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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544220/gdm-shades-of-gray
#1
Robert M Silver
In this issue of BJOG, Kapur and colleagues call for all European women to undergo screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) as recommended by FIGO (Kapur et al., BJOG 2017 XX). They rightly note the adverse fetal, neonatal, and maternal effects of GDM as well as possible downstream implications for the mother and child. Their recommendations echo those of several leading organizations including FIGO. However, despite these recommendations, some European countries, communities, hospitals and clinicians do not screen all women for GDM...
May 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542464/maternal-low-thyroxin-levels-are-associated-with-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-a-chinese-population
#2
Yong Zhang, Xiaobei Dai, Shuai Yang, Chen Zhang, Mi Han, He-Feng Huang, Jianxia Fan
Although thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy may have adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, few studies have examined the relationship between maternal low free thyroxin (FT4) levels in both first and third trimesters of pregnancy and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We hypothesized that low FT4 levels in either first or third trimesters of pregnancy may have different effects on pregnancy outcomes. The study included 6,031 mothers who provided both first and third pregnancy serum samples for analyses of thyroid function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540053/euglycaemic-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-primigravida-following-an-appendicectomy
#3
Dinushi Dilanka Dikowita, Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Kopalasuntharam Muhunthan, Janaki Arulmoli
Pregnancy creates significant alterations in energy metabolism which itself is a physiological adaptation to provide continuous flow of energy metabolites to the foetus. The state of insulin resistance created by hormonal changes in pregnancy enables free flow of glucose to the foetus and allows its absorption through facilitated diffusion. As glucose is preferentially available for the foetus, maternal fasting glucose level would be less than that of a non-pregnant state and in contrast plasma ketones and free fatty acids levels are elevated, resulting in a state of accelerated starvation...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539867/prevalence-of-periodontal-disease-its-association-with-systemic-diseases-and-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Ashraf Nazir
Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#5
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538390/decreased-cord-blood-estradiol-levels-in-related-to-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes
#6
Xiuyu Qi, Bo Gong, Jing Yu, Limin Shen, Wanling Jin, Zhenmin Wu, Jieyun Wang, Jie Wang, Zhiqi Li
Recent studies have revealed a link between estradiol (E2) and glucose homeostasis. We aimed to assess the association between cord blood hormone levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).A total of 204 pregnant women with GDM and 204 pregnant women without GDM (control) were included in the study. Maternal GDM were diagnosed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24 to 26 weeks of gestation. Cord blood samples from neonates were collected immediately post delivery. Controls, which were randomly selected from the study population, were matched (cases to controls ratio: 1:1) to cases by age, sex of fetus, and gestational week...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538089/central-hematocrit-levels-in-fetal-malnourished-term-infants
#7
Kerem Ertaş, Özgül Salihoğlu, Emrah Can, Sami Hatipoğlu, Şahin Hamilçikan
BACKROUND: Fetal malnutrition is especially important for common chronic diseases in adult life. They could potentially be prevented by achieving optimal fetal nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate hematocrit levels of malnourished, term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 AGA neonates (between 10% and 90% percentiles interval according to birth week), born with spontaneous vaginal delivery between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation, detected by both last menstrual period and ultrasonography measurements, were included in the study...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537579/developmental-origins-of-diabetes-an-indian-perspective
#8
REVIEW
G V Krishnaveni, C S Yajnik
The developmental origins of health disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that altered environmental influences (nutrition, metabolism, pollutants, stress and so on) during critical stages of fetal growth predisposes individuals to diabetes and other non-communicable disease in later life. This phenomenon is thought to reflect permanent effects ('programming') of unbalanced fetal development on physiological systems. Intrauterine programming may underlie the characteristic Indian 'thin-fat' phenotype and the current unprecedented epidemic of diabetes on the backdrop of multigenerational maternal undernutrition in the country...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535192/learning-through-chain-event-graphs-the-role-of-maternal-factors-in-childhood-type-i-diabetes
#9
Claire Keeble, Peter Adam Thwaites, Paul David Baxter, Stuart Barber Pgclthe, Roger Charles Parslow, Graham Richard Law
Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees, previously applied to cohort studies but not to case-control studies. We apply the chain event graph framework to a Yorkshire case-control study of childhood type I diabetes, to examine four exposure variables associated with the mother, three of which are fully observed (her school-leaving-age, amniocenteses during pregnancy and delivery type) and one with missing values (her rhesus factor), while incorporating previous type I diabetes knowledge...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534818/a-review-of-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-cognitive-function-and-mental-health-of-the-offspring
#10
REVIEW
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534013/serum-from-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-increases-the-expression-of-fabp4-mrna-in-primary-subcutaneous-human-pre-adipocytes
#11
Lan Li, Se Jin Lee, Song Yi Kook, Tae Gyu Ahn, Ji Yeon Lee, Jong Yun Hwang
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first detected during pregnancy. It can result in pregnancy complications such as birth injury, stillbirth. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), found in adipose tissue, is associated with insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FABP4 in the placenta and decidua of pregnant women with GDM is higher than that in normal pregnant women, and whether serum from pregnant women with GDM may cause adipocytes to secrete more FABP4 than does serum from a normal pregnant group...
May 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533070/maternal-and-paternal-periconceptional-nutrition-as-an-indicator-of-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-later-life-through-epigenetic-imprinting-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Ashley R Dunford, Janice M Sangster
AIMS: This review examined whether maternal and paternal periconceptional nutrition effects an offspring's likelihood of developing chronic metabolic related conditions due to epigenetic imprinting. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in multiple science databases and limited to studies published after 2012, in English language and peer reviewed. The data from selected articles were extracted and a qualitative approach was employed due to heterogeneity of results...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532251/the-effect-of-hyperemesis-gravidarum-on-the75g-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-screening-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Y Madendag, E Sahin, I Col Madendag, M Eraslan Sahin, A T Tayyar, F Ozdemir, G Acmaz, V Senol
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on the75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted via an evaluation of the hospital database medical records of 700 pregnant women. Of these, 60 were included in the study group as a result of hospitalization due to HG, 41 were excluded, and the remaining 599 formed a control group. The body mass index (BMI), urine ketone levels, and ages of all participants were separately recorded, both in the initial examination and during the 75 g OGTT...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531829/prevalence-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-europe-a-meta-analysis
#14
Claire E Eades, Dawn M Cameron, Josie M M Evans
AIMS: Estimates of the prevalence of gestational diabetes vary widely. It is important to have a clear understanding of the prevalence of this condition to be able to plan interventions and health care provision. This paper describes a meta-analysis of primary research data reporting the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the general pregnant population of developed countries in Europe. METHODS: Four electronic databases were systematically searched in May 2016...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529017/proatherogenic-lipid-profile-in-early-childhood-association-with-weight-status-at-4-years-and-parental-obesity
#15
Isolina Riaño-Galán, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Cristina Rodríguez-Dehli, Damaskini Valvi, Martine Vrijheid, Adonina Tardón
OBJECTIVES: To determine lipid profiles in early childhood and evaluate their association with weight status at 4 years of age. Additionally, we evaluated whether the risk of overweight or having an altered lipid profile was associated with parental weight status. STUDY DESIGN: Five hundred eighty two mothers and their 4-year-old children from 2 Spanish population-based cohorts were studied. Weight status in children at 4 years of age was classified as overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force criteria...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526378/association-between-prepregnancy-obesity-and-metabolic-risk-in-chilean-premenopausal-women-10%C3%A2-y-postpartum
#16
Maria Luisa Garmendia, Carolina Zamudio, Marcela Araya, Juliana Kain
OBJECTIVES: One of every four pregnant women in Chile is obese. Gestational obesity is associated with maternal metabolic complications in pregnancy (e.g., gestational diabetes, preeclampsia), but to our knowledge, there is little evidence on relationships with future metabolic risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between prepregnancy obesity (prepregnancy body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) or excessive gestational weight gain (GWG; according to the 2009 recommendations from the Institute of Medicine), and maternal metabolic complications 10 y postpartum in premenopausal Chilean women...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525905/the-effect-of-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-on-the-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-in-advanced-maternal-age
#17
Beibei Dong, Hong Yu, Qiong Wei, Mengmeng Zhi, Chunhua Wu, Xiangyun Zhu, Ling Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the popularization of a two-child policy in China, the number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age will increase steadily. We aimed to assess the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain in the first and second trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the advanced maternal age group and control group defined as maternal age of 20-35 years. RESULTS: The risk of GDM for obesity before pregnancy was 2...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522651/pregnancy-and-glomerular-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-with-management-guidelines
#18
Kimberly Blom, Ayodele Odutayo, Kate Bramham, Michelle A Hladunewich
During pregnancy, CKD increases both maternal and fetal risk. Adverse maternal outcomes include progression of underlying renal dysfunction, worsening of urine protein, and hypertension, whereas adverse fetal outcomes include fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery. As such, pregnancy in young women with CKD is anxiety provoking for both the patient and the clinician providing care, and because the heterogeneous group of glomerular diseases often affects young women, this is an area of heightened concern...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521326/the-yield-of-abdominal-ultrasound-in-the-evaluation-of-elevated-liver-enzymes-during-the-second-and-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#19
Aya Mohr-Sasson, Eyal Schiff, Ramy Rahamim Suday, Zehava Hayman, Yeruham Kleinbaum, Anat Kalter-Farber, Roy Mashiach, Yoav Yinon, Moti Dulitzki, Eyal Sivan, Shali Mazaki-Tovi
AIMS: To determine the clinical yield of abdominal ultrasound in the evaluation of elevated liver enzymes (ELEs) in the second and the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all pregnant women admitted to a single tertiary care center was conducted between April 2011 and January 2015 with ELE. Inclusion criteria included gestational age above 24 weeks and ELEs, abdominal ultrasound report, and live fetus. Exclusion criteria included known maternal liver disease, structural or chromosomal fetal anomalies, and positive serology for viral hepatitis...
May 19, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520847/maternal-exposure-to-nitrogen-dioxide-intake-of-methyl-nutrients-and-congenital-heart-defects-in-offspring
#20
Jeanette A Stingone, Thomas J Luben, Suzan L Carmichael, Arthur S Aylsworth, Lorenzo D Botto, Adolfo Correa, Suzanne M Gilboa, Peter H Langlois, Wendy N Nembhard, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant, Gary M Shaw, Andrew F Olshan
Nutrients that regulate methylation processes may modify susceptibility to the effects of air pollutants. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2006, were used to estimate associations between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dietary intake of methyl nutrients and the odds of congenital heart defects in offspring. NO2 concentrations, a marker of traffic-related air pollution, averaged across post-conception weeks 2-8, were assigned to 6160 non-diabetic mothers of cases and controls using inverse distance-squared weighting of air monitors within 50 km of maternal residence...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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