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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#1
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431796/lessons-learned-from-twins-in-autoimmune-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Carlo Selmi
Autoimmunity and chronic inflammation recognize numerous shared factors and, as a result, the resulting diseases frequently coexist in the same patients or respond to the same treatments. Among the convenient truths of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, there is now agreement that these are complex conditions in which the individual genetic predisposition provides a rate of heritability. The concordance rates in monozygotic and dizygotic twins allows to estimate the weight of the environment in determining disease susceptibility, despite recent data supporting that only a minority of immune markers depend on hereditary factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422052/folic-acid-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-by-regulating-pp2a-methylation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#3
Miaoyan Zheng, Chen Zou, Mengyue Li, Guowei Huang, Yuxia Gao, Huan Liu
High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421713/identification-isolation-and-synthesis-of-seven-novel-impurities-of-anti-diabetic-drug-repaglinide
#4
Prasad Kancherla, Srinivas Keesari, Pallavi Alegete, Mukkanti Khagga, Parthasarathi Das
Seven unknown impurities in Repaglinide bulk drug batches at below 0.1% (ranging from 0.05-0.10%) were detected by an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method. These impurities were isolated from the crude sample of Repaglinide using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC). Based on LC-ESI/MS study, the chemical structures of seven new impurities (8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16) were presumed and characterized as 4-(cyanomethyl)-2-ethoxybenzoic acid (8), 4-(cyanomethyl)-2-ethoxy-N-(3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl)benzamide (9), 4-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-2-ethoxy-N-(3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl) benzamide (10) and 2-(3-ethoxy-4-((3-methyl-1-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)butyl) carbamoyl) phenyl) acetic acid (11) and 4-(cyanomethyl)-N-cyclohexyl-2-ethoxybenzamide (13), 2-(4-(cyclohexylcarbamoyl)-3-ethoxyphenyl) acetic acid (14) and N-cyclohexyl-4-(2-(cyclohexylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide (16)...
April 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413926/dusp-1-gene-expression-is-not-regulated-by-promoter-methylation-in-diabetes-associated-cardiac-hypertrophy
#5
Gurinder Bir Singh, Sanskriti Khanna, Satish K Raut, Saurabh Sharma, Rajni Sharma, Madhu Khullar
BACKGROUND: The exact mechanism causing decreased expression of the dual specific phosphatase-1 ( DUSP-1) gene in diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy is not known. DNA promoter methylation is often associated with decreased gene expression in many diseases including cardiovascular diseases. So, we investigated whether epigenetic silencing via promoter methylation is involved in the decreased expression of DUSP-1 in diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the down regulation of the DUSP-1 gene at transcriptional and translational levels...
April 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413567/differential-adipokine-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-adult-offspring-of-women-with-diabetes-in-pregnancy
#6
Azadeh Houshmand-Oeregaard, Ninna S Hansen, Line Hjort, Louise Kelstrup, Christa Broholm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Tine D Clausen, Peter Damm, Allan Vaag
BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412046/the-epigenetic-mechanism-for-discordance-of-autoimmunity-in-monozygotic-twins
#7
REVIEW
Zhongyuan Xiang, Yuanqing Yang, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
Monozygotic twins share an identical DNA sequence but are not truly "identical". In fact, when it comes to health and disease, they may often display some level of phenotypic discordance. The cause of this discordance is often unknown. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs-mediated regulation regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli. These modifications may be seen to bridge the gap between genetics and the environment. Over the years, the importance of epigenetics as a primary mechanism for the role that the environment plays in defining phenotype has been increasingly appreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409126/genomics-and-comparative-genomic-analyses-provide-insight-into-the-taxonomy-and-pathogenic-potential-of-novel-emmonsia-pathogens
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Yang, Qiang Ye, Kang Li, Zongwei Li, Xiaochen Bo, Zhen Li, Yingchun Xu, Shengqi Wang, Peng Wang, Huipeng Chen, Junzhi Wang
Over the last 50 years, newly described species of Emmonsia-like fungi have been implicated globally as sources of systemic human mycosis (emmonsiosis). Their ability to convert into yeast-like cells capable of replication and extra-pulmonary dissemination during the course of infection differentiates them from classical Emmonsia species. Immunocompromised patients are at highest risk of emmonsiosis and exhibit high mortality rates. In order to investigate the molecular basis for pathogenicity of the newly described Emmonsia species, genomic sequencing and comparative genomic analyses of Emmonsia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407669/metformin-inhibits-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-gastric-tumorigenesis-in-db-db-mice
#9
Shan Zhuang, Yongmei Jian, Yongning Sun
Type 2 diabetes can elevate risk of gastric cancer and metformin, an anti-diabetic agent, has an inhibitory effect against gastric cancer cell in vitro. However, the effect of metformin on type 2 diabetes-related gastric tumorigenesis in vivo is still not clear. In the present study, we aim to detect whether metformin can inhibit increased risk of gastric cancer in diabetic db/db mice and which the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin are. 4-week-old mice were divided into 3 groups (2 db/db mice groups and one wild type mice group)...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401680/dna-methylation-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Amita Bansal, Sara E Pinney
Although the factors responsible for the recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide are not entirely known, the morbidity associated with this disease results in substantial health and economic burden on society. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation have been identified as one mechanism by which the environment interacts with the genome and there is evidence that alterations in DNA methylation may contribute to the increased prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review provides a summary of DNA methylation and its role in gene regulation, and includes descriptions of various techniques to measure site-specific and genome-wide DNA methylation changes...
May 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401169/epigenetic-regulations-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
REVIEW
Zeyuan Lu, Na Liu, Feng Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of diabetes and the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease. It has been reported that multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN, while the molecular mechanisms that lead to DN are still not fully understood. Numerous risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy have been proposed, including ethnicity and inherited genetic differences. Recently, with the development of high-throughput technologies, there is emerging evidence that suggests the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DN...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400333/umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-able-to-undergo-differentiation-into-functional-islet-like-cells-in-type-2-diabetic-tree-shrews
#12
Xing-Hua Pan, Xia Huang, Guang-Ping Ruan, Rong-Qing Pang, Qiang Chen, Jin-Xiang Wang, Jie He, Jing Zhao, Xue-Min Cai, Na Zhao, Yi Chen, Xiang-Qing Zhu
Islet transplantation is arguably one of the most promising strategies to treat patients suffering with diabetes mellitus. However, a combination of a lack of donors and chronic immune rejection limit clinical applications. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of cell therapy using islet-like cells differentiated from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) of tree shrews for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labeled UC-MSCs were directly injected into type 2 diabetic tree shrews, where UC-MSC differentiated into functional islet-like cells and alleviated disease severity, as evidenced by improved biochemical features and reduced concentrations of inflammatory cytokines...
April 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399592/comparative-metabolism-study-of-five-protoberberine-alkaloids-in-liver-microsomes-from-rat-rhesus-monkey-and-human
#13
Yan Li, Yanyan Zhou, Nan Si, Lingyu Han, Wei Ren, Shaokun Xin, Hongjie Wang, Ran Zuo, Xiaolu Wei, Jian Yang, Haiyu Zhao, Baolin Bian
Protoberberine alkaloids including berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and epiberberine are major components in many medicinal plants. They have been widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, diabetes, depression, hypertension, and various infectious areas. However, the metabolism of five protoberberine alkaloids among different species has not been clarified previously. In order to elaborate on the in vitro metabolism of them, a comparative analysis of their metabolic profile in rat, rhesus monkey, and human liver microsomes was carried out using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-electrospray ionization-Orbitrap MS) for the first time...
April 11, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398573/skeletal-muscle-pgc1%C3%AE-1-nucleosome-position-and-260nt-dna-methylation-determine-exercise-response-and-prevent-ectopic-lipid-accumulation-in-men
#14
Sudip Bajpeyi, Jeffrey D Covington, Erin M Taylor, Laura K Stewart, Jose E Galgani, Tara M Henagan
Endurance exercise has been shown to improve lipid oxidation and increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle: two features that have shown dependence on increased expression of the PPAR gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α). It is also hypothesized that exercise related alterations in PGC1α expression occur through epigenetic regulation of nucleosome positioning in association with differential DNA methylation status within the PCG1α promoter. Here we show that when primary human myotubes from obese, type 2 diabetics are exposed to lipolytic stimulus (PFI) in vitro, nucleosome occupancy surrounding the -260 nucleotide (nt) region, a known regulatory DNA methylation site, is reduced...
April 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396876/reduced-histone-h3-lysine-9-methylation-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-via-regulation-of-suv39h2-and-kdm4c
#15
Xi-Yu Liu, Hong Li
Aims. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an autoimmune disease of which the mechanism is not clear. Emerging evidence suggests that histone methylation contributes to autoimmunity. Methods. Blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes from 26 LADA patients and 26 healthy controls were isolated to detect histone H3 lysine 4 and H3 lysine 9 methylation status. Results. Reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients' CD4(+) T lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). H3 lysine 4 methylation was not statistically different...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396702/interaction-between-prenatal-pesticide-exposure-and-a-common-polymorphism-in-the-pon1-gene-on-dna-methylation-in-genes-associated-with-cardio-metabolic-disease-risk-an-exploratory%C3%A2-study
#16
Ken Declerck, Sylvie Remy, Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Katharina M Main, Guy Van Camp, Greet Schoeters, Wim Vanden Berghe, Helle R Andersen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that epigenetics might be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in blood cells were related to prenatal pesticide exposure level, PON1 Q192R genotype, and associated metabolic effects observed in the children...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396406/flicr-a-long-noncoding-rna-modulates-foxp3-expression-and-autoimmunity
#17
David Zemmour, Alvin Pratama, Scott M Loughhead, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist
A combination of transcription factors, enhancers, and epigenetic marks determines the expression of the key transcription factor FoxP3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs). Adding an additional layer of complexity, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Flicr (Foxp3 long intergenic noncoding RNA) is a negative regulator that tunes Foxp3 expression, resulting in a subset of Tregs with twofold- to fivefold-lower levels of FoxP3 protein. The impact of Flicr is particularly marked in conditions of IL-2 deficiency, and, conversely, IL-2 represses Flicr expression...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361696/p-hint-hunt-a-deep-parallelized-whole-genome-dna-methylation-detection-tool
#18
Shaoliang Peng, Shunyun Yang, Ming Gao, Xiangke Liao, Jie Liu, Canqun Yang, Chengkun Wu, Wenqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: The increasing studies have been conducted using whole genome DNA methylation detection as one of the most important part of epigenetics research to find the significant relationships among DNA methylation and several typical diseases, such as cancers and diabetes. In many of those studies, mapping the bisulfite treated sequence to the whole genome has been the main method to study DNA cytosine methylation. However, today's relative tools almost suffer from inaccuracies and time-consuming problems...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360945/epigenetic-signatures-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-on-cord-blood-methylation
#19
Larissa Haertle, Nady El Hajj, Marcus Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Indrajit Nanda, Harald Lehnen, Thomas Haaf
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) confers a lifelong increased risk for metabolic and other complex disorders to the offspring. GDM-induced epigenetic modifications modulating gene regulation and persisting into later life are generally assumed to mediate these elevated disease susceptibilities. To identify candidate genes for fetal programming, we compared genome-wide methylation patterns of fetal cord bloods (FCBs) from GDM and control pregnancies...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357066/association-of-two-synonymous-splicing-associated-cpg-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-calpain-10-and-solute-carrier-family-2-member-2-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Maria Karambataki, Andigoni Malousi, Georgios Tzimagiorgis, Constantinos Haitoglou, Aikaterini Fragou, Elisavet Georgiou, Foteini Papadopoulou, Gerasimos E Krassas, Sofia Kouidou
Coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have attracted little attention until recently. However, such SNPs located in epigenetic, CpG sites modifying exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) can be informative with regards to the recently verified association of intragenic methylation and splicing. The present study describes the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with the exonic, synonymous, epigenetic SNPs, rs3749166 in calpain 10 (CAPN10) glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocator and rs5404 in solute carrier family 2, member 2 (SLC2A2), also termed GLUT2, which, according to prior bioinformatic analysis, strongly modify the splicing potential of glucose transport-associated genes...
February 2017: Biomedical Reports
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