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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548286/obesity-gets-on-your-renal-nerves
#1
EDITORIAL
Boye L Jensen
In the present issue of Acta Physiologica(1) , Khan et al. in their article "Improvement in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in obese Sprague-Dawley rats following immunosuppression" confirm that obesity-related hypertension involves resetting of the arterial baroreceptor to a state of less sensitivity and relate this mechanistically to inflammation-induced altered renal afferent nerve activity (1) . Pharmocological treatment with the calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor-type immunosuppressant tacrolimus attenuated inflammation, reversed, paradoxically, the hypertension and restored baroreceptor sensitivity similar to the effect of renal denervation...
May 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543399/baroreceptor-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-preexisting-subcutaneous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#2
Kay F Weipert, Jens Andrick, Ritvan Chasan, Christopher Gemein, Astrid Most, Christian W Hamm, Damir Erkapic, Joern Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Many patients with severe heart failure (HF) have an indication for baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) and an ICD. Concerns about device-device interactions were addressed in a study with small sample size that concluded combined BAT and ICD therapy is safe. There are no published data, however, concerning device-device interactions between BAT and a subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD). Since BAT frequently interferes with surface ECG recordings there are doubts about compatibility of BAT and S-ICD devices...
May 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543085/combination-of-a-subcutaneous-icd-in-a-patient-with-a-baroreceptor-activation-device-feasibility-safety-and-precautions-a-case-report
#3
Liz Kuffer, Daniel Steven, Marcel Halbach, Jakob Lüker, Jan-Hendrik van den Bruck, Arian Sultan
We present a case of a patient with a baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) receiving a subcutaneous ICD. We anticipated two possible hazardous interactions between the two devices. Stimulation by the BAT could be adjudicated as noise and result in under-detection of ventricular arrhythmias or it might be misinterpreted as ventricular arrhythmias and lead to inappropriate shocks. Postop ensing occurred, the upper limit of pulse width of the BAT was limited because of noise detection by the S-ICD, but the upper limit of amplitude was limited by patient's discomfort...
May 23, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530483/carotidynia-in-high-altitude-travelers
#4
Andrea Parra, Tamuru Okada, Peter H Lin
Background Carotidynia is characterized by focal pain and tenderness of the carotid artery without associated hemodynamic or structural abnormalities. Carotid artery pathology has also been known to occur in high altitude due to aberrant baroreceptor response in the carotid bulb. Case Presentation We herein report two cases of high altitude-related idiopathic carotidynia. The first patient was a geologist who performed oil reserve survey in the Alaska Mountain, while the second patient was hiking in a mountain trail in Peru...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512115/endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-enhances-carotid-sinus-baroreceptor-sensitivity-by-activating-the-transient-receptor-potential-cation-channel-subfamily-v-member-1-trpv1-channel
#5
Wen Yu, Ying Liao, Yaqian Huang, Selena Y Chen, Yan Sun, Chufan Sun, Yuming Wu, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on carotid sinus baroreceptor sensitivity and its mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were used in the experiment and were given an H2S donor or a cystathionine-β-synthase inhibitor, hydroxylamine, for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and the cystathionine-β-synthase/H2S pathway in carotid sinus were detected. Carotid sinus baroreceptor sensitivity and the functional curve of the carotid baroreceptor were analyzed using the isolated carotid sinus perfusion technique...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491040/association-between-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-heart-rate-variability-in-adults-at-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#6
Valter L Pereira, Mirela Dobre, Sandra G Dos Santos, Juliana S Fuzatti, Carlos R Oliveira, Luciana A Campos, Andrei Brateanu, Ovidiu C Baltatu
Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471821/diabetic-status-and-grade-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-are-associated-with-lower-baroreceptor-sensitivity-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Akanksha Singh, Mavidi S Kumar, Ashok K Jaryal, Piyush Ranjan, Kishore K Deepak, Sanjay Sharma, Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Ravindra M Pandey, Naval K Vikram
OBJECTIVES: Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), a functional consequence of vascular stiffness, may be affected by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study was designed to assess the effect of diabetic status and NAFLD grade on the BRS in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Seventy-five individuals (25 NAFLD without DM, 25 NAFLD with DM and 25 controls) were recruited for the study who underwent anthropometric and body composition analysis along with estimation of plasma glucose, serum insulin and serum lipids...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462724/non-pharmacological-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-for-heart-failure-treatment-where-do-we-stand
#8
Costas Tsioufis, Panayiotis Iliakis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Dragan Lovic, Dimitrios Petras, Michalis Doumas, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a central pathophysiologic mechanism in heart failure (HF) and has been a principal target of treatment in these patients. Traditional pharmacologic agents do not provide specific modulation of discrete arms of the ANS, while side effects may lead to poor tolerance. Technological advances have provided a series of invasive methods that may provide a focused effect on the ANS in selected patient groups. Renal denervation, initially targeted for patients with resistant hypertension, has given positive preliminary results in terms of heart structure and function...
April 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462715/clinical-value-of-measuring-the-renin-aldosterone-levels-optimising-the-management-of-uncontrolled-resistant-hypertension
#9
Michalis Doumas, Chrysoula Boutari, Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Areti Triantafyllou, Stella Douma
Resistant hypertension (HT) is a common clinical entity with debilitating cardiovascular consequences. The highly heterogeneous nature of resistant HT requires a meticulous work-up to exclude 'pseudo-resistance' and secondary forms of arterial HT. Resistant HT has recently gained wide scientific interest due to the introduction of interventional methods (renal sympathetic denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation) for blood pressure (BP) reduction in this patient population. Despite however the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and the clinical characteristics of the disease, the appropriate management of resistant HT remains elusive...
April 26, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459715/biphasic-renal-sympathetic-response-to-hemorrhagic-hypotension-in-mice
#10
Tao Zhang, Mamoru Tanida, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yoshiro Suzuki, Wei Yang, Yuhichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Makoto Tominaga, Toshishige Shibamoto
AIM: The inhibitory responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and heart rate (HR) to sustained hemorrhagic shock occurred in anesthetized rats, but have not yet been determined in mice. Here, we investigated the responses of RSNA and HR to hemorrhagic hypotension in anesthetized mice, with an emphasis on the molecule-based mechanism for roles of afferent vagal nerves. METHODS: RSNA, HR, and mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) were continuously measured in male pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6N mice...
April 28, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456497/smoking-before-isometric-exercise-amplifies-myocardial-stress-and-dysregulates-baroreceptor-sensitivity-and-cerebral-oxygenation
#11
Panagiota Anyfanti, Eleftheria Triantafyllidou, Stavros Papadopoulos, Areti Triantafyllou, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Antonios Kyparos, Ioannis S Vrabas, Stella Douma, Andreas Zafeiridis, Konstantina Dipla
This crossover study examined whether acute cardiovascular responses, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), and brain oxygenation during isometric exercise are altered after cigarette smoking. Twelve young, habitual smokers randomly performed a smoking and a control protocol, during which participants smoked one cigarette (0.9 mg nicotine) or a sham cigarette, before exercise. Testing involved baseline, a 5-minute smoking, a 10-minute post-smoking rest, 3-minute handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction), and recovery...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456134/improvement-in-baroreflex-control-of-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-obese-sprague-dawley-rats-following-immunosuppression
#12
Safia Akhtar Khan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Hassaan Anwer Rathore, Ashfaq Ahmad, Mohammed Hadi Abdulla, Edward James Johns
AIM: This investigation explored the hypothesis that in obesity an inflammatory response in the kidney contributed to a renal nerve-dependent blunting of the baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity. METHODS: Rats received a normal (12%Kcal) or high-fat (45%Kcal) diet for 8 weeks plus daily injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl i.p) or tacrolimus (0.25mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p) from weeks 3-8. Following anaesthesia, left renal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded, baroreflex gain curves were generated, by infusing phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors challenged by infusing a saline load...
April 29, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451854/role-of-vasopressin-in-rat-models-of-salt-dependent-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Katrina Y Choe, David I Levi, Charles W Bourque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary salt intake increases both plasma sodium and osmolality and therefore increases vasopressin (VP) release from the neurohypophysis. Although this effect could increase blood pressure by inducing fluid reabsorption and vasoconstriction, acute activation of arterial baroreceptors inhibits VP neurons via GABAA receptors to oppose high blood pressure. Here we review recent findings demonstrating that this protective mechanism fails during chronic high salt intake in rats...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411899/device-directed-therapy-for-resistant-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Sinan S Tankut, Ayhan Yoruk, John D Bisognano
Hypertension remains a significant risk factor for an array of diseases despite advancements in pharmacotherapy. Patients with resistant hypertension who do not respond to conventional medical treatments and lifestyle modifications are especially at risk for poor health outcomes. With the increasing awareness of resistant hypertension, ever-evolving research efforts continue to focus on innovative interventions, including renal denervation, median nerve stimulation, and baroreceptor activation therapy. This article reviews the current evidence and summarizes previous clinical trials for each of these interventions...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400822/pacemaker-placement-in-patients-with-stroke-mediated-autonomic-dysregulation
#15
Ali A Alsaad, Christopher O Austin, Maisha T Robinson, Michael B Phillips
Lateral medullary syndrome (LMS) is an ischemic disease of the medulla oblongata, which involves the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Lateral medullary syndrome is often missed as the cause of autonomic dysregulation in patients with recent brain stem stroke. Due to the location of the baroreceptor regulatory center in the lateral medulla oblongata, patients with LMS occasionally have autonomic dysregulation-associated clinical manifestations. We report a case of LMS-associated autonomic dysregulation...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385627/feedback-from-the-heart-emotional-learning-and-memory-is-controlled-by-cardiac-cycle-interoceptive-accuracy-and-personality
#16
Gaby Pfeifer, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Kuljit Sahota, Sophie Betka, Hugo D Critchley
Feedback processing is critical to trial-and-error learning. Here, we examined whether interoceptive signals concerning the state of cardiovascular arousal influence the processing of reinforcing feedback during the learning of 'emotional' face-name pairs, with subsequent effects on retrieval. Participants (N=29) engaged in a learning task of face-name pairs (fearful, neutral, happy faces). Correct and incorrect learning decisions were reinforced by auditory feedback, which was delivered either at cardiac systole (on the heartbeat, when baroreceptors signal the contraction of the heart to the brain), or at diastole (between heartbeats during baroreceptor quiescence)...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384912/assessment-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-acute-stroke-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Hemachandrika Chidambaram, Kothai Gnanamoorthy, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Kannan Rajendran, Chitrambalam Pavadai
INTRODUCTION: In patients who present with acute cerebro-vascular disease, autonomic function testing is usually not given its due importance. This is because of the complex nature of the autonomic function tests and the relative technical difficulty faced in administering the tests to the patients. A simple and non-invasive method to assess the autonomic dysfunction is measurement of resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV). AIM: To study the pattern of autonomic dysfunction among patients admitted with acute stroke and to study the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and the morbidity and mortality associated with acute stroke...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363984/blood-pressure-regulation-by-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-conscious-rats-effects-of-hypoxia-hypercapnia-baroreceptor-denervation-and-anesthesia
#18
Ian C Wenker, Chikara Abe, Kenneth E Viar, Daniel S Stornetta, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
Current understanding of the contribution of C1 neurons to blood pressure (BP) regulation derives predominantly from experiments performed in anesthetized animals or reduced ex vivo preparations. Here, we use ArchaerhodopsinT3.0 (ArchT) loss-of-function optogenetics to explore BP regulation by C1 neurons in intact, unanesthetized rats. Using a lentivirus that expresses ArchT under the Phox2b-activated promoter PRSx8 (PRSx8-ArchT), ∼65% of transduced neurons were C1 (balance retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN). Other rats received CaMKII-ArchT3...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352966/cold-blooded-evaluating-brain-temperature-by-mri-during-surface-cooling-of-human-subjects
#19
Eric J Curran, Daniel L Wolfson, Richard Watts, Kalev Freeman
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) confers neurological and survival benefits for post-cardiac arrest patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who remain comatose. Specialized equipment for induction of hypothermia is not available in the prehospital setting, and there are no reliable methods for emergency medical services personnel to initiate TTM. We hypothesized that the application of surface cooling elements to the neck will decrease brain temperature and act as initiators of TTM...
March 28, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350715/continuous-cardiac-autonomic-and-haemodynamic-responses-to-isometric-exercise
#20
Katrina A Taylor, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian D Coleman, Rajan Sharma, Jamie M O'Driscoll
PURPOSE: Elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) is associated with autonomic dysfunction and impaired haemodynamic control mechanisms. Isometric exercise (IE) training has been demonstrated effective at reducing BP; however, the continuous cardiovascular responses during IE are underinvestigated. We hypothesized that reflex autonomic cardiovascular control is an important mediator in reducing BP. To test our hypothesis, we investigated continuous cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) in response to IE...
March 27, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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