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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672226/high-intensity-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-attenuates-cardiopulmonary-baroreflex-mediated-inhibition-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#1
Keisho Katayama, Jasdeep Kaur, Benjamin E Young, Thales C Barbosa, Shigehiko Ogoh, Paul J Fadel
Previous studies have shown that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is reduced during low- and mild-intensity dynamic leg exercise. It has been suggested that such inhibition is mediated by loading of the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors and that this effect is overridden by muscle metaboreflex activation with higher intensity exercise. However, limited data are available regarding the interaction between the cardiopulmonary baroreflex and the muscle metaboreflex. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated inhibition of MSNA is attenuated during high intensity muscle metaboreflex activation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672186/atherosclerosis-of-the-carotid-bulb-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-non-diabetic-adult-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Hideo Kobayashi, Koichiro Sumida, Minako Kagimoto, Yuki Okuyama, Yosuke Ehara, Mari Katsumata, Megumi Fujita, Akira Fujiwara, Sanae Saka, Keisuke Yatsu, Nobuhito Hirawa, Yoshiyuki Toya, Gen Yasuda, Satoshi Umemura, Kouichi Tamura
BACKGROUND: The carotid bulb has a high density of baroreceptors that play an important role in maintaining blood pressure. We hypothesized that atherosclerosis of the carotid bulb would reflect the severity of orthostatic hypotension more accurately than would atherosclerosis of other carotid artery segments. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 198 non-diabetic adults. We measured the cardio-vascular ankle index as an index of arterial stiffness, intima-media thickness in each carotid artery segment (internal carotid artery, carotid bulb, distal and proximal portions, respectively, of the common carotid artery) as a measure of atherosclerosis, and heart rate variability as a measure of cardiac autonomic function...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663677/the-carotid-sinus-nerve-structure-function-and-clinical-implications
#3
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Raffaele De Caro
Interest has been renewed in the anatomy and physiology of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and its targets (carotid sinus and carotid body), due to recent proposals of surgical procedures for a series of common pathologies, such as carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, heart failure and insulin resistance. The CSN originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve soon after its appearance from the jugular foramen. It shows frequent communications with the sympathetic trunk (usually at the level of the superior cervical ganglion) and the vagal nerve (main trunk, pharyngeal branches or superior laryngeal nerve)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656272/characterisation-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-based-on-spontaneous-changes-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure
#4
Fatemeh Shirbani, Edward Barin, Yi-Ching Lee, Karl Ng, John Douglas Edward Parratt, Mark Butlin, Alberto P Avolio
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD) in multiple sclerosis (MS) varies between studies. Cardiac autonomic function is usually assessed by cardiovascular reflex tests. We hypothesized that MS is associated with CAD, quantifiable by non-invasive means including quantification of baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability. METHODS: In this study a comprehensive suite of cardiovascular autonomic tests based only on the spontaneous changes of heart rate and blood pressure was applied to 23 MS patients and age and gender-matched controls...
March 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643979/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-as-a-result-of-mild-hypercaloric-challenge-in-absence-of-signs-of-diabetes-modulation-by-antidiabetic-drugs
#5
Ola Al-Assi, Rana Ghali, Ali Mroueh, Abdullah Kaplan, Nahed Mougharbil, Ali H Eid, Fouad A Zouein, Ahmed F El-Yazbi
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an early cardiovascular complication of diabetes occurring before metabolic derangement is evident. The cause of CAN remains elusive and cannot be directly linked to hyperglycemia. Recent clinical data report cardioprotective effects of some antidiabetic drugs independent of their hypoglycemic action. Here, we used a rat model receiving limited daily increase in calories from fat (HC diet) to assess whether mild metabolic challenge led to CAN in absence of interfering effects of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, or obesity...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627692/hemin-blunts-the-depressant-effect-of-chronic-nicotine-on-reflex-tachycardia-via-activation-of-central-nos-pi3k-pathway-in-female-rats
#6
Mohamed A Fouda, Hanan M El-Gowelli, Sahar M El-Gowilly, Mahmoud M El-Mas
BACKGROUND: Chronic nicotine administration impairs reflex chronotropic responses that follow arterial baroreceptor unloading in female rats with repleted, but not depleted (ovariectomized, OVX), estrogen (E2 ). This study investigated whether products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or heme oxygenase (HO) and related soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling mediate the E2 -sensitive depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia...
October 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627145/influence-of-hypoxia-induced-by-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-case-of-hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation
#7
REVIEW
Shin-Ichi Ando
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as one of the important causes or factors of worsening for various cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, a recent large randomized study and meta-analysis about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicated no or only minor effects to improve the outcome of SDB patients. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the key factor of the link between SDB and cardiovascular diseases might be hypoxia caused during repetitive long apneic episodes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607742/evaluation-of-cardiac-autonomic-functions-in-myasthenia-gravis
#8
Zehra Uysal Kocabas, Ferah Kizilay, Ibrahim Basarici, Hilmi Uysal
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively evaluate cardiac autonomic function in patients with MG and to investigate the relationship between this disorder and disease duration, thymoma and acetylcholine receptor antibody positivity in cases of cardiac autonomic disorder. METHODS: The study included 30 patients with MG and 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. Haemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and autonomic parameters (low frequency [LF], high-frequency [HF], sympathovagal balance [LF/HF], baroreceptor reflex sensitivity [BRS]) of the patients were automatically measured at rest and in a tilted position with the Task Force Monitor...
April 2, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#9
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577499/venous-and-autonomic-function-in-formerly-pre-eclamptic-women-and-bmi-matched-controls
#10
Wieteke M Heidema, Joris van Drongelen, Marc E A Spaanderman, Ralph R Scholten
INTRODUCTION: Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI)...
March 25, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569578/author-correction-trpc5-channels-participate-in-pressure-sensing-in-aortic-baroreceptors
#11
On-Chai Lau, Bing Shen, Ching-On Wong, Yung-Wui Tjong, Chun-Yin Lo, Hui-Chuan Wang, Yu Huang, Wing-Ho Yung, Yang-Chao Chen, Man-Lung Fung, John Anthony Rudd, Xiaoqiang Yao
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11947.
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556806/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-carotid-revascularization-and-acute-ischemic-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Kathryn F Kirchoff-Torres, Ekaterina Bakradze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare but significant complication after carotid revascularization and is increasingly recognized after acute stroke treatments. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CHS, clinical presentation including ipsilateral headache, seizures, and focal neurological deficits, and radiographic presentation. We propose preventive therapies with emphasis on acute stroke post-thrombectomy hyperperfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: CHS was first described after carotid revascularization but is now also reported in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556742/percutaneous-creation-of-a-central-iliac-arteriovenous-anastomosis-for-the-treatment-of-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
S C Bertog, P A Sobotka, M D Lobo, K Sievert, L Vaskelyte, H Sievert, Roland E Schmieder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provision of a summary on the physiologic effects of arteriovenous fistula creation and description of previously published human data on the efficacy of a percutaneously implanted device creating an arteriovenous fistula. Though antihypertensive therapy is effective, some patient's blood pressure remains poorly controlled despite adherence to optimal medical therapy. Moreover, some patients are not compliant with recommended medical therapy due to side effects or personal decision...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524326/anaphylactic-hypotension-causes-renal-and-adrenal-sympathoexcitaion-and-induces-c-fos-in-the-hypothalamus-and-medulla-oblongata-anaphylaxis-affects-the-brain-and-activates-sympathetic-nerves
#14
Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506704/ivabradine-does-not-acutely-affect-open-loop-baroreflex-static-characteristics-and-spares-sympathetic-heart-rate-control-in-rats
#15
Hiromi Yamamoto, Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Kazunori Uemura, Masashi Inagaki, Kazuyoshi Kakehi, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Kanji Fukuda, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Shunichi Miyazaki, Masaru Sugimachi
AIMS: To assess the acute effects of intravenous ivabradine, a selective bradycardic agent, on carotid sinus baroreflex-mediated sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: In anesthetized and vagotomized Wistar-Kyoto rats (n=6), carotid sinus baroreceptor regions were isolated. Changes in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), AP, and HR in response to a step-wise pressure input were examined before and after intravenous ivabradine (2mg/kg)...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500893/variations-in-carotid-sinus-anatomy-and-their-relevance-to-carotid-interventions
#16
Charles Timothy West, Cecilia Brassett, Michael Gaunt
BACKGROUND: The carotid sinus (CS) is a dilatation in the carotid bifurcation usually at the origin of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). It contains baroreceptors which influence blood pressure. Variations in the location of the CS are of importance as atheromatous plaque commonly forms in this area and procedures such as carotid endarterectomy are performed to reduce the risk of stroke. Inadvertent stimulation of the CS baroreceptors during interventions can have profound effects on the patient's hemodynamic status both intra- and postoperatively, causing serious complications...
March 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497836/the-influence-of-the-carotid-baroreflex-on-dynamic-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-in-humans-at-rest-and-during-exercise
#17
Sushmita Purkayastha, Kaitlyn Maffuid, Xiaojie Zhu, Rong Zhang, Peter B Raven
PURPOSE: This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that the carotid baroreflex (CBR) mediated sympathoexcitation regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during dynamic exercise. METHODS: In seven healthy subjects (26 ± 1 years), oscillatory neck pressure (NP) stimuli of + 40 mmHg were applied to the carotid baroreceptors at a pre-determined frequency of 0.1 Hz at rest, low (10 ± 1W), and heavy (30 ± 3W) exercise workloads (WLs) without (control) and with α - 1 adrenoreceptor blockade (prazosin)...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488839/pharmacological-assessment-of-the-contribution-of-the-arterial-baroreflex-to-sympathetic-discharge-patterns-in-healthy-humans
#18
Jacqueline K Limberg, Elizabeth P Ott, Walter W Holbein, Sarah Elizabeth Baker, Timothy B Curry, Wayne T Nicholson, Michael J Joyner, J Kevin Shoemaker
To study how changes in baroreceptor afferent activity affect patterns of sympathetic neural activation, we manipulated arterial blood pressure using intravenous nitroprusside (NTP) and phenylephrine (PE) and measured action potential (AP) patterns with wavelet-based methodology. We hypothesized: 1) Baroreflex unloading (NTP) would increase firing of low-threshold axons and recruitment of latent axons, and 2) Baroreflex loading (PE) would decrease firing of low-threshold axons. Heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial blood pressure (BP, brachial catheter), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography of the peroneal nerve) were measured at baseline and during steady-state systemic, intravenous NTP (0...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430580/devices-and-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-adverse-outcomes-of-tachycardia-on-heart-failure
#19
REVIEW
Jasneet Devgun, Yash B Jobanputra, Michael Arustamyan, Robert Chait, Waqas Ghumman
Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in the USA. Despite advances in pharmacologic management, the incidence of HF is on the rise and survivability is persistently reduced. Sympathetic overdrive is implicated in the pathophysiology of HF, particularly HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Tachycardia can be particularly deleterious and thus has spurred significant investigation to mitigate its effects. Various modalities including vagus nerve stimulation, baroreceptor activation therapy, spinal cord stimulation, renal sympathetic nerve denervation, left cardiac sympathetic denervation, and carotid body removal will be discussed...
February 12, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402509/effects-of-aerobic-or-resistance-exercise-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-function-of-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#20
F Bellavere, V Cacciatori, E Bacchi, M L Gemma, D Raimondo, C Negri, K Thomaseth, M Muggeo, E Bonora, P Moghetti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both aerobic (AER) and resistance (RES) training improve metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, information on the effects of these training modalities on cardiovascular autonomic control is limited. Our aim was to compare the effects of AER and RES training on cardiovascular autonomic function in these subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiovascular autonomic control was assessed by Power Spectral Analysis (PSA) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and baroreceptors function indexes in 30 subjects with T2DM, randomly assigned to aerobic or resistance training for 4 months...
January 2, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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