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Yuchun Ma, Graeme Schwenke, Liying Sun, De Li Liu, Bin Wang, Bo Yang
Limited information exists on potential impacts of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions by including N2 -fixing legumes in crop rotations from rain-fed cropping systems. Data from two 3-yr crop rotations in northern NSW, Australia, viz. chickpea-wheat-barley (CpWB) and canola-wheat-barley (CaWB), were used to gain an insight on the role of legumes in mitigation of N2 O emissions. High-frequency N2 O fluxes measured with an automated system of static chambers were utilized to test the applicability of Denitrification and Decomposition model...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vanessa Marques Alvarez, Diogo Jurelevicius, Rodrigo Vassoler Serrato, Eliana Barreto Bergter, Lucy Seldin
Bioemulsifiers are able to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions and are very important in several industrial processes, including food processing. In this study, a bioemulsifier produced by Ensifer adhaerens JHT2 was tested for its ability to emulsify edible oils (canola, corn, palm, olive and soy). Emulsification of soy and canola oils was detected, but the highest emulsification index (EI) was obtained when JHT2 culture supernatant was used for the emulsification of palm oil (EI = 100%). Bioemulsifier production was evaluated using nine culture media and different NaCl concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of inclusion rate of fiber rich ingredients on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and on the concentration of DE and ME in mixed diets fed to growing pigs were determined. The hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion rate of fiber decreases digestibility of GE, and thus, the contribution of DE and ME from hindgut fermentation because greater concentrations may reduce the ability of microbes to ferment fiber. Twenty ileal-cannulated pigs (BW: 30...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
G A Mejicanos, J W Kim, C M Nyachoti
Tail-end dehulling of canola meal (CM) has been shown to reduce dietary fiber and increase crude protein content in the dehulled meal. The application of this procedure also increased the total and non-phytate P content in the dehulled meal. However, it is unclear if dehulling affects P digestibility in the different fractions (i.e., the dehulled meal and the coarse fraction) and if it differs when fed to growing pigs at 2 different BW. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of P in dehulled CM fed to growing pigs...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J W Kim, B Koo, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was conducted to determine the DE, ME, and NE contents of canola meal (CM) and to investigate the effects of basal diet [corn diet vs. corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet] and methodology (difference method vs. regression method) on energy values of CM. Thirty-six growing barrows (20.8 ± 1.0 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments to give 6 replicates per treatment. The six experimental diets included a corn diet, a corn-SBM diet, a corn diet with 15 or 30% of CM, and a corn-SBM diet with 15 or 30% of CM...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Colton O'Brien, Arathi H S
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
March 12, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Larissa Minicucci, Michelle Carstensen, John Crouse, Jon M Arnemo, Alina Evans
Recent uses for rumen boluses, such as mortality implant transmitters (MITs), in wildlife have made it necessary to adapt deployment techniques developed for livestock. In 29 and 30 attempts to place MITs in Minnesota free-ranging moose ( Alces alces) in 2013 and 2014, respectively, success was achieved 83% and 63% of the time. In 2014, new methods for MIT deployment were evaluated in captive moose in Alaska. Mandible measurements provided guidance for selection of an appropriate-sized bolus applicator. A Schulze mouth gag was used to aid insertion of the applicator, and canola oil was used to lubricate the bolus to facilitate swallowing...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Mingquan Ding, Z Jeffrey Chen
Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) is a prominent feature for genome evolution of some animals and all flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton, and canola. In autopolyploids, genome duplication often perturbs dosage regulation on biological networks. In allopolyploids, interspecific hybridization could induce genetic and epigenetic changes, the effects of which could be amplified by genome doubling (ploidy changes). Albeit the importance of genetic changes, some epigenetic changes can be stabilized and transmitted as epialleles into the progeny, which are subject to natural selection, adaptation, and domestication...
March 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Daiana R Duca, David R Rose, Bernard R Glick
The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4 was transformed to increase the biosynthesis of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Four native IAA biosynthesis genes from strain UW4 were individually cloned into an expression vector and introduced back into the wild-type strain. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the introduced genes ami, nit, nthAB and phe were all overexpressed in these transformants. A significant increase in the production of IAA was observed for all modified strains...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sarah A Keim, Barbara Gracious, Kelly M Boone, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Daniel L Coury, Kelly W Sheppard, Jesse Husk, Dale A Rhoda
Background: Children born preterm are at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). n-3 (ω-3) Combined with n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids including γ-linolenic acid (GLA) may benefit children born preterm showing early signs of ASD. Previous trials have reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes cognitive development in preterm neonates and n-3 fatty acids combined with GLA improve attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Objectives: The objectives of the pilot Preemie Tots Trial were 1) to confirm the feasibility of a full-scale trial in toddlers born very preterm and exhibiting ASD symptoms and 2) to explore the effects of supplementation on parent-reported ASD symptoms and related behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Karina Martins Barbosa, Lisandro Pavie Cardoso, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro, Theo Guenter Kieckbusch, Monise Helen Masuchi Buscato
Several scientific investigations have focused on providing new strategies for supporting the development of low saturated and zero trans lipid materials, as healthier fat alternatives for food application. This work evaluated the consistency, crystallization behavior, microstructure and polymorphism of six blends composed of palm and canola oils at different concentrations (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100, in w/w%) added with 5.0% of fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO) or with a mixture of 2.5% of FHPO and 2...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mariana B Osuna, Ana M Romero, Carmen M Avallone, María A Judis, Nora C Bertola
The improvement of fatty acids (FA) profile of bread made with bovine fat (BF) and a mixture of flours completely replacing fat with canola oil (CO), or olive oil (OO) was evaluated. Technological and sensory characteristics and overall acceptability of the fortified breads were also studied. The results showed a decrease in saturated FA and a relative increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA compared to bread made with BF. Regarding CO, this caused the higher increase in n3 FA. This effect was maximized in bread made from the mixture of wheat flour (WF) + flaxseed flour (FF) + soybean flour (SF)...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
S Leanne Dillard, Ana I Roca-Fernández, Melissa D Rubano, Kyle R Elkin, Kathy J Soder
The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous culture. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7 d for adaptation and 3 d for collection. Diets were: 1) 50% orchardgrass + 50% annual ryegrass (ARG); 2) 50% orchardgrass + 50% canola (CAN); 3) 50% orchardgrass + 50% rapeseed (RAP); and 4) 50% orchardgrass + 50% turnip (TUR)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
James R Templeman, Michael A Rogers, John P Cant, Brian W McBride, Vern R Osborne
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to: (A) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (B) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (C) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-hour in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. RESULTS: A rice-bran wax and canola oil organgel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-hour dry matter disappearance of 6 %, the lowest of all organogels analyzed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Siriluck Pojjanapornpun, Yada Nolvachai, Kornkanok Aryusuk, Chadin Kulsing, Kanit Krisnangkura, Philip J Marriott
New generation inert ionic liquid (iIL) GC columns IL60i, IL76i and IL111i, comprising phosphonium or imidazolium cationic species, were investigated for separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In general, the iIL phases provide comparable retention times to their corresponding conventional columns, with only minor selectivity differences. The average tailing factors and peak widths were noticeably improved (reduced) for IL60i and IL76i, while they were slightly improved for IL111i. Inert IL phase columns were coupled with conventional IL columns in comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) with a solid-state modulator which offers variable modulation temperature (TM ), programmable TM during analysis and trapping stationary phase material during the trap/release (modulation) process, independent of oven T and column sets...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes, Karina Sanderson, Daniela Estelita Goes Trigueros, Adilson Ricken Schuelter, Fernando Rodolfo Espinoza-Quiñones, Camila Vargas Neves, Luiz Antônio Zanão Junior, Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov
Leakage of transformer dielectric fluids is a concern because it may pose a risk of environmental contamination. In this study, the deleterious effects of vegetable and mineral dielectric fluids in water bodies were investigated using biodegradability and acute toxicity tests with Danio rerio and Artemia salina. Regarding biodegradability, all four tested vegetable oils (soy, canola, sunflower and crambe) were considered as easily biodegradable, presenting degradation rates significantly higher than the Lubrax-type mineral fluid...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
S McDougall, S Leane, S T Butler, J R Roche, C R Burke
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of increasing dietary starch for approximately 30 d postpartum on reproduction outcomes in pasture-grazed, seasonal-calving dairy cows. Cows (n = 948) from 3 commercial herds were blocked by age (2, 3, and >3 yr), breed, and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 postpartum treatment groups: high starch (34.7 ± 1.9% nonstructural carbohydrate; mean ± SD) or low starch (22.5 ± 0.4% nonstructural carbohydrate). The high-starch group in all 3 farms received 4...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Srinivas Mettu, Chu Wu, Raymond R Dagastine
The dynamic collision of emulsified water drops in the presence of non-ionic surfactants plays a crucial role in many practical applications. Interaction force between water drops coated with non-ionic food grade surfactants is expected to exhibit rich dynamic behavior that is not yet explored. The collision forces between immobilized water drops in canola oil in the presence of a well-known food grade surfactant polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) are measured at concentrations well below typically used to form stable emulsions...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Taylor Jones, Arian Iraqi, Kurt Beschorner
The variability in friction and slip propensity across slip resistant (SR) shoes is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify the impact of shoe design features on the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) across shoes labeled as SR. Differences in ACOF and the slipping rate across SR shoes were also quantified. Twelve shoes were tested across five types of flooring and three contaminant conditions using a whole shoe mechanical slip tester. Geometric and hardness parameters were measured to determine the effect of heel outsole design on ACOF...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Elsayed A Elkhatib, Fatma Sherif, Mahrous Kandil, Ahmed Mahdy, Mohamed Moharem, Abdulla A Al-Basri
Heavy metal pollution in soils amended with biosolids has been a serious problem worldwide for clean food production. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the impact of water treatment residual nanoparticles (nWTRs), at different application rates (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%), on immobilization and phytoavailability of Cd and Pb to canola (Brassica napus L.) plants in soils amended with biosolids spiked with three different rates of Cd or Pb. Application of nWTRs significantly increased the residual fractions of Cd and Pb in metal-spiked biosolid-amended soil and thereby increased the immobilization of Cd and Pb in the amended soil...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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