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Paulo R Frade, Luiza Notini, Sara V Santos, Regina F P M Moreira, Mônica M D Leão, Camila C Amorim
In this study, the steel manufacturing waste Basic Oxygen Furnace Sludge (BOFS) was tested as permeable reactive material for the remediation of soil contaminated with chromium. The material presents a high content of elemental iron and iron oxides typical of the steel manufacturing process. Here we propose a scheme of the chemical reactions responsible for remediation process including BOFS dissolution, Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) precipitation. Batch reactors showed that Cr(VI) removal increases as the pH decreases...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jennifer Lopez Barrilao, Bernd Kuhn, Egbert Wessel
In the present study a stainless, high strength, ferritic (non-martensitic) steel was analysed regarding microstructure and particle evolution. The preceding hot-rolling process of the steel results in the formation of sub-grain structures, which disappear over time at high temperature. Besides that the formation of particle-free zones was observed. The pronounced formation of these zones preferentially appears close to high angle grain boundaries and is considered to be responsible for long-term material failure under creep conditions...
February 23, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Melissa P Woodard, Scott T Akin, Collin J Dibble, Michael A Duncan
Ultra-small chromium oxide nanoclusters produced by laser vaporization in a fast flowtube reactor are ligand-coated by gas phase reactions with acetonitrile vapor and then captured in a cold trap and transferred to solution. The resulting clusters are characterized with mass spectrometry, UV-visible absorption and emission, infrared spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). According to mass spectrometry, clusters of the form CrxOy(MeCN)z are produced in the size range of x  10 and y < 25...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Kaushal K Verma, Erik Zimerson, Magnus Bruze, Malin Engfeldt, Cecilia Svedman, Marléne Isaksson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Zhe Du, Shujun Wang, Bing Yue, Ying Wang, You Wang
T-cells, second only to macrophages, are often considered as the potential cells involved in debris-related failure of arthroplasty. Here, we assessed the effects of particulate wear debris on T-cells and inflammatory reactions. Blood samples from 25 donors were incubated with polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) particles generated by custom cryo-milling and pulverization. The T-cell phenotypes were assessed using immunostaining and flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, 0...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
O L Sydora, R T Hart, N A Eckert, E Martinez Baez, A E Clark, C J Benmore
Structurally characterized chromium(iii) carboxylates form clusters with a variety of bridging groups introduced from aqueous reaction conditions. The first homoleptic monomeric chromium(iii) carboxylate has been prepared using an anhydrous salt metathesis synthetic route. The carboxylate groups coordinate the chromium in a bidentate chelate yielding an aliphatic soluble complex. The complex was characterized by a variety of methods including high energy X-ray diffraction, FD-MS, IR and Raman spectroscopy, complemented by DFT modeling...
March 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Vishnu Manirethan, Keyur Raval, Reju Rajan, Harsha Thaira, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan
The difficulty in removal of heavy metals at concentrations below 10 mg/L has led to the exploration of efficient adsorbents for removal of heavy metals. The adsorption capacity of biosynthesized melanin for Mercury (Hg(II)), Chromium (Cr(VI)), Lead (Pb(II)) and Copper (Cu(II)) was investigated at different operating conditions like pH, time, initial concentration and temperature. The heavy metals adsorption process was well illustrated by the Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted excellently to Langmuir isotherm...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska, Joanna Augustynowicz, Wojciech Lasek, Justyna Czupioł, Daniel Ociński
The present study focused on the use of the dry mass of the macrophyte Callitriche cophocarpa as an effective biosorbent for chromium removal from concentrated solutions, typical for industrial effluents. In order to evaluate the usability of C. cophocarpa as the Cr(III) sorbent, its detailed physicochemical characterization has been performed as well as the preliminary adsorption studies. The biosorbent was characterized by specific surface area (SSA), porosity, total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic content as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC), dominant exchangeable cations and anion exchange capacity (AEC), point of zero charge (pHpzc ) and buffering capacity...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Renato Sussumu Nishioka, Leandro Ruivo De Santis, Gabriela Nogueira De Melo Nishioka, Alberto Noriyuki Kojima, Francisley Ávila Souza
PURPOSE: This in vitro study assessed the accuracy of multiple implant-level impression techniques (open tray and closed tray) for the fabrication of 3-unit implant prostheses with strain gauge (SG) analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polyurethane master model was designed to simulate a clinical situation. Two rigid custom trays were fabricated for the model. The impression material used was polysulfide. Transfer implant impressions were made using 2 techniques; ten tapered copings not splinted (custom closed tray) and ten square copings splinted with acrylic-resin (custom open tray)...
March 9, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Ehsan Mostaed, Malgorzata Sikora-Jasinska, Jaroslaw W Drelich, Maurizio Vedani
The search for biodegradable metals with mechanical properties equal or higher to those of currently used permanent biomaterials, such as stainless steels, cobalt chromium and titanium alloys, desirable in vivo degradation rate and uniform corrosion is still an open challenge. Magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn)-based alloys have been proposed as biodegradable metals for medical applications. Over the last two decades, extensive research has been done on Mg and Fe. Fe-based alloys show appropriate mechanical properties, but their degradation rate is an order of magnitude below the benchmark value...
March 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Brett K J Kilb, Andrew P Kurmis, Michael Parry, Karen Sherwood, Paul Keown, Bassam A Masri, Clive P Duncan, Donald S Garbuz
BACKGROUND: Once touted as the future of hip arthroplasty, metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces have fallen sharply from favor with the emergence of a strong body of evidence demonstrating unacceptably high premature implant failure rates. The previously unpredictable development of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) has been a substantive contributor to this. Although the underlying pathophysiology of these so-called "pseudotumors" is now well understood, the fundamental predisposing patient risk factors have remained elusive...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Mir Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Lokman Ali, Md Saiful Islam, Md Zillur Rahman
This study was conducted to assess the levels of toxic metals like arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in water and sediments of the Pasur River in Bangladesh. The ranges of Cr, As, Cd, Pb in water were 25.76-77.39, 2.76-16.73, 0.42-2.98 and 12.69-42.67 μg/L and in sediments were 20.67-83.70, 3.15-19.97, 0.39-3.17 and 7.34-55.32 mg/kg. The level of studied metals in water samples exceeded the safe limits of drinking water, indicating that water from this river is not safe for drinking and cooking...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dmitri V Konarev, Alexey V Kuzmin, Yoshiaki Nakano, Salavat S Khasanov, Akihiro Otsuka, Hideki Yamochi, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Rimma N Lyubovskaya
N-Methylimidazole (MeIm) solvates of vanadium(ii), chromium(ii) and iron(ii) phthalocyanines: [VII (MeIm)2 (Pc2- )]0 ·MeIm (1) and [MII (MeIm)2 (Pc2- )]0 ·2C6 H4 Cl2 (M = V (2), Cr (3), and Fe (4)) have been obtained and studied in a crystalline form. It has been shown that central metal atoms have the +2 oxidation state in 1-4 and dianionic Pc2- macrocycles are formed. Optical spectra of 1-3 (VII , CrII ) are different from that of 4 (FeII ) due to the appearance of intense absorption bands in the NIR range at 1187 nm for 1 and 2 and 1178 nm for 3 and manifestation of multiple bands in the visible range...
March 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tímea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Árpád Ferincz, Béla Urbányi, Zsolt Csenki-Bakos, Ákos Horváth
The effect of seven heavy metals on the motility parameter of zebrafish sperm was tested in order to develop an in vitro toxicological test system as an alternative to live animal testing. In vitro test systems are currently preferred in ecotoxicology due to their practical and ethical advantages and fish sperm can be a suitable model. A number of studies had been carried out previously on this topic, but the described methods had not been standardized in numerous aspects (donor species, measured endpoint, etc...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jingya Ren, Guilong Zhang, Dongfang Wang, Jie Han, Zhengyan Wu, Dongqing Cai
Because of the wide use of chromium-containing feed, much hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) tends to accumulate in pork. In order to decrease the toxicity of Cr(VI)-containing pork for human beings, high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation was used to reduce highly toxic Cr(VI) to low toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) in lean, fat, and marbled pork. HEEB irradiation could efficiently and nondestructively reduce both free and adsorbed Cr(VI) in pork, achieving the highest reductive efficiency (RE) of 98.03%...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Javad Heshmati, Reza Omani-Samani, Samira Vesali, Saman Maroufizadeh, Mahroo Rezaeinejad, Maryam Razavi, Mahdi Sepidarkish
Recently, the effects of nutritional supplementation on improvement or prevention of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been considered. Several studies have been carried out on the effect of chromium supplementation in improving PCOS patients. This study aimed to summarize the available findings regarding the effect of chromium on improving the polycystic ovary syndrome. The review includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chromium treatment with placebo or other treatments in women with PCOS...
March 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
E Fasano, A Arnese, F Esposito, L Albano, A Masucci, C Capelli, T Cirillo, A Nardone
The principal aim of this study was to monitor the occurrence of some metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish and mussels from the Gulf of Naples. A comparison with previous researches of the same area was carried out, and the intakes of these compounds through the diet and their effect on the tolerable intake values (when available) were assessed. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) were detected by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (Cd, Cr, and Pb); arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were detected by applying the hydride method...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Lilliana S Morris, Matthew Ian Childers, Geoffrey William Coates
Bimetallic chromium catalysts are investigated for the enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide. The catalyst is composed of two salen chromium species linked by an alkyl chain, the length of which significantly impacts the rate of polymerization. While the use of a chloride initiator on the catalyst resulted in bimodal molecular weight distributions, switching to a trifluoroacetate initiating group and adding a diol chain transfer agent afforded polymers of controllable molecular weight with low, unimodal dispersities...
March 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
V Petrosino, G Motta, G Tenore, M Coletta, A Guariglia, D Testa
Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs...
March 8, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Serpil Kilic, Mehmet Fatih Cengiz, Murat Kilic
In this study, an improved method was validated for the determination of some metallic contaminants (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Mn, and antimony (Sb)) in energy drinks using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validation procedure was applied for the evaluation of linearity, repeatability, recovery, limit of detection, and quantification. In addition, to verify the trueness of the method, it was participated in an interlaboratory proficiency test for heavy metals in soft drink organized by the LGC (Laboratory of the Government Chemist) Standard...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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