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Meng Pan, Suqin Sun, Qun Zhou, Jianbo Chen
Extra virgin olive oil has been one of the most common targets for economically motivated food adulteration. This research employed the hand-held FTIR spectrometer to develop the simple and portable screening methods for extra virgin olive oils adulterated with other cheaper vegetable oils. With the help of the ATR probe and chemometrics tools, oil samples can be measured directly without any pretreatment, then the spectra can be interpreted automatically to determine the possibility of adulteration and estimate the content of adulterant oil...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A R P Disetlhe, U Marume, V Mlambo
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of a humic acid and enzymes on growth performance, protein utilization, and blood parameters in broilers fed canola-based diets. Canola meal (CM) is characterized as low protein compared to soybean meal. Two-hundred-twenty broiler chickens were randomly allotted to the following 5 dietary treatments: 1. Control (commercial broiler diet); 2. CM (17.5% canola meal inclusion); 3. CMEnz (CM + 0.3 g/kg enzymes [Axtra XAP]); 4. CMPh (CM + 1.5% potassium humate, PH) and 5...
May 10, 2018: Poultry Science
Shelley E Hoover, Lynae P Ovinge
Hybrid canola seed production is an important pollination market in Canada; typically both honey bees (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) and Alfalfa Leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata Fab. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)) are concurrently managed to ensure pollination in this high-value crop. Beekeepers are paid to provide pollination services, and the colonies also produce a honey crop from the canola. Pollen availability from male-fertile plants is carefully managed in this crop to provide an abundance of pollen to fertilize male-sterile ('female') plants...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
P J Moate, J L Jacobs, M C Hannah, G L Morris, K A Beauchemin, P S Alvarez Hess, R J Eckard, Z Liu, S Rochfort, W J Wales, S R O Williams
Short-term studies have shown that feeding dairy cows diets containing a high proportion (>40%) of wheat may result in reduced milk fat concentration and reduced CH4 emissions (g of CH4 /cow per d), but no long-term studies have been done on these responses. This study compared the milk production and CH4 responses when 24 dairy cows were fed diets containing high proportions of either wheat or corn over 16 wk. Cows were assigned to 2 groups and offered a diet (CRN) containing 10.0 kg of dry matter/d of crushed corn grain, 1...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Michelle Malmberg, Fan Shi, German C Spangenberg, Hans D Daetwyler, Noel O I Cogan
Intensive breeding of Brassica napus has resulted in relatively low diversity, such that B. napus would benefit from germplasm improvement schemes that sustain diversity. As such, samples representative of global germplasm pools need to be assessed for existing population structure, diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Complexity reduction genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, including GBS-transcriptomics (GBS-t), enable cost-effective screening of a large number of samples, while whole genome re-sequencing (WGR) delivers the ability to generate large numbers of unbiased genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and identify structural variants (SVs)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Henry I Miller, Brenda Silva
The genetic engineering of plants over the past two decades has led to significant scientific, commercial and humanitarian successes, with more than 2.1 billion hectares cultivated worldwide. The vast majority of cultivation has been huge-scale commodity crops - corn, cotton, canola, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa - while specialty crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamental plants have been underrepresented. The commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) flowers has been especially neglected...
May 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Victor M Zuñiga-Mayo, Cesar R Baños-Bayardo, David Díaz-Ramírez, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
Hormones are an important component in the regulatory networks guiding plant development. Cytokinins are involved in different physiological and developmental processes in plants. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinin application during gynoecium development produces conspicuous phenotypes. On the other hand, Brassica napus, also known as canola, is a crop plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, as A. thaliana. This makes B. napus a good candidate to study whether the cytokinin responses observed in A...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Z Liu, J Liu, L Chen, S Lv, L Liu, X Tang, H Zhang
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels of semi-purified diets on the additivity of values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in mixed diets from multiple protein sources for growing pigs. A total of 28 barrows (initial BW, 66.4 ± 1.3 kg) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to a replicated 14 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 14 diets and 4 periods. The 14 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet; a corn-based diet (80 g CP/kg); nine semi-purified diets containing soya bean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (cDDGS), each type (protein source) of semi-purified diets supplied 80, 120 or 160 g CP/kg, respectively; three mixed diets based on corn, SBM, CM and cDDGS formulated to contain 120, 160 and 200 g CP/kg respectively...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Walaa M S Gomaa, Gamal M Mosaad, Peiqiang Yu
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular structure using Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy technique; (b) bioactive compounds, anti-nutritional factors, and chemical composition; and (c) bioenergy values in oil seeds (canola seeds), co-products (meal or pellets) from bio-oil processing plants in Canada in comparison with China...
April 21, 2018: Nutrients
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on DE and ME and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and nutrients were determined in growing pigs using ingredients with different ratios between insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF). Eighty growing barrows (BW: 48.41 ± 1.50 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 10 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments included a corn-based diet, a wheat-based diet, a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet, and 7 diets based on a mixture of the corn-SBM diet and canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal (CGM), copra expellers, sugar beet pulp (SBP), synthetic cellulose, or pectin...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kyran D Brooks, Sarita J Bennett, Leon M Hodgson, Michael B Ashworth
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of herbicide-tolerant varieties of canola (Brassica napus L.) in 1993, global plantings have increased resulting in increased incidence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary infections. Developments in narrow windrow burning techniques to destroy the seed of multiple herbicide resistant weeds provides an opportunity to also intercept and heat-treat the S. sclerotiorum inoculum source, termed sclerotia, before it re-enters the soil to infect susceptible crop species in successive years...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
T Williams, B Rude, S Liao, C Mochal-King, M Nicodemus
The objective of this study was to observe how fat incorporated into an equine forage-based diet through supplementation altered levels of plasma glucose, insulin and fatty acids. Five Shetland/Hackney cross pony mares were fed alfalfa pellet diets top dressed with commercially available vegetable oil (blend of soya bean, canola and corn oils) at 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of diet. Ponies were randomly assigned one of four diets to start, with a 14-day adjustment period between transitioning to another one of the four diets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Michael D Holtz, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Stephen E Strelkov
BACKGROUND: Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soilborne pathogen of the family Brassicaceae and the causal agent of clubroot disease. In Canada, P. brassicae is now one of the most important constraints to canola (Brassica napus) production, and is managed mainly by the deployment of resistant cultivars. In recent years, however, new strains of the pathogen have emerged that are capable of overcoming host resistance, posing new challenges for disease management. Despite its economic significance, molecular studies of P...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zakir Hossain, Bhinu V-S Pillai, Margaret Y Gruber, Min Yu, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops are cultivated widely for human consumption and animal feed purposes, and oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus and rapa) is the second most important oilseed worldwide. Because of its natural diversity and genetic complexity, genomics studies on oilseed rape will be a useful resource base to modify the quantity and quality of biomass in various crops, and therefore, should have a positive impact on lignocellulosic biofuel production. The objective of this study was to perform microarray analysis on two variable lignin containing oilseed rape cultivars to target novel genes and transcription factors of importance in Brassica lignin regulation for applied research...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mohamed El-Sherbiny, Mohamed Eldosoky, Mohamed El-Shafey, Gamal Othman, Hany A Elkattawy, Tamer Bedir, Nehal Mohsen Elsherbiny
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and type II diabetes. Due to increasing prevalence of these diseases globally, NAFLD is considered as a common form of chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with reported anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating activity. Hypovitaminosis D often coexists with NAFLD and various studies reported beneficial role of vitamin D in modulating NAFLD. However, variable oral bioavailability, poor water solubility, and chemical degradation hinder the clinical application of vitamin D...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Xian Duo Zhang, Jia Yun Sun, Yuan Yuan You, Jian Bo Song, Zhi Min Yang
RNA helicases play crucial roles in RNA splicing, transport, editing and degradation, protein translation initiation and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. However, knowledge about their functionality in rapeseed (Brassica napus) is rare. In the study, we identified and annotated 271 RNA helicase genes from B. napus using bioinformatics and high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Three subfamilies DEAD-box, DEAH-box, or DExD/H-box have been identified. One hundred and ninety-five RNA helicases were confirmed by RNA-seq and 49 were identified to differentially respond to cadmium (Cd) stress (> 1...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gulcin Yildiz, Junzhou Ding, Shashank Gaur, Juan Andrade, Nicki E Engeseth, Hao Feng
Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 carbons and 6 double bonds) are fundamental compounds for a healthy diet. However, due to their unsaturated nature, omega fatty acid-rich oils are chemically unstable and susceptible to oxidative deterioration. The oxidation results in production of free radicals and unpleasant tastes, negatively impacting the shelf-life, sensory properties, and acceptability of food products. This study was conducted to examine the effect of wall materials on protection of DHA in canola oil against oxidation...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pere R Ramel, Alejandro G Marangoni
In this study, we show that the replacement of milk fat with canola oil in a model caseinate-based imitation cheese product to increase its nutritional value can be done by treating processed cheese as a particle filled gel network. Using microscopy, model imitation cheese products with different lipid phases were found to have similar microstructures where fat or oil appears as inert particle fillers in a continuous protein network. Using a texture profile analyzer, we show that the textural properties of model imitation cheese are dependent on the material properties of the inert filler...
May 2018: Food Research International
Reza Farahmandfar, Mohammad Hossein Ramezanizadeh
In this study, antioxidative activities of aqueous extract of Biarum bovei (BBE) in stabilizing of canola oil during storage at 20°C was evaluated. For this purpose, the total phenolic (TP), flavonoids (TFC), and tocopherol content (TTC) of the extract were determined and β-carotene bleaching system was used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of BBE. The amount of TP, TFC, and TTC in BBE indicated high antioxidant activity. So, different concentrations (0, 200, 800, and 1400 ppm) of BBE and butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA; 100 ppm), were added to canola oil for 60 days at 20°C...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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