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primary care and school-age risk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914417/improved-rates-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-at-14-weeks-of-age-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-what-are-the-challenges-now
#1
C Horwood, L Haskins, I M Engebretsen, S Phakathi, C Connolly, A Coutsoudis, L Spies
BACKGROUND: Increasing the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to 50% in the first six months of life is one of six major global targets set by the United Nations Decade of Nutrition, and is essential to achieve the sustainable development goals to eradicate hunger and end malnutrition by 2030. METHODS: A survey using multistage random sampling design included 99 primary health care (PHC) clinics in all 11 districts in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). All mothers and caregivers of infants 14 weeks of age attending the clinics in the study period were requested to participate in a structured interview to explore feeding practices since birth...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907335/trial-protocol-the-use-of-mindfulness-based-intervention-for-improving-bracing-compliance-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-patients-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Xue Li, Christine Hiu Yan Leung, Ting Gao, Vincent Chi Ho Chung, Fiona Wai Ping Yu, Tsz Ping Lam, Jack Chun Yiu Cheng, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most prevalent deforming orthopaedic condition; it causes significant disability when spinal curves progress beyond 45deg. Bracing is the primary treatment prescribed for adolescents with an immature skeleton who have spinal curves between 25 and 45deg. New evidence suggests that compliance with bracing significantly decreases the progression of high-risk curves to the threshold for surgery. Nonetheless, bracing is a stressful experience...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905621/early-life-somatic-complaints-longitudinal-associations-with-maternal-and-child-psychopathology
#3
Melissa L Engel, Dominika A Winiarski, Brooke L Reidy, Patricia A Brennan
OBJECTIVE: Somatic complaints, often associated with concurrent and future internalizing symptoms and disorders in adult samples, were examined longitudinally from preschool to school age in a sample of children at an increased familial risk for psychopathology. The behavioral correlates and sex differences of somatic complaints and the persistence of these complaints across early childhood were examined. METHOD: A longitudinal sample of 185 mothers completed a laboratory visit when children were preschool aged and an online follow-up when children were school aged...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871619/suubi4her-a-study-protocol-to-examine-the-impact-and-cost-associated-with-a-combination-intervention-to-prevent-hiv-risk-behavior-and-improve-mental-health-functioning-among-adolescent-girls-in-uganda
#4
Fred M Ssewamala, Laura Gauer Bermudez, Torsten B Neilands, Claude A Mellins, Mary M McKay, Irv Garfinkel, Ozge Sensoy Bahar, Gertrude Nakigozi, Miriam Mukasa, Lindsay Stark, Christopher Damulira, Jennifer Nattabi, Apollo Kivumbi
BACKGROUND: Asset-based economic empowerment interventions, which take an integrated approach to building human, social, and economic capital, have shown promise in their ability to reduce HIV risk for young people, including adolescent girls, in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, community and family strengthening interventions have proven beneficial in addressing mental health and behavioral challenges of adolescents transitioning to adulthood. Yet, few programs aimed at addressing sexual risk have applied combination interventions to address economic stability and mental health within the traditional framework of health education and HIV counseling/testing...
June 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801061/interest-and-uptake-of-mc1r-testing-for-melanoma-risk-in-a-diverse-primary-care-population-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Jennifer L Hay, Kate Zielaskowski, Kirsten Meyer White, Kimberly Kaphingst, Erika Robers, Dolores Guest, Andrew Sussman, Yvonne Talamantes, Matthew Schwartz, Vivian M Rodríguez, Yuelin Li, Elizabeth Schofield, Jessica Bigney, Keith Hunley, David Buller, Marianne Berwick
Importance: Germline variants in the MC1R gene are common and confer moderate melanoma risk in those with varied skin types. Approaches to precision skin cancer prevention that include genetic information may promote risk awareness and risk reduction in the general population, including Hispanics. Objective: To examine prevalence of interest in and uptake of MC1R testing in the general population and examine patterns across demographic and skin cancer risk factors...
May 9, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759055/results-of-a-coordinated-specialty-care-program-for-early-psychosis-and-predictors-of-outcomes
#6
Ilana Nossel, Melanie M Wall, Jennifer Scodes, Leslie A Marino, Sacha Zilkha, Iruma Bello, Igor Malinovsky, Rufina Lee, Marleen Radigan, Thomas E Smith, Lloyd Sederer, Gyojeong Gu, Lisa Dixon
OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively evaluated outcomes of OnTrackNY, a statewide coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for treatment of early psychosis in community settings, as well as predictors of outcomes. METHODS: The sample included 325 individuals ages 16-30 with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis who were enrolled in OnTrackNY and who had at least one three-month follow-up. Clinicians provided data at baseline and quarterly up to one year. Domains assessed included demographic and clinical characteristics, social and occupational functioning, medications, suicidality and violence, hospitalization, and time to intervention...
May 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746622/socioeconomic-factors-and-mortality-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-cohort-study-in-swedish-primary-care
#7
Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Danijela Gasevic, Martin J Holzmann, Johan Ärnlöv, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Background: Preventing ischaemic stroke attracts significant focus in atrial fibrillation (AF) cases. Less is known on the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF. Methods: Our study population included adults (n=12 283) ≥45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centres in Sweden 2001-07. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and the outcomes all-cause mortality, after adjustment for age, and comorbid cardiovascular conditions...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677364/long-anterior-lens-zonules-and-intraocular-pressure
#8
Daniel K Roberts, Tricia L Newman, Mary Flynn Roberts, Bruce A Teitelbaum, Janis E Winters
Purpose: To investigate the relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and the idiopathic long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait. Methods: Patients presenting for primary eye care were examined for LAZ, identified as radially oriented zonular fibers with central extension >1.0 mm beyond the normal anterior lens insertion zone (estimated via slit lamp beam length). Ocular, systemic health, and lifestyle data were collected via comprehensive exam and questionnaire. Multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between IOP (Goldmann) and LAZ...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671913/measuring-the-financial-and-productivity-burden-of-paediatric-hospitalisation-on-the-wider-family-network
#9
Virginia Mumford, Melissa T Baysari, Djala Kalinin, Magdalena Z Raban, Cheryl McCullagh, Jonathon Karnon, Johanna I Westbrook
AIM: To estimate the non-medical out-of-pocket costs for families with a child in hospital. METHODS: This study was a survey of 225 parents of paediatric inpatients on nine wards of an Australian public paediatric teaching hospital on two separate days. Our primary outcomes were the costs associated with: (i) time taken off work to care for the child in hospital; (ii) time off work or contributed by family and friends to care for other dependents; and (iii) travel, meals, accommodation and incidental expenses during the child's stay...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661635/assessment-of-community-level-effects-of-intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-in-schoolchildren-in-jinja-uganda-start-ipt-trial-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#10
Sarah G Staedke, Catherine Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Andrea M Rehman, Simon P Kigozi, Samuel Gonahasa, Jaffer Okiring, Steve W Lindsay, Moses R Kamya, Clare I R Chandler, Grant Dorsey, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a well established malaria control intervention. Evidence that delivering IPT to schoolchildren could provide community-level benefits is limited. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of IPT of primary schoolchildren with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) on indicators of malaria transmission in the community, in Jinja, Uganda. METHODS: We included 84 clusters, each comprising one primary school and the 100 closest available households...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660593/factors-associated-with-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-motivation-to-reduce-drinking-among-hiv-primary-care-patients-baseline-findings-from-the-health-motivation-study
#11
Michael J Silverberg, Wendy A Leyden, Amy Leibowitz, C Bradley Hare, Hannah J Jang, Stacy Sterling, Sheryl L Catz, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Michael A Horberg, Derek D Satre
BACKGROUND: Limited primary care-based research has examined hazardous drinking risk factors and motivation to reduce use in persons with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We computed prevalence ratios (PR) for factors associated with recent (<30 days) hazardous alcohol use (i.e., 4+/5+ drinks in a single day for women/men), elevated Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, and importance and confidence (1-10 Likert scales) to reduce drinking among PWH in primary care...
September 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649631/simultaneous-risk-factor-control-using-telehealth-to-slow-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-stop-dkd-study-protocol-and-baseline-characteristics-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Clarissa J Diamantidis, Hayden B Bosworth, Megan M Oakes, Clemontina A Davenport, Jane F Pendergast, Sejal Patel, Jivan Moaddeb, Huiman X Barnhart, Peter D Merrill, Khaula Baloch, Matthew J Crowley, Uptal D Patel
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the United States. Multiple risk factors contribute to DKD development, yet few interventions target more than a single DKD risk factor at a time. This manuscript describes the study protocol, recruitment, and baseline participant characteristics for the Simultaneous Risk Factor Control Using Telehealth to slOw Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease (STOP-DKD) study. The STOP-DKD study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial behavioral and medication management intervention to mitigate kidney function decline at 3 years compared to usual care...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622399/can-a-gastric-cancer-risk-survey-identify-high-risk-patients-for-endoscopic-screening-a-pilot-study
#13
Haejin In, Marisa Langdon-Embry, Lauren Gordon, Clyde B Schechter, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Philip E Castle, M Margaret Kemeny, Bruce D Rapkin
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire that distinguishes how variability in gastric cancer prevalence is associated with ethnicity/birth country/immigration/cultural diet along with known risk factors may improve targeting populations for gastric cancer screening in the United States. METHODS: Existing literature was used to identify the item pool. Cluster analysis, focus groups, and cognitive interviewing were used to reduce collinear items and refine the questionnaire...
July 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607836/impact-of-oral-health-related-behaviors-on-dental-caries-among-children-with-special-health-care-needs-in-goa-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Akshatha Gadiyar, Ridhima Gaunkar, Amita Kenkre Kamat, Akanksha Tiwari, Amit Kumar
Background: Children with special health-care needs (CSHCNs) have high unmet dental needs and are at increased risk of poor oral health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior and dental caries experience among CSHCN. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study sample comprised of 223 CSHCNs from special educational schools in Goa. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables...
January 2018: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570569/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-2-autism-screeners-among-referred-children-between-16-and-48-months-of-age
#15
Louisa A Salisbury, Jonathan D Nyce, Charles D Hannum, R Christopher Sheldrick, Ellen C Perrin
OBJECTIVE: Autism screening is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at ages 18 and 24 months. Popular screening tests have been validated for the age range of 16 to 30 months. However, only a minority of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are identified by age 3 years, and many are not identified until after they enter school. Thus, we aimed to measure the sensitivity and specificity of 2 available screening tests for ASDs in children older than 30 months...
April 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566044/community-based-mass-treatment-with-azithromycin-for-the-elimination-of-yaws-in-ghana-results-of-a-pilot-study
#16
Abdul Aziz Abdulai, Patrick Agana-Nsiire, Frank Biney, Cynthia Kwakye-Maclean, Sardick Kyei-Faried, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, Shirley Victoria Simpson, George Bonsu, Sally-Ann Ohene, William Kwabena Ampofo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Kai-Hua Chi, Damien Danavall, Cheng Y Chen, Allan Pillay, Sergi Sanz, Ye Tun, Oriol Mitjà, Kingsley Bampoe Asiedu, Ronald C Ballard
INTRODUCTION: The WHO yaws eradication strategy consists of one round of total community treatment (TCT) of single-dose azithromycin with coverage of > 90%.The efficacy of the strategy to reduce the levels on infection has been demonstrated previously in isolated island communities in the Pacific region. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a single round of TCT with azithromycin to achieve a decrease in yaws prevalence in communities that are endemic for yaws and surrounded by other yaws-endemic areas...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553416/factors-associated-with-depression-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-gaza-strip-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Khaled Abu Saman, Salwa Massad, Ali Abu Ibaid, Huda Anan, Mamhoud Daher, Rand Salman, Saleh Aldeqes
BACKGROUND: About 9% of the world's population has diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in developing countries. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. The likelihood of diabetes complications increases with depression. Worldwide, about half of patients with diabetes have severe depression that has been misidentified by health providers. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Gaza governorate...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518252/interventions-for-autumn-exacerbations-of-asthma-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Katharine C Pike, Melika Akhbari, Dylan Kneale, Katherine M Harris
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in school-aged children peak in autumn, shortly after children return to school following the summer holiday. This might reflect a combination of risk factors, including poor treatment adherence, increased allergen and viral exposure, and altered immune tolerance. Since this peak is predictable, interventions targeting modifiable risk factors might reduce exacerbation-associated morbidity and strain upon health resources. The peak occurs in September in the Northern Hemisphere and in February in the Southern Hemisphere...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499084/physical-activity-diet-and-other-behavioural-interventions-for-improving-cognition-and-school-achievement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-or-overweight
#19
REVIEW
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486763/a-pragmatic-controlled-trial-to-prevent-childhood-obesity-within-a-risk-group-at-maternity-and-child-health-care-clinics-results-up-to-six-years-of-age-the-vacopp-study
#20
Taina Mustila, Jani Raitanen, Päivi Keskinen, Riitta Luoto
BACKGROUND: Obesity in childhood appears often during the toddler years. The prenatal environment influences obesity risk. Maternal gestational diabetes, the child's diet, and physical activity in the first few years have an important role in subsequent weight gain. A study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of a primary health-care lifestyle counselling intervention in prevention of childhood obesity up to 6 years of age. METHODS: The study was a controlled pragmatic trial to prevent childhood obesity and was implemented at maternity and child health-care clinics...
February 27, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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