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Michelle M Malmberg, Luke W Pembleton, Rebecca C Baillie, Michelle C Drayton, Shimna Sudheesh, Sukhjiwan Kaur, Hiroshi Shinozuka, Preeti Verma, German C Spangenberg, Hans D Daetwyler, John W Forster, Noel O I Cogan
The application of genomics in crops has the ability to significantly improve genetic gain for agriculture. Many marker-dense tools have been developed but few have seen broad adoption in plant genomics due to issues of significant variations of genome size, levels of ploidy, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency and reproductive habit. When combined with limited breeding activities, small research communities and scant sequence resources, the suitability of popular systems is often sub-optimal and routinely fails to effectively balance cost-effectiveness and sample throughput...
September 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Nandika Bandara, Yussef Esparza, Jianping Wu
Protein derived adhesives are extensively explored as a replacement for synthetic ones, but suffers from weak adhesion and water resistance. Graphite oxide (GO) has been extensively used in nanocomposites, but not in adhesives applications. The objectives of this study were to prepare functionally improved protein adhesive by exfoliating GO with different oxidation levels, and to determine the effect of GO on adhesion mechanism. GO were prepared by oxidizing graphite for 0.5, 2, and 4 h (GO-A, GO-B and GO-C, respectively)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yang Xu, Guanqun Chen, Michael S Greer, Kristian Mark P Caldo, Geetha Ramakrishnan, Saleh Shah, Limin Wu, M Joanne Lemieux, Jocelyn Ozga, Randall J Weselake
The apparent bottleneck in the accumulation of oil during seed development in some oleaginous plant species is the formation of triacylglycerol (TAG) by the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2- diacylglycerol catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC Improving DGAT activity using protein engineering could lead to improvements in seed oil yield, for example in canola-type Brassica napus. Directed evolution of B. napus DGAT1 (BnaDGAT1) previously revealed that one of the regions where amino acid residue substitutions leading to higher performance in BnaDGAT1 was in the ninth predicted transmembrane domain (PTMD9)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhen Huang, Gary Peng, Xunjia Liu, Abhinandan Deora, Kevin C Falk, Bruce D Gossen, Mary R McDonald, Fengqun Yu
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola (Brassica napus) in western Canada and worldwide. In this study, a clubroot resistance gene (Rcr2) was identified and fine mapped in Chinese cabbage cv. "Jazz" using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified from bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-Seq) and molecular markers were developed for use in marker assisted selection. In total, 203.9 million raw reads were generated from one pooled resistant (R) and one pooled susceptible (S) sample, and >173,000 polymorphic SNP sites were identified between the R and S samples...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
J Saguez, A Latraverse, J De Almeida, W G van Herk, R S Vernon, J-P Légaré, J Moisan-De Serres, M Fréchette, G Labrie
Wireworms are important economic pests that attack the seeds and roots of numerous vegetable and field crops worldwide. A 5-yr study was conducted in the main agricultural regions of the province of Quebec (Canada), to identify and characterize the wireworm communities (Coleoptera: Elateridae) that occur in fields planted with economically important crops (maize, soybean, cereals, canola, and grasslands). Bait traps were used to collect wireworms each spring from 2011 to 2015. More than 600 sites were sampled in total, involving ca...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Jharna Rani Sarker, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Xinhua He, Yunying Fang, Guangdi D Li, Damian Collins, Annette L Cowie
Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) allocation and assimilation are coupled processes, likely influencing C accumulation, N use efficiency and plant productivity in agro-ecosystems. However, dynamics and responses of these processes to management practices in semi-arid agro-ecosystems are poorly understood. A field-based (13)CO2 and urea-(15)N pulse labelling experiment was conducted to track how C and N allocation and assimilation during canola growth from flowering to maturity were affected by short-term (2-year) tillage (T) and no-till (NT) with or without 100 kg urea-N ha(-1) (T-0, T-100, NT-0, NT-100) on a Luvisol in an Australian semi-arid region...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bo Zhang, Guo Liu, Danyang Ying, Luz Sanguansri, Mary Ann Augustin
Canola meal has potential as a high protein food ingredient. The extrusion-induced changes in color, pH, extractable protein and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal under different extrusion conditions was assessed. The extrusion barrel moisture (24%, 30% or 36%) and screw kneading block length (0, 30 or 60mm) were used as independent process parameters. Extrusion at high barrel moisture (36%) favored protein aggregation resulting in lower extractable protein compared to extrusion at the lowest barrel moisture (24%)...
October 2017: Food Research International
Joana Corte-Real, Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel, Elke Richling, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Magnesium may reduce carotenoid bioavailability by forming insoluble complexes with bile salts/fatty acids, inhibiting micelle formation. Here, we investigated whether altering bile/pancreatin concentration influenced potential negative effects of magnesium on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Spinach (4g) was digested in vitro with added magnesium (0, 200, 400mg/L) and canola oil/coffee creamer, at varying bile extract (1 or 8mM) and pancreatin (100 or 990mg/L) concentrations. Bioaccessibility was determined for β-carotene, lutein, and total carotenoids via HPLC...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rubén Agregán, Paulo E Munekata, Ruben Domínguez, Javier Carballo, Daniel Franco, José M Lorenzo
Extracts from three macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE)) were tested for proximate composition (total solid, protein and total carbohydrate contents), total phenols content (TPC), and for their antioxidant activities in vitro in comparison to that of BHT compound by using four different assays (ABTS radical cation decolouration, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC))...
September 2017: Food Research International
Rubén Agregán, José M Lorenzo, Paulo E S Munekata, Ruben Dominguez, Javier Carballo, Daniel Franco
In this research the antioxidant activity of water extracts of Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) at different dose against butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was evaluated in canola oil. Water extracts were firstly characterized in terms of total solid and polyphenolic compound contents, and their antioxidant activity together with that of BHT was evaluated using several in vitro tests (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC and FRAP). Next, the progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in canola oil added with five BBE concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm) and two BHT concentrations (50 and 200ppm) using an accelerated oxidation test...
September 2017: Food Research International
C Gallardo, J C Dadalt, E Kiarie, M A Trindade Neto
Two assays were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of canola meal (CM) fed to broiler chicks without or with a multi-carbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 30,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet). Assay 1 determined apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (AME) by the difference method. Assay 2 determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by the index method...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Zhuqing Li, Xiang Li, Canhua Wang, Guiwen Song, Liqun Pi, Lan Zheng, Dabing Zhang, Litao Yang
Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
C Gaillard, M T Sørensen, M Vestergaard, M R Weisbjerg, A Basar, M K Larsen, H Martinussen, U Kidmose, J Sehested
Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality. As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Aaron Ross Flakemore, Bunmi Sherifat Malau-Aduli, Peter David Nichols, Aduli Enoch Othniel Malau-Aduli
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Ruairi P McDonnell, Martin vH Staines
This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
J Valdés, G Kutralam-Muniasamy, B Vergara-Porras, R Marsch, F Pérez-Guevara, M R López-Cuellar
Many heterologous transformation studies have been carried out using the Cupriavidus necator PHB(-4) strain to investigate the expression characteristics of various polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase enzymes. In this study, we generated a recombinant C. necator PHB(-4) strain by transforming a plasmid (pMRC03) harbouring the synthetic phaC2 gene of Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Under conditions favourable for expression of the phaC2 P.putCA-3 gene, canola oil was used as carbon source for the synthesis of PHAs...
August 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
C Gaillard, M T Sørensen, M Vestergaard, M R Weisbjerg, A Basar, M K Larsen, H Martinussen, U Kidmose, J Sehested
The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Jaana M Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Melanie Lidolt, Jörg Hinrichs, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
Multiple lines of research have demonstrated that humans can perceive fat in the form of free fatty acids (FFAs). However, the dietary concentration of FFAs is generally very low and fat is mainly consumed as triacylglycerol (TAG). The aim of this study was to examine the perception of different fatty stimuli and possible associations between them. Therefore, detection thresholds for 4 fatty stimuli (oleic acid [FFA], paraffin oil [mixture of hydrocarbon molecules], canola oil [TAG-rich], and canola oil spiked with oleic acid [rich in TAGs and FFAs]) were determined in 30 healthy participants...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
Don V Nguyen, Van H Le, Quang V Nguyen, Bunmi S Malau-Aduli, Peter D Nichols, Aduli E O Malau-Aduli
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and flaxseed oil. Health status of the lambs, as a consequence of the supplementation, was also investigated by examining their plasma metabolites. Sixty purebred and first-cross lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion (Control) or graded levels of canola oil at 2...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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