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maternal diabetes

E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Flávio Andrade Francisco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Kelly Valério Prates, Vander Silva Alves, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Laize Peron Tófolo, Ananda Malta, Elaine Vieira, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Audrei Pavanello, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Rodrigo Mello Gomes
PURPOSE: Environmental and nutritional disorders during perinatal period cause metabolic dysfunction in the progeny and impair human health. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are primarily produced during metabolism of excess blood glucose, which is observed in diabetes. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a precursor for the generation of endogenous AGEs, which disturbs the metabolism. This work aimed to investigate whether the maternal MG treatment during lactation programs the progeny to metabolic dysfunction later in life...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Pramod K Guru, Devon M Ramaeker, Arundhathi Jeybalan, Nirav A Shah, Sheldon Bastacky, Kelly V Liang
Pregnancy-related renal diseases are unique and need special attention, both for diagnosis and management. The major confounding factors for diagnosis are the physiological multiorgan changes that occur throughout the gestational period. Proper diagnosis of the renal disease is also important, given the impact of varied management options both on the maternal and fetal health. A young middle-aged female with a long-standing history of diabetes presented to the hospital with worsening proteinuria in her second trimester of pregnancy...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Tiffany Y Peng, Samantha F Ehrlich, Yvonne Crites, John L Kitzmiller, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Monique H Hedderson, Assiamira Ferrara
BACKGROUND: Despite concern for adverse perinatal outcomes in women with diabetes prior to pregnancy, recent data on the prevalence of pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the U.S. are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in the prevalence of overall pregestational diabetes (all types) and pregestational type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and whether changes varied by race-ethnicity between 1996 and 2014. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study conducted among 655,428 pregnancies at a Northern California integrated health delivery system in 1996-2014...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yu Sun Bin, Christine L Roberts, Michael C Nicholl, Natasha Nassar, Jane B Ford
BACKGROUND: Recent population-wide changes in perinatal risk factors may affect rates of breech presentation at birth, and have implications for the provision of breech services and training in breech management. AIMS: To investigate whether changes in maternal and pregnancy characteristics explain the observed trend in breech presentation at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All singleton term (≥37 week) births in New South Wales during 2002-2012 were identified through birth and associated hospital records...
October 17, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Reihaneh Pirjani, Nooshin Shirzad, Mostafa Qorbani, Mina Phelpheli, Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani, Fatemeh Bandarian, Mahboubeh Hemmatabadi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 256 pregnant women without diabetes referred for prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy to two referral University Hospitals (Shariati and Arash Hospitals) during the years 2012 and 2013. Eligible participants were selected consecutively and were followed until delivery and 6 weeks after that...
October 17, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Keith M Godfrey, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susan L Prescott, Moffat Nyirenda, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan G Eriksson, Birit F P Broekman
In addition to immediate implications for pregnancy complications, increasing evidence implicates maternal obesity as a major determinant of offspring health during childhood and later adult life. Observational studies provide evidence for effects of maternal obesity on her offspring's risks of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and asthma. Maternal obesity could also lead to poorer cognitive performance and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Preliminary evidence suggests potential implications for immune and infectious-disease-related outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Maria Ines Schmidt, Wing Hung Tam, Harold David McIntyre, Patrick M Catalano
The global epidemic of obesity has led to an increasing number of obese women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with reduced fertility, and pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity are associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, instrumental and caesarean births, infections, and post-partum haemorrhage. The medical and obstetric management of obese women is focused on identifying, addressing, and preventing some of these associated complications, and is a daunting challenge given the high percentage of patients with obesity and few therapeutic options proven to improve outcomes in this population...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Moshe Bronshtein, Zeev Blumenfeld, Asaad Choury, Ayala Gover
OBJECTIVES: To assess the natural history and outcome of fetal pulmonary stenosis [PS] detected at 14 to 16 weeks gestation. METHODS: This is a retrospective study, in the years 2004-2015, with serial follow up during pregnancy. Patients referred for complete early fetal ultrasound including all fetal systems and a fetal echocardiogram. Ninety seven percent of the women were low risk, and 3% had risk factors such as maternal type 1 diabetes mellitus, exposure to teratogenic drugs or anomalies in previous pregnancies or in other family members...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lynn M Yee, Grecio Sandoval, Jennifer Bailit, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Michael W Varner, Steve N Caritis, Mona Prasad, Alan T N Tita, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin, Dwight J Rouse, Sean C Blackwell, Jorge E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Assessment of Perinatal Excellence cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10-cm cervical dilation were included...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Elisabeth Leirgul, Kristoffer Brodwall, Gottfried Greve, Stein E Vollset, Henrik Holmstrøm, Grethe S Tell, Nina Øyen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between pregestational or gestational diabetes and offspring risk of congenital heart defects and the association between large-for-gestational-age birth weight and risk of cardiac defects in offspring of diabetic women. METHODS: Information on pregestational and gestational diabetes, cardiac defects, and birth weight among all births in Norway in 1994-2009 was ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, national health registries, and the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Melissa Borelli, Rebecca J Baer, Christina D Chambers, Tyler C Smith, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
We examined the association between maternal characteristics, routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers and the risk of having an infant with a critical congenital heart defect (CCHD). Included were women who participated in the California Prenatal Screening Program who had nuchal translucency (NT) measurement and first- and second-trimester serum screening. All pregnancies ended in a live birth of an infant without aneuploidy or a neural tube defect. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of a CCHD by maternal characteristics, first- and second-trimester serum biomarkers or NT measurements...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Georgios Chrelias, Georgios-Marios Makris, Aristea-Maria Papanota, Aris Spathis, Georgios Salamalekis, Theodoros N Sergentanis, Demetrios Rizos, Petros Karakitsos, Charalampos Chrelias
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are parts of the broader spectrum of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy. This study aims to examine the association between serum inhibin and leptin levels and pre-eclampsia. METHODS: This study included 98 consecutive cases of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, together with their 98 pregnant controls, matched for age, gestational week and time period of delivery. Maternal venous blood samples were obtained within 24h before delivery...
October 10, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Christopher Gilfillan, Pratyusha Naidu, Florence Gunawan, Fadwa Hassan, Pei Tian, Ngaire Elwood
AIMS: Telomeres undergo shortening with cell division, accelerated by increased oxidative stress. We aimed to demonstrate shortened telomeres in the offspring of mothers who have diabetes as a consequence of exposure to increased oxidative stress during intrauterine development. METHODS: We examined the level of glycaemia (glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and the levels of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase) and correlate these findings with mean telomere length (TL) in maternal and foetal blood in groups of pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGD), gestational diabetes (GD) and a euglycaemic control group...
2016: PloS One
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
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