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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102832/silk-protein-as-a-new-optically-transparent-adhesion-layer-for-an-ultra-smooth-sub-10-nm-gold-layer
#1
Kyungtaek Min, Muhammad Umar, Shinyoung Ryu, Soonil Lee, Sunghwan Kim
Ultra-thin and ultra-smooth gold (Au) films are appealing for photonic applications including surface plasmon resonances and transparent contacts. However, poor adhesion at the Au���dielectric interface prohibits the formation of a mechanically stable, ultra-thin, and ultra-smooth Au film. A conventional solution is to use a metallic adhesion layer, such as titanium and chromium however, such layers cause the optical properties of pure Au to deteriorate. Here we report the use of silk protein to enhance the adhesion at the Au���dielectric interfaces, thus obtaining ultra-smooth sub-10 nm Au films...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102384/predicting-point-defect-equilibria-across-oxide-hetero-interfaces-model-system-of-zro2-cr2o3
#2
Jing Yang, Mostafa Youssef, Bilge Yildiz
We present a multi-scale approach to predict equilibrium defect concentrations across oxide/oxide hetero-interfaces. There are three factors that need to be taken into account simultaneously for computing defect redistribution around the hetero-interfaces: the variation of local bonding environment at the interface as epitomized in defect segregation energies, the band offset at the interface, and the equilibration of the chemical potentials of species and electrons via ionic and electronic drift-diffusion fluxes...
January 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099592/epidemiological-analysis-of-occupational-dermatitis-notified-in-brazil-in-the-period-2007-to-2012
#3
Gabriela Yumi Plombom, Mariana Santos de Oliveira, Fernanda Lika Tabushi, Amanda Joekel Kassem, Kátia Sheylla Malta Purim, Renato Mitsunori Nisihara
BACKGROUND: Occupational dermatitis affects the quality of life and productivity of workers. Studies on the subject are scarce in Brazil. It is estimated that the disease is underreported and that many affected patients do not seek health care. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an epidemiological analysis of occupational dermatitis notified via SINAN in Brazil from January 2007 to December 2012; evaluate the profile of patients assisted; and check the main etiological agents involved...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098396/the-effects-of-chronic-cobalt-and-chromium-exposure-after-metal-on-metal-hip-resurfacing-an-epigenome-wide-association-pilot-study
#4
Julia Steinberg, Karan M Shah, Alison Gartland, Eleftheria Zeggini, J Mark Wilkinson
Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing has recently been a popular prosthesis choice for the treatment of symptomatic arthritis, but results in the release of cobalt and chromium ions into the circulation that can be associated with adverse clinical effects. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. While chromosomal aneuploidy and translocations are associated with this exposure, the presence of subtle structural epigenetic modifications in patients with MOM joint-replacements remains unexplored...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097602/dietary-supplementation-of-chromium-can-alleviate-negative-impacts-of-heat-stress-on-performance-carcass-yield-and-some-blood-hematology-and-chemistry-indices-of-growing-japanese-quail
#5
Mohamed Soliman El-Kholy, Mohamed Mohamed El-Hindawy, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Sabry Abd El-Gawad Abd El-Halim El-Sayed
The main objective of this work was to investigate the impact of dietary chromium supplementation on growth indices, carcass yield, and some hematological and biochemical blood parameters of growing Japanese quails subjected to heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed 2-week-old Japanese quail chicks were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement that had two ambient temperatures (23 ± 2 and 33 ± 2 °C) and three dietary chromium (0.00, 500, and 1000 μg Cr/kg diet as chromium picolinate). For induction of heat stress, the room temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 2 to 6 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097115/granulomatous-lung-disease-a-novel-complication-following-metallosis-from-hip-arthroplasty
#6
Theodoros Balbouzis, Thomas Georgiadis, Peter Grigoris
A case of a female patient with local and systemic complications of metallosis, following catastrophic wear of a revised hip arthroplasty, is presented. The patient had a history of a fractured ceramic-on-ceramic implant, exchanged with a metal-on-polyethylene prosthesis. Systemic complications included sarcoidosis-like reactions, presenting as granulomatous lung disease, along with chorioretinitis, erythema nodosum, and cardiomyopathy. High local and circulating cobalt and chromium levels established the diagnosis...
December 2016: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096611/recent-advances-in-role-of-chromium-and-its-antioxidant-combinations-in-poultry-nutrition-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Z Haq, R K Jain, N Khan, M Y Dar, S Ali, M Gupta, T K Varun
Poultry is reared in open side houses in most of the tropical countries, which results in huge temperature variation in shed causing stress resulting in increased demand of antioxidant supplementation. Since cooling of poultry houses or environment control is very expensive, thus methods focused on nutritional modifications appears to be the much logical approach. Stress increases mineral and vitamin mobilization from tissues and their excretion. Effect of some minerals and vitamin supplements such as chromium (Cr) and ascorbic acid to elevate the negative effects of environmental stress is well documented...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094470/mechanistic-studies-of-dmap-initiated-cyclohexene-oxide-co2-copolymerization-by-a-chromium-iii-pyridylamine-bis-phenolate-complex
#8
Christopher Mark Kozak, Katalin Devaine-Pressing
Chromium(III) chlorido amine-bis(phenolate) complexes paired with nucleophilic co-catalysts are a promising family of catalysts for the copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides to selectively produce polycarbonates with a very high degree of carbonate linkages. Single component catalyst systems can be prepared, where the neutral nucleophile, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), is coordinated to the metal site to provide a stable octahedral CrIII complex. These complexes possess the potentional for both anionic (from the chlorido ligand) or neutral (DMAP) nucleophilic epoxide ring-opening during the proposed rate-determining initation step...
January 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094157/stabilization-of-tannery-sludge-by-co-treatment-with-aluminum-anodizing-sludge-and-phytotoxicity-of-end-products
#9
E Pantazopoulou, O Zebiliadou, M Mitrakas, A Zouboulis
A global demand for efficient re-utilization of produced solid wastes, which is based on the principles of re-use and recycling, results to a circular economy, where one industry's waste becomes another's raw material and it can be used in a more efficient and sustainable way. In this study, the influence of a by-product addition, such as aluminum anodizing sludge, on tannery waste (air-dried sludge) stabilization was examined. The chemical characterization of tannery waste leachate, using the EN 12457-2 standard leaching test, reveals that tannery waste cannot be accepted even in landfills for hazardous wastes, according to the EU Decision 2003/33/EC...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094156/removal-of-toxic-metals-during-biological-treatment-of-landfill-leachates
#10
T Robinson
Progressive implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in substantial changes in limits for discharges of heavy metals both to watercourses, and to sewer. The objective of this paper is to provide original, real, full-scale data obtained for removal of metals during aerobic biological leachate treatment, and also to report on studies carried out to look at further trace metal removal. Polishing technologies examined and investigated include; the incorporation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes into biological treatment systems, the use of ion exchange, and of activated carbon polishing processes...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092272/material-dependent-implant-artifact-reduction-using-semac-vat-and-mavric-a-prospective-mri-phantom-study
#11
Lukas Filli, Lukas Jud, Roger Luechinger, Daniel Nanz, Gustav Andreisek, Val M Runge, Sebastian Kozerke, Nadja A Farshad-Amacker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the degree of artifact reduction in magnetic resonance imaging achieved with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) in combination with view angle tilting (VAT) and multiacquisition variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) for standard contrast weightings and different metallic materials. METHODS: Four identically shaped rods made of the most commonly used prosthetic materials (stainless steel, SS; titanium, Ti; cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, CoCr; and oxidized zirconium, oxZi) were scanned at 3 T...
January 13, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089160/investigation-of-hexavalent-chromium-sorption-in-serpentine-sediments
#12
Thanasis Mpouras, Maria Chrysochoou, Dimitris Dermatas
In this study the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) by serpentine sediments was investigated in order to delineate Cr(6+) sorption behavior in aquifers with ultramafic geologic background. Batch experiments were conducted in order to determine the influence of several parameters on Cr(6+) removal, including the pH of the sediment solution, mineralogy, sediment's particle size and Cr(6+) initial concentration. The results showed that Cr(6+) removal was due to both adsorption and reduction phenomena. Reduction was attributed to the presence of a magnetic fraction in the sediment, mostly related to magnetite, which contributed almost 50% of the total removal in the pH range 3-7...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088571/theophylline-assisted-eco-friendly-synthesis-of-ptau-nanospheres-at-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-enhanced-catalytic-activity-towards-cr-vi-reduction
#13
Ling-Ya Hu, Li-Xian Chen, Meng-Ting Liu, Ai-Jun Wang, Lan-Ju Wu, Jiu-Ju Feng
Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088116/upconversion-color-tuning-in-ce-3-doped-liyf4-yb-3-ho-3-liyf4-nanoparticles-towards-ratiometric-fluorescence-detection-of-chromium-iii
#14
Shijiang Liu, Yangjie Li, Cheng Zhang, Liang Yang, Tingting Zhao, Ruilong Zhang, Changlong Jiang
Ratiometric fluorescence sensor exhibits advantages of sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and naked eye visualization owing to multiple independent emission peaks utilized for results analysis. To achieve such multi-emission probe, the traditional methods have involved simple mixing of two emitters or tedious synthesis processes of hybrid material. However, these probes often have problems of inconstant emission strength ratio, low light-stability, and complicated synthetic process, which limit their applications in practical field...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088020/sulphur-alters-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-solanum-melongena-seedlings-role-of-sulphur-assimilation-and-sulphur-containing-antioxidants
#15
Madhulika Singh, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Samiksha Singh, Vipin Kumar, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The present study investigates modulation in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) 25 μM] toxicity by sulphur (S; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM S as low (LS), medium (MS) and high sulphur (HS), respectively) in Solanum melongena (eggplant) seedlings. Biomass accumulation (fresh and dry weights), photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and S content were declined by Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test) were also affected by Cr(VI), but Cr(VI) toxicity on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by HS treatment via reducing damaging effect on PS II reaction centre and its reduction side...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087233/anti-diabetic-effects-of-inonotus-obliquus-polysaccharides-chromium-iii-complex-in-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-its-sub-acute-toxicity-evaluation-in-normal-mice
#16
Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Yuxiang Pan, Xudong Gao, Haixia Chen
Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 (4) Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond...
January 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087160/mri-retrieval-analysis-and-histologic-evaluation-of-adverse-local-tissue-reaction-in-metal-on-polyethylene-total-hip-arthroplasty
#17
Scott R Nodzo, Christina I Esposito, Hollis G Potter, Chitranjan S Ranawat, Timothy M Wright, Douglas E Padgett
BACKGROUND: The severity and location of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) seen in metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (THA) is not well described. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent a revision THA using our biomechanics database. We included all patients who underwent revision surgery for the diagnosis of ALTR with THA implants that had modularity solely at the head-neck junction and excluded patients with implant modularity at sites other than the head-neck junction...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081365/visualizing-arsenate-reactions-and-encapsulation-in-a-single-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticle
#18
Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
A nanostructure-based mechanism is presented on the enrichment, separation and immobilization of arsenic with nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI). The As-Fe reactions are studied with Spherical Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cs-STEM). Near atomic-resolution (<1 nm3) electron tomography discovers a thin continuous layer (23±3 Å) of elemental arsenic sandwiched between the iron oxide shell and the zero-valent iron core. This points to a unique mechanism of nano-encapsulation and proves that the outer layer, especially the Fe(0)/oxide interface is the edge of the As-Fe reactions...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079703/metal-artifact-reduction-magnetic-resonance-imaging-around-arthroplasty-implants-the-negative-effect-of-long-echo-trains-on-the-implant-related-artifact
#19
Neil M Kumar, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Lew C Schon, Jan Fritz
OBJECTIVES: Long echo train length (ETL) is an often recommended but unproven technique to decrease metal artifacts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Therefore, we quantitatively and qualitatively assessed the effects of ETL on metal artifact on MRI scans using a cobalt-chromium-containing arthroplasty implant system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a total ankle arthroplasty system implanted into a human cadaver ankle and a clinical 1.5 T MRI system, turbo spin echo (TSE) pulse sequences were acquired with ETL ranging from 3 to 23 and receiver bandwidth (BW) from 100 to 750 Hz/pixel, whereas effective echo time and spatial resolution were controlled...
January 9, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077780/exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#20
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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