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Md H Bahar, Tyler J Wist, Diana R Bekkaoui, Dwayne D Hegedus, Chrystel Y Olivier
Aster yellows (AY) is an important disease of Brassica crops and is caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris and transmitted by the insect vector, Aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrilineatus). Phytoplasma-infected Aster leafhoppers were incubated at various constant and fluctuating temperatures ranging from 0 to 35 °C with the reproductive host plant barley (Hordium vulgare). At 0 °C, leafhopper adults survived for 18 days, but failed to reproduce, whereas at 35 °C insects died within 18 days, but successfully reproduced before dying...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Habibur Rahman, Rick A Bennett, Berisso Kebede
Earliness of flowering and maturity are important traits in spring Brassica napus canola-whether grown under long- or short-day condition. By use of a spring B. napus mapping population carrying the genome content of B. oleracea and testing this population under 10 to 18 h photoperiod and 18 to 20 0C (day) temperature conditions, we identified a major QTL on the chromosome C1 affecting flowering time without being influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and a major QTL on C9 affecting flowering time under a short photoperiod (10 h); in both cases, the QTL alleles reducing the number of days to flowering in B...
2018: PloS One
Simon Poon, Karen S Harris, Mark A Jackson, Owen C McCorkelle, Edward K Gilding, Thomas Durek, Nicole L van der Weerden, David J Craik, Marilyn A Anderson
Cyclotides are ultra-stable, backbone-cyclized plant defence peptides that have attracted considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. This is due to their range of native bioactivities as well as their ability to stabilize other bioactive peptides within their framework. However, a hindrance to their widespread application is the lack of scalable, cost-effective production strategies. Plant-based production is an attractive, benign option since all biosynthetic steps are performed in planta. Nonetheless, cyclization in non-cyclotide-producing plants is poor...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Natalie Gerhardt, Markus Birkenmeier, Sebastian Schwolow, Sascha Rohn, Philipp Weller
This work describes a simple approach of untargeted profiling of volatile compounds for the authentication of the botanical origin of honey based on resolution-optimized HS-GC-IMS, combined with optimized chemometric techniques, namely PCA, LDA and kNN. A direct comparison of the PCA-LDA models between HS-GC-IMS and 1H-NMR data demonstrated that HS-GC-IMS profiling could be used as a complementary tool to the NMR-based profiling of honey samples. While NMR profiling still requires compara-tively precise sample preparation, in particular, pH adjustment, HS-GC-IMS fingerprinting may be considered as an alternative approach for a truly fully automatable, cost-efficient and in particular, highly sensitive method...
January 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
S R O Williams, A V Chaves, M H Deighton, J L Jacobs, M C Hannah, B E Ribaux, G L Morris, W J Wales, P J Moate
Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Victor Ryu, David J McClements, Maria G Corradini, Lynne McLandsborough
The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d < 70 nm) were formed. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing ripening inhibitor concentration which was attributed to a reduction in the amount of hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents transferred to the separated hydrophobic domain, mimicking bacterial cell membranes, by using dialysis and chromatography...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rui Chen, Zhangcai Qin, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace Tyner, Don O'Connor, James Duffield
This study conducted the updated simulations to depict a life cycle analysis (LCA) of the biodiesel production from soybeans and other feedstocks in the U.S. It addressed in details the interaction between LCA and induced land use change (ILUC) for biodiesel. Relative to the conventional petroleum diesel, soy biodiesel could achieve 76% reduction in GHG emissions without considering ILUC, or 66-72% reduction in overall GHG emissions when various ILUC cases were considered. Soy biodiesel's fossil fuel consumption rate was also 80% lower than its petroleum counterpart...
December 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Alejandra Hernández-Terán, Ana Wegier, Mariana Benítez, Rafael Lira, Ana E Escalante
Agronomic management of plants is a powerful evolutionary force acting on their populations. The management of cultivated plants is carried out by the traditional process of human selection or plant breeding and, more recently, by the technologies used in genetic engineering (GE). Even though crop modification through GE is aimed at specific traits, it is possible that other non-target traits can be affected by genetic modification due to the complex regulatory processes of plant metabolism and development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
December 13, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Mamadou Lamine Fall, John F Boyse, Dechun Wang, Jamie F Willbur, Damon Smith, Martin I Chilvers
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a significant threat to soybean production worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological approach was used to examine 11 years of historical data from a soybean management performance trial in order to advance our understanding of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) development and to identify environmental predictors of SSR epidemics and associated yield losses. Recursive partitioning analysis suggested that average air temperature and total precipitation in July were the most significant variables associated with disease severity...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
Aaron W Hummel, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Tomas Cermak, Andrew M Mutka, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Adam Boyher, Colby G Starker, Rebecca Bart, Daniel F Voytas, Nigel J Taylor
Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots (Doll and Piedrahita Cañola, 1978). Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Elisabetta Lauretti, Domenico Praticò
In recent years consumption of canola oil has increased due to lower cost compared with olive oil and the perception that it shares its health benefits. However, no data are available on the effect of canola oil intake on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Herein, we investigated the effect of chronic daily consumption of canola oil on the phenotype of a mouse model of AD that develops both plaques and tangles (3xTg). To this end mice received either regular chow or a chow diet supplemented with canola oil for 6 months...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bryan Delaney, Richard E Goodman, Greg S Ladics
The first genetically engineered (GE) food crop (tomato) was introduced in 1995, followed by the successful development and commercial release of maize, soybeans, cotton, canola, potatoes, papaya, alfalfa, squash, and sugar beets with specific new genetic traits. Even though the safety of every new GE crop has been evaluated by various regulatory authorities throughout the world prior to its commercial release, the ongoing public debate about the safety of food and feed derived from GE plants has not abated...
December 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jaana M Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
BMI-specific differences in food choice and energy intake have been suggested to modulate taste perception. However, associations between body composition and fat taste sensitivity are controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the association between body composition, dietary intake and detection thresholds of four fatty stimuli (oleic acid, paraffin oil, canola oil, and canola oil spiked with oleic acid) that could be perceived via gustatory and/or textural cues. In 30 participants, fat detection thresholds were determined in a repeated measurements design over twelve days...
December 2, 2017: Appetite
Erick Saldaña, Aline de Oliveira Garcia, Miriam Mabel Selani, Marcia M H Haguiwara, Marcio Aurelio de Almeida, Raúl Siche, Carmen J Contreras-Castillo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory characteristics of mortadellas with different fat contents using Descriptive Analysis (DA) and Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and their relationship with overall liking (OL). Five mortadella samples were studied. Sample 1, containing 16% fat. Sample 2 was formulated with 8% fat. Samples 3 and 4 were prepared by replacing 50% fat by a pre-emulsion composed of fish, canola and olive oil. A commercial fat-reduced sample was also studied. The sensory characteristics of the samples were evaluated by DA...
November 22, 2017: Meat Science
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Kalina Duszka, Matej Oresic, Cedric Le May, Jürgen König, Walter Wahli
Nuclear receptor PPARγ affects lipid metabolism in several tissues, but its role in intestinal lipid metabolism has not been explored. As alterations have been observed in the plasma lipid profile of ad libitum fed intestinal epithelium-specific PPARγ knockout mice (iePPARγKO), we submitted these mice to lipid gavage challenges. Within hours after gavage with long chain unsaturated fatty acid (FA)-rich canola oil, the iePPARγKO mice had higher plasma free FA levels and lower gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels than their wild-type (WT) littermates, and altered expression of incretin genes and lipid metabolism-associated genes in the intestinal epithelium...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carla S P Santos, Lucía Molina-Garcia, Sara C Cunha, Susana Casal
Fresh potatoes were intermittently deep-fried up to recommended limits (175°C, 8h/day, 28h) in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), peanut oil (PO) and canola oil (CO), and compared for diverse chemical components and sensorial attributes, aiming to quantify the impact of prolonged frying on potatoes nutrients, and the potential alterations resulting from the use of different monounsaturated-rich oils. Independently of oil type, its degradation promotes time-dependent losses of important potato nutrients, as vitamin C...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Angela P Van de Wouw, Vicki L Elliott, Steven Chang, Francisco J López-Ruiz, Steven J Marcroft, Alexander Idnurm
Leptosphaeria maculans is the major pathogen of canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) worldwide. In Australia, the use of azole fungicides has contributed to the 50-fold increase in canola production in the last 25 years. However, extensive application of fungicides sets the stage for the selection of fungal populations with resistance. A high-throughput in planta assay was developed to allow screening of thousands of isolates from multiple populations. Using this screen, isolates were identified with decreased sensitivity to the fungicide fluquinconazole when applied at field rates as a protective seed dressing: these isolates cause significantly larger lesions on cotyledons and true leaves and increased disease severity at plant maturity...
2017: PloS One
E M Paula, G A Broderick, M A C Danes, N E Lobos, G I Zanton, A P Faciola
Extrusion treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen-undegraded protein fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows. To assess performance, 30 multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± SD) 119 ± 23 d in milk and 44 ± 7 kg of milk/d and 15 primiparous cows averaging 121 ± 19 d in milk and 34 ± 6 kg of milk/d were blocked in a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period and 12-wk experimental period (experiment 1)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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