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methylation diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938426/a-sustained-activation-of-pancreatic-nmdars-is-a-novel-factor-of-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-and-dysfunction
#1
Xiao-Ting Huang, Shao-Jie Yue, Chen Li, Yan-Hong Huang, Qing-Mei Cheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Cai-Xia Hao, Ling-Zhi Wang, Jian-Ping Xu, Ming Ji, Chen Chen, Dan-Dan Feng, Zi-Qiang Luo
Type 2 diabetes, which features β-cell failure, is caused by the decrease of β-cell mass and insulin secretory function. Current treatments fail to halt the decrease of functional β-cell mass. Strategies to prevent β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction are highly desirable. Recently, our group and others have reported that blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the islets has been proposed to prevent the progress of type 2 diabetes through improving β-cell function. It suggests that a sustained activation of the NMDARs may exhibit deleterious effect on β-cells...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935419/red-near-infrared-light-stimulates-release-of-an-endothelium-dependent-vasodilator-and-rescues-vascular-dysfunction-in-a-diabetes-model
#2
Agnes Keszler, Brian Lindemer, Dorothee Weihrauch, Deron Jones, Neil Hogg, Nicole L Lohr
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a morbid condition whereby ischemic peripheral muscle causes pain and tissue breakdown. Interestingly, PAD risk factors, e.g. diabetes mellitus, cause endothelial dysfunction secondary to decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels, which could explain treatment failures. Previously, we demonstrated 670nm light (R/NIR) increased NO from nitrosyl-heme stores, therefore we hypothesized R/NIR can stimulate vasodilation in healthy and diabetic blood vessels. Vasodilation was tested by ex vivo pressure myography in wild type C57Bl/6, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout, and db/db mice (10mW/cm(2) for 5min with 10min dark period)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933769/a-lanosteryl-triterpene-from-protorhus-longifolia-improves-glucose-tolerance-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-ultrastructure-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Sihle E Mabhida, Rebamang A Mosa, Dambudzo Penduka, Foluso O Osunsanmi, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Tryana G Djarova, Andy R Opoku
Type 2 diabetes remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Persistent hyperglycemia within a diabetic state is implicated in the generation of oxidative stress and aggravated inflammation that is responsible for accelerated modification of pancreatic beta cell structure. Here we investigated whether a lanosteryl triterpene, methyl-3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate (RA-3), isolated from Protorhus longifolia can improve glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta cell ultrastructure by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933311/mg17-a-novel-triazole-derivative-abrogated-neuroinflammation-and-related-neurodegenerative-symptoms-in-rodents
#4
Gangadhar Matharasala, Ganesh Samala, Yogeeswari Perumal
The objective of present study is to explore multiple effects of the compound MG17 and relate them to achieve better therapeutic potential against neuroinflammation related disorders. We examined whether our compound is acting through regulating neuroinflammatory mediators. We have done some preliminary behavioral studies to shortlist the derivatives using rodent models of peripheral nerve injury in our earlier publication and now we extended our screening studies to explore the test compounds efficacy on other related peripheral neurological disorders such as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and methyl mercury (MeHg) induced neurodegeneration in rats...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932450/a-new-solvate-of-epalerstat-a-drug-for-diabetic-neuropathy
#5
Okky Dwichandra Putra, Daiki Umeda, Kaori Fukuzawa, Mihoko Gunji, Etsuo Yonemochi
Epalerstat {systematic name: (5Z)-5-[(2E)-2-methyl-3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-yl-idene]-4-oxo-2-sulfanyl-idene-1,3-thia-zolidine-3-acetic acid} crystallized as an acetone monosolvate, C15H13NO3S2·C3H6O. In the epalerstat mol-ecule, the methyl-propyl-enediene moiety is inclined to the phenyl ring and the five-membered rhodamine ring by 21.4 (4) and 4.7 (4)°, respectively. In addition, the acetic acid moiety is found to be almost normal to the rhodamine ring, making a dihedral angle of 85.1 (2)°. In the crystal, a pair of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the carb-oxy-lic acid groups of epalerstat mol-ecules form inversion dimers with an R2(2)(8) loop...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927592/preliminary-structural-characterization-and-hypoglycemic-effects-of-an-acidic-polysaccharide-serp1-from-the-residue-of-sarcandra-glabra
#6
Wei Liu, Weisheng Lu, Yin Chai, Yameng Liu, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
An acidic polysaccharide (SERP1) was isolated from the residue of Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai by water extraction and purified by decoloration and ion exchange chromatography. The structure of SERP1 was determined by HPLC, HPSEC-MALLS, FT-IR, and NMR. The results indicated that SERP1 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide with the absolute molecular weight of 4.208×10(4)Da in the aqueous phase. 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid, methyl esterified 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid, 1,4-linked α-d-glucuronic acid, 1,5-linked α-l-arabinose, 1,3-linked β-d-galactose 1,4-linked α-d-glucose, 1,4,6-linked β-d-glucose, 1,6-linked β-d-glucose, and 1,2-linked rhamnose existed in SERP1...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927261/hdac11-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-through-repression-of-myod-dependent-transcription
#7
Sang Kyung Byun, Tae Hyeon An, Min Jeong Son, Da Som Lee, Hyun Sup Kang, Eun-Woo Lee, Baek Soo Han, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Kyoung-Jin Oh, Sang Chul Lee
Abnormal differentiation of muscle is closely associated with aging (sarcopenia) and diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate muscle differentiation will be useful in the treatment and prevention of these conditions. Protein lysine acetylation and methylation are major post-translational modification mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between myogenic differentiation and protein lysine acetylation/methylation, we performed a PCR array of enzymes related to protein lysine acetylation/ methylation during C2C12 myoblast differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924151/dna-methylomes-reveal-biological-networks-involved-in-human-eye-development-functions-and-associated-disorders
#8
María Berdasco, Antonio Gómez, Marcos J Rubio, Jaume Català-Mora, Vicente Zanón-Moreno, Miguel Lopez, Cristina Hernández, Shigeo Yoshida, Takahito Nakama, Keijiro Ishikawa, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Amina M Boubekeur, Lotfi Louhibi, Miguel A Pujana, Sergi Sayols, Fernando Setien, Dolores Corella, Carmen de Torres, Andreu Parareda, Jaume Mora, Ling Zhao, Kang Zhang, Matilde E Lleonart, Javier Alonso, Rafael Simó, Josep M Caminal, Manel Esteller
This work provides a comprehensive CpG methylation landscape of the different layers of the human eye that unveils the gene networks associated with their biological functions and how these are disrupted in common visual disorders. Herein, we firstly determined the role of CpG methylation in the regulation of ocular tissue-specification and described hypermethylation of retinal transcription factors (i.e., PAX6, RAX, SIX6) in a tissue-dependent manner. Second, we have characterized the DNA methylome of visual disorders linked to internal and external environmental factors...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917123/identification-of-new-potent-inhibitor-of-aldose-reductase-from-ocimum-basilicum
#9
Huma Aslam Bhatti, Yildiz Tehseen, Kiran Maryam, Maliha Uroos, Bina S Siddiqui, Abdul Hameed, Jamshed Iqbal
Recent efforts to develop cure for chronic diabetic complications have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors against aldose reductase (AKR1B1, EC 1.1.1.21) whose role in diabetes is well-evident. In the present work, two new natural products were isolated from the ariel part of Ocimum basilicum; 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-d-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and E-4-(6'-hydroxyhex-3'-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate (2) and confirmed their structures with different spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy etc...
September 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911167/in-utero-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-programs-hepatic-hypermethylation-and-gene-dysregulation-and-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#10
Yoshinori Seki, Masako Suzuki, Xingyi Guo, Alan Scott Glenn, Patricia M Vuguin, Ariana Fiallo, Quan Du, Yi-An Ko, Yiting Yu, Katalin Susztak, Deyou Zheng, John M Greally, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron
Exposure to a high-fat (HF) diet in utero is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome later in life. However, the molecular basis of this enhanced susceptibility for metabolic disease is poorly understood. Gene expression microarray and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of mouse liver revealed that exposure to a maternal HF milieu activated genes of immune response, inflammation, and hepatic dysfunction. DNA methylation analysis revealed 3360 differentially methylated loci, most of which (76%) were hypermethylated and distributed preferentially to hotspots on chromosomes 4 [atherosclerosis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) 1] and 18 (insulin-dependent susceptibility QTLs 21)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903960/biomarkers-of-food-intake-and-nutrient-status-are-associated-with-glucose-tolerance-status-and-development-of-type-2-diabetes-in-older-swedish-women
#11
Otto Savolainen, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Göran Bergström, Björn Fagerberg, Ann-Sofie Sandberg, Alastair Ross
Background: Diet is frequently associated with both the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is a lack of objective tools for assessing the relation between diet and T2D. Biomarkers of dietary intake are unconfounded by recall and reporting bias, and using multiple dietary biomarkers could help strengthen the link between a healthy diet and the prevention of T2D.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how diet is related to glucose tolerance status (GTS) and to future development of T2D irrespective of common T2D and cardiovascular disease risk factors by using multiple dietary biomarkers...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901263/%C3%AE-aroylketene-dithioacetal-mediated-synthesis-of-e-3-benzo-d-thiazol-2-ylamino-2-1-methyl-1h-indole-3-carbonyl-3-methylthio-acrylonitrile-derivatives-and-their-biological-evaluation
#12
Pravin Bhale, Hemant Vilas Chavan, Sakharam B Dongare, Sagar T Sankpal, Babasaheb P Bandgar
• Background: The blending of two pharmacophores would generate novel molecular templates that are likely to exhibit interesting biological properties. • Objective: A facile, efficient and high yielding synthesis of (E)-3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylamino)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-3-(methylthio) acrylonitrile derivatives and evaluation of therapeutic potential. • Method: The synthesis of target molecules has been achieved by reacting 2-aminobenzothiazole and substituted 2-(1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-3,3-bis(methylthio)acrylonitrile in the presence of a catalytic amount of sodium hydride in THF...
September 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#13
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885036/postnatal-diet-remodels-hepatic-dna-methylation-in-metabolic-pathways-established-by-a-maternal-high-fat-diet
#14
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
AIM: We investigate how postweaning diet may modify the epigenetic landscape to meet metabolic demands later in life. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were placed either on an HF diet (HF/HF) or a control diet (HF/C). Methylation-dependent immunoprecipitation sequencing and methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sequencing were used to quantify hepatic DNA methylation. RESULTS: Out of the 3966 identified differentially methylated regions, 37% were mapped to gene bodies while 6% fell within promoter or downstream regions...
September 8, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883893/the-association-between-alu-hypomethylation-and-severity-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Jirapan Thongsroy, Maturada Patchsung, Apiwat Mutirangura
BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence due to genomic instability is believed to be one of the mechanisms causing health problems in diabetes mellitus (DM). Low methylation levels of Alu elements or Alu hypomethylation, an epigenomic event causing genomic instability, were commonly found in aging people and patients with aging phenotypes, such as osteoporosis. RESULTS: We investigate Alu methylation levels of white blood cells of type 2 DM, pre-DM, and control. The DM group possess the lowest Alu methylation (P < 0...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880473/nmdar-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-current-status-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Alena Welters, Carina Klüppel, Jessica Mrugala, Laura Wörmeyer, Thomas Meissner, Ertan Mayatepek, Christian Heiss, Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronically elevated blood glucose levels accelerated by a progressive decline of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Although medications are available to transiently adjust blood glucose to normal levels, the effects of current drugs are limited when it comes to preservation of a critical mass of functional β-cells to sustainably maintain normoglycemia. In this review, we recapitulate recent evidence on the role of pancreatic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in β-cell physiology, and summarize effects of morphinan-based NMDAR antagonists that are beneficial for insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and islet cell survival...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870510/repeated-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-cognitive-dysfunction-and-synaptic-plasticity-deficit-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
Yi-Jen Wu, Chou-Ching Lin, Che-Ming Yeh, Miao-Er Chien, Ming-Chung Tsao, Philip Tseng, Chin-Wei Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of tDCS on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
August 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866888/additive-capacity-of-6-shogaol-and-epicatechin-to-trap-methylglyoxal
#18
Qiju Huang, Pei Wang, Yingdong Zhu, Lishuang Lv, Shengmin Sang
Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl species, is thought to contribute to the development of long-term pathological diabetes as a direct toxin or as an active precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Trapping MGO by dietary phenols to inhibit the MGO induced AGE formation is an approach for alleviating diabetic complications. The present study investigated whether dietary compounds with different structures and active sites have the additive capacity to trap MGO. Ginger phenolic constituent [6]-shogaol and tea flavonoid (-)-epicatechin were selected and tested under simulated physiological conditions, showing that they additively trapped about 41% MGO at a concentration of 10 μM within 24 h...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864287/age-related-cataracts-role-of-unfolded-protein-response-ca-2-mobilization-epigenetic-dna-modifications-and-loss-of-nrf2-keap1-dependent-cytoprotection
#19
REVIEW
Palsamy Periyasamy, Toshimichi Shinohara
Age-related cataracts are closely associated with lens chronological aging, oxidation, calcium imbalance, hydration and crystallin modifications. Accumulating evidence indicates that misfolded proteins are generated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by most cataractogenic stresses. To eliminate misfolded proteins from cells before they can induce senescence, the cells activate a clean-up machinery called the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also activates the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central transcriptional factor for cytoprotection against stress...
September 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842957/understanding-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-from-mechanisms-to-novel-test-methods
#20
Ali Alavian-Ghavanini, Joëlle Rüegg
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made chemicals that interfere with hormonal signalling pathways. They are used in, e.g., production of common household materials, in resin-based medical supplies, pesticides. Thus, they are environmentally ubiquitous and humans and wildlife are exposed to them on a daily basis. Early life exposure to EDCs has been associated with later life adversities such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Mechanisms underlying such associations are unknown but are likely to be mediated by epigenetic changes induced by EDCs...
August 26, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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