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P J Westgate, B B Schultz, R V Hazzard
In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
T F Pedersen, Y Liu, H H Stein
The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Zohreh Heydarian, Min Yu, Margaret Gruber, Bernard R Glick, Rong Zhou, Dwayne D Hegedus
Camelina sativa (camelina) is an oilseed crop touted for use on marginal lands; however, it is no more tolerant of soil salinity than traditional crops, such as canola. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase) facilitate plant growth in the presence of abiotic stresses by reducing stress ethylene. Rhizospheric and endophytic PGPB and the corresponding acdS- mutants of the latter were examined for their ability to enhance tolerance to salt in camelina...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniela Velasquez, Caroline Quines, Renan Pistóia, Gilson Zeni, Cristina W Nogueira
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant-like activity of 2-benzoyl-4-iodoselenophene (C17H11IOSe), a selenophene compound, in two well-consolidated behavioral assays for screening antidepressant activity (forced swimming test and tail suspension test) in mice. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of C17H11IOSe, it was investigated the activities of cerebral enzymes: monoamine oxidase MAO A and B and Na(+), K(+) ATPase, and if an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) (100mg/kg) blocks the antidepressant-like effect of C17H11IOSe...
December 21, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
B Ponchon, X Zhao, S Ollier, P Lacasse
The objectives of this study were to determine the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of prolactin (PRL) release induced by mammary gland stimulation and to investigate whether the milk depression induced by glucocorticoids in dairy cows is due to a decrease in PRL release. In experiment 1, 8 dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four hours after the morning milking, the cows received 1 of the following treatments: (1) a 5-min manual stimulation of the mammary gland; (2) an i.v. injection of 1 mg of dexamethasone; (3) 2 infusions of 2...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Munmun Nandi, Carrie Selin, Gabriel Brawerman, W G Dilantha Fernando, Teresa R de Kievit
Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production...
December 2016: Microbiology
Humira Sonah, Xuehua Zhang, Rupesh K Deshmukh, M Hossein Borhan, W G Dilantha Fernando, Richard R Bélanger
Leptosphaeria maculans is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes blackleg of canola (Brassica napus), one of the most devastating diseases of this crop. In the present study, transcriptome profiling of L. maculans was performed in an effort to understand and define the pathogenicity genes that govern both the biotrophic and the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, as well as those that separate a compatible from an incompatible interaction. For this purpose, comparative RNA-seq analyses were performed on L. maculans isolate D5 at four different time points following inoculation on susceptible cultivar Topas-DH16516 or resistant introgression line Topas-Rlm2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jay Shockey, Michael Dowd, Brian Mack, Matthew Gilbert, Brian Scheffler, Linda Ballard, James Frelichowski, Catherine Mason
Some naturally occurring cotton accessions contain commercially attractive seed oil fatty acid profiles. The likely causal factor for a high-oleate trait in pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) accession GB-713 is described here. Vegetable oils are broadly used in the manufacture of many human and animal nutritional products, and in various industrial applications. Along with other well-known edible plant oils from soybean, corn, and canola, cottonseed oil is a valuable commodity. Cottonseed oil is a co-product derived from the processing of cottonseed fiber...
December 17, 2016: Planta
Safoura Pirestani, Ali Nasirpour, Javad Keramat, Stéphane Desobry, Jordane Jasniewski
In this research, the improvement of emulsifying properties of chemically modified canola protein isolate (CPI) with gum Arabic (GA) through Maillard reaction under natural pH at 90°C was investigated. The stability, rheology and morphology of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by conjugate of two biopolymers were evaluated by determination of droplet size, emulsifying activity (EAI), emulsifying stability (ESI) and creaming indices. The conjugate-stabilized emulsion showed smaller mean droplet size and lower creaming index values which were more effective to stabilize the emulsion compared to CPI and mixture of two biopolymers especially if pH was near the isoelectric point of CPI or when emulsions heated from 30 to 90°C...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Serap Durakli Velioglu, Havva Tumay Temiz, Elif Ercioglu, Hasan Murat Velioglu, Ali Topcu, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
This study presents a novel method to determine erucic acid in canola oil samples by using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The oil mixtures were prepared at various concentrations of erucic acid ranging from 0% to 33.56% (w/w) through binary combinations of different oils. In order to predict erucic acid content, Raman spectroscopy and GC results were correlated by means of partial least squares analysis. High coefficient of determination values was obtained for both calibration and validation data sets, which are 0...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ana M Jiménez-Carvelo, Estefanía Pérez-Castaño, Antonio González-Casado, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez
A new method for differentiation of olive oil (independently of the quality category) from other vegetable oils (canola, safflower, corn, peanut, seeds, grapeseed, palm, linseed, sesame and soybean) has been developed. The analytical procedure for chromatographic fingerprinting of the methyl-transesterified fraction of each vegetable oil, using normal-phase liquid chromatography, is described and the chemometric strategies applied and discussed. Some chemometric methods, such as k-nearest neighbours (kNN), partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine classification analysis (SVM-C), and soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA), were applied to build classification models...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Paula Jiménez, Paula García, Andrés Bustamante, Andrés Barriga, Paz Robert
Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Carlton Farley, Aschalew Kassu, Nayana Bose, Armitra Jackson-Davis, Judith Boateng, Paul Ruffin, Anup Sharma
A short distance standoff Raman technique is demonstrated for detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Using a portable Raman spectrometer operating with a 785 nm laser and a 2-in. refracting telescope, adulteration of olive oil with grapeseed oil and canola oil is detected between 1% and 100% at a minimum concentration of 2.5% from a distance of 15 cm and at a minimum concentration of 5% from a distance of 1 m. The technique involves correlating the intensity ratios of prominent Raman bands of edible oils at 1254, 1657, and 1441 cm(-1) to the degree of adulteration...
December 12, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Reza Salehi, Divakar J Ambrose
In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression...
December 12, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Da-Wei Wang, Hong-Yan Lin, Bo He, Feng-Xu Wu, Tao Chen, Qiong Chen, Wen-Chao Yang, Guang-Fu Yang
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, HPPD) is an important target for new bleaching herbicides discovery. As a continuous work to discover novel crop selective HPPD inhibitor, a series of 2-(aryloxyacetyl)cyclohexane-1,3-diones were rationally designed and synthesized by an efficient one-pot procedure using N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), triethylamine, and acetone cyanohydrin in CH2Cl2. A total of 58 triketone compounds were synthesized in good to excellent yields. Some of the triketones displayed potent in vitro Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD) inhibitory activity...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran
Lipids are the concentrated source of energy, fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, carriers of flavours and many bio-active compounds with important role in maintaining physiological functions of biological body. Moringa oleifera is native to Himalaya and widely grown in many Asian and African countries with seed oil content range from 35-40%. Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) has light yellow colour with mild nutty flavour and fatty acids composition suggests that MOO is highly suitable for both edible and non-edible applications...
December 8, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Anson R Main, Jessica Fehr, Karsten Liber, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Christy A Morrissey
Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sijo Joseph Thandapilly, Pema Raj, Xavier Lieben Louis, Danielle Perera, Prasanga Yamanagedara, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor, Thomas Netticadan
Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Jung-Min Park, Jin-Man Kim
This study was conducted to investigate the condition of frying oil used for frying chicken nuggets in a deep fryer. The acidification of the frying oils used, soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), palm oil (PA), and lard (LA), were determined as peroxide value, acid value, and fatty acid composition, after chicken nuggets were fried in them for 101 times. The acid value and peroxide value obtained were 5.14 mg KOH/g and 66.03 meq/kg in SB, 4.47 mg KOH/g and 71.04 meq/kg in CA, 2.66 mg KOH/g and 15.48 meq/kg in PA, and 5...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
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