brady- and tachy-cardiac baro-responses, gains of BP falls/rises, and BP start points for these spontaneous baroreflexes...
August 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807378/corrigendum-to-kca1-1-is-potential-marker-for-distinguishing-ah-type-baroreceptor-neurons-in-nts-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-presynaptic-neurotransmission-in-baroreflex-afferent-pathway-neurosci-lett-604-2015-1-6
#17
Yu-Yao Zhang, Zhen-Yu Yan, Mei-Yu Qu, Xin-Jing Guo, Guo Li, Xiao-Long Lu, Yang Liu, Tao Ban, Hong-Li Sun, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#19
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779861/neurological-complications-of-respiratory-disease
#20
Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S Carvalho
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system, and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurological sequelae. This article explores the wide variety of neurological problems resulting from respiratory dysfunction, with emphasis on its pathophysiology, clinical features, prognosis, and long-term outcome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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