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Baroreceptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807378/corrigendum-to-kca1-1-is-potential-marker-for-distinguishing-ah-type-baroreceptor-neurons-in-nts-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-presynaptic-neurotransmission-in-baroreflex-afferent-pathway-neurosci-lett-604-2015-1-6
#1
Yu-Yao Zhang, Zhen-Yu Yan, Mei-Yu Qu, Xin-Jing Guo, Guo Li, Xiao-Long Lu, Yang Liu, Tao Ban, Hong-Li Sun, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#3
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779861/neurological-complications-of-respiratory-disease
#4
Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S Carvalho
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system, and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurological sequelae. This article explores the wide variety of neurological problems resulting from respiratory dysfunction, with emphasis on its pathophysiology, clinical features, prognosis, and long-term outcome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774205/effect-of-respiratory-rehabilitation-techniques-on-the-autonomic-function-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
Jibril Mohammed, Hellen Da Silva, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Patrick Calders
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show several extrapulmonary abnormalities such as impairment in the autonomic function (AF). Similarly, the use of respiratory training techniques such as controlled breathing techniques, noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), and oxygen supplementation for AF modulation in patients with COPD is popular in existing literature. However, the evidence to support their use is nonexistent. A systematic search of studies reporting on the effect of controlled breathing techniques, NIMV, and/or oxygen supplementation techniques on AF outcome parameters was conducted in three online databases: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science...
August 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754271/afferent-cardiac-signals-modulate-attentional-engagement-to-low-spatial-frequency-fearful-faces
#6
Ruben T Azevedo, Deborah Badoud, Manos Tsakiris
Despite the growing consensus that the continuous dynamic cortical representations of internal bodily states shape the subjective experience of emotions, physiological arousal is typically considered only a consequence and rarely a determinant of the emotional experience. Recent experimental approaches study how afferent autonomic signals from the heart modulate the processing of sensory information by focussing on the phasic properties of arterial baroreceptor firing that is active during cardiac systole and quiescent during cardiac diastole...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739304/role-of-nadphox-rho-kinase-signaling-in-the-cyclosporine-nsaids-interactions-on-blood-pressure-and-baroreflexes-in-female-rats
#7
Hanan M El-Gowelli, Karim S Ibrahim, Ahmed F El-Yazbi, Mahmoud M El-Mas
AIMS: The hypertensive effect of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) is paralleled, and probably triggered, by impaired arterial baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS). Here we asked if these effects of CSA are influenced by co-administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and if the oxidative NADPH-oxidase (NADPHox)/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway mediates this interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were treated for 10days with CSA (25mg/kg/day), diclofenac (DIC, COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, 1mg/kg/day), celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor, 10mg/kg/day), or their combinations...
July 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735505/role-of-infarct-location-and-pre-existing-depression-on-cardiac-baroreceptor-sensitivity-in-subacute-ischemic-stroke
#8
Aurelie De Vos, Jacques De Keyser, Sylvie De Raedt
Reduced cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) after acute stroke is associated with worse outcome. The underlying mechanisms of reduced BRS are unclear. We evaluated cross correlation BRS (xBRS) in 184 patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke within 72 h of symptom onset. Among these patients, 22 had a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 27 had a stroke mimic. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched ambulant control subjects without stroke were included. Compared with controls, xBRS was significantly lower in patients with ischemic stroke, TIA, and stroke mimics (4...
July 22, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708775/continuous-cardiac-autonomic-and-hemodynamic-responses-to-isometric-exercise
#10
Katrina A Taylor, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian D Coleman, Rajan Sharma, Jamie M Oʼdriscoll
PURPOSE: Elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) is associated with autonomic dysfunction and impaired hemodynamic control mechanisms. Isometric exercise (IE) training has been demonstrated effective at reducing BP; however, the continuous cardiovascular responses during IE are underinvestigated. We hypothesized that reflex autonomic cardiovascular control is an important mediator in reducing BP. To test our hypothesis, we investigated continuous cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) in response to IE...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688830/differential-effects-of-renal-denervation-on-arterial-baroreceptor-function-in-goldblatt-hypertension-model
#11
Gisele S Lincevicius, Caroline G Shimoura, Erika E Nishi, Tales Oliveira, Juliana G Cespedes, Cássia T Bergamaschi, Ruy R Campos
Sympathetic vasomotor activity is significantly increased in renovascular hypertension. Renal denervation (DnX) has emerged as a novel therapy for resistant hypertension to drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding the reduction in blood pressure (BP) after DnX remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DnX of a clipped kidney on the baseline and baroreceptor reflex control of post-ganglionic sympathetic activity to the contralateral kidney (rSNA) and lumbar (lSNA) nerves in Goldblatt hypertensive rats (2K1C)...
June 21, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687588/the-carotid-baroreflex-modifies-the-pressor-threshold-of-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#12
Masashi Ichinose, Tomoko K Ichinose-Kuwahara, Kazuhito Watanabe, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The purpose of present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45 and 60 s, and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680929/orexins-and-the-cardiovascular-events-of-awakening
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro Silvani
This brief review aims to provide an updated account of the cardiovascular events of awakening, proposing a testable conceptual framework that links these events with the neural control of sleep and the autonomic nervous system, with focus on the hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neurons. Awakening from non-rapid-eye-movement sleep entails coordinated changes in brain and cardiovascular activity: the neural "flip-flop" switch that governs state transitions becomes biased toward the ascending arousal systems, arterial blood pressure and heart rate rise toward waking values, and distal skin temperature falls...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675547/baroreceptor-reflex-failure-review-of-the-literature-and-the-potential-impact-on-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Shivani Shah-Becker, Michael Pennock, Lawrence Sinoway, David Goldenberg, Neerav Goyal
BACKGROUND: Baroreceptor dysfunction and reflex failure may occur after surgery affecting the carotid artery. The implications for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer are not well described. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed was performed between March 2016 and May 2016. Search terms used individually and in combination included: "baroreflex failure," "carotid sinus sensitivity," "carotid endarterectomy," "carotid body tumor," and "head and neck cancer...
July 4, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639723/changes-in-the-inspiratory-pattern-contribute-to-modulate-the-sympathetic-activity-in-sino-aortic-denervated-rats
#15
Mateus R Amorim, Leni G H Bonagamba, George M P R Souza, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
What is the central question of this study? Sino-aortic denervated (SAD) rats present normal levels of sympathetic activity and mean arterial pressure. However, neural mechanisms regulating the sympathetic activity in the absence of arterial baroreceptors remain unclear. Considering that respiration modulates the sympathetic activity, we hypothesize that changes in the respiratory network contribute to keep the sympathetic outflow in the normal range after removal of arterial baroreceptors. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite longer inspiration observed in SAD rats, the respiratory-sympathetic coupling is working within a normal range of variation...
June 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611676/autonomic-modulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-increases-beat-to-beat-variability-of-ventricular-action-potential-duration
#16
Bradley Porter, Martin J Bishop, Simon Claridge, Jonathan Behar, Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Jessica Webb, Justin Gould, Mark O'Neill, Christopher A Rinaldi, Reza Razavi, Jaswinder S Gill, Peter Taggart
Background: Exaggerated beat-to-beat variability of ventricular action potential duration (APD) is linked to arrhythmogenesis. Sympathetic stimulation has been shown to increase QT interval variability, but its effect on ventricular APD in humans has not been determined. Methods and Results: Eleven heart failure patients with implanted bi-ventricular pacing devices had activation-recovery intervals (ARI, surrogate for APD) recorded from LV epicardial electrodes under constant RV pacing. Sympathetic activity was increased using a standard autonomic challenge (Valsalva) and baroreceptor indices were applied to determine changes in sympathetic stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576852/neurocardiovascular-deficits-in-the-q175-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#17
Tamara S Cutler, Saemi Park, Dawn H Loh, Maria C Jordan, Tomohiro Yokota, Kenneth P Roos, Cristina A Ghiani, Christopher S Colwell
Cardiovascular dysautonomia as well as the deterioration of circadian rhythms are among the earliest detectable pathophysiological changes in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Preclinical research requires mouse models that recapitulate disease symptoms and the Q175 knock-in model offers a number of advantages but potential autonomic dysfunction has not been explored. In this study, we sought to test the dual hypotheses that cardiovascular dysautonomia can be detected early in disease progression in the Q175 model and that this dysfunction varies with the daily cycle...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562833/the-effect-of-physical-resistance-training-on-baroreflex-sensitivity-of-hypertensive-rats
#18
Moisés Felipe Pereira Gomes, Mariana Eiras Borges, Vitor de Almeida Rossi, Elizabeth de Orleans C de Moura, Alessandra Medeiros
Background: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554698/effects-of-carotid-baroreceptor-stimulation-on-retinal-arteriole-remodeling-evaluated-with-adaptive-optics-camera-in-resistant-hypertensive-patients
#19
A Gallo, D Rosenbaum, C Kanagasabapathy, X Girerd
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) leads to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) in patients affected by resistant hypertension (RH) by reducing sympathetic outflow. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of BAT on RH patients' retinal arteriolar microvasculature, a territory devoid of adrenergic innervation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients defined as affected by RH after excluding secondary causes of hypertension and based on number of antihypertensive treatments, underwent the implantation of Barostim™ neo™...
June 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548286/obesity-gets-on-your-renal-nerves
#20
EDITORIAL
B L Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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