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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528503/a-flux-enhancing-forward-osmosis-nanofiltration-integrated-treatment-system-for-the-tannery-wastewater-reclamation
#1
Parimal Pal, Sankha Chakrabortty, Jayato Nayak, Suman Senapati
Effective treatment of tannery wastewater prior to discharge to the environment as per environmental regulations remains a big challenge despite efforts to bring down the concentrations of the pollutants which are often quite high as measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (7800 mg/L), total dissolved solids (5400 mg/L), chloride (4260 mg/L), sulphides (250 mg/L) and chromium. A pilot-scale forward osmosis and nanofiltration integrated closed loop system was developed for continuous reclamation of clean water from tannery wastewater at a rate of 52-55 L/m(2)/h at 1...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528474/toxicity-assessment-of-ash-and-dust-from-handmade-gold-jewelry-manufacturing-workshops-in-bangladesh
#2
Arif M Sikder, Tanvir Hossain, Manzurul H Khan, M Aziz Hasan, M Fakhruzzaman, Joseph B Turner, Dmitry Pestov, Leigh S McCallister, K Maudood Elahi
Traditionally, handmade gold jewelry played a very important role in the cultural heritage of Bangladesh. Goldsmiths still are partially using ancient manufacturing process with coal fire, candle flame blowing, and nitric and sulfuric acid treatments. Such process leads to the contamination of workplace with the dust of toxic metals, acidic vapors, and particles of different natures. To evaluate contamination by particulate matter (PM), the passive particle collectors were installed in different manufacturing units for a period of 85 days at Tanti Bazar, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528349/high-wear-resistance-of-femoral-components-coated-with-titanium-nitride-a-retrieval-analysis
#3
Christian Fabry, Carmen Zietz, Axel Baumann, Reinhard Ehall, Rainer Bader
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo wear resistance of cobalt-chromium femoral components coated with titanium nitride (TiN). Our null hypothesis was that the surface damage and the thickness of the TiN coating do not correlate with the time in vivo. METHODS: Twenty-five TiN-coated bicondylar femoral retrievals with a mean implantation period of 30.7 ± 11.7 months were subjected to an objective surface damage analysis with a semi-quantitative assessment method...
May 20, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528260/hexavalent-chromium-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pycnoporus-sanguineus
#4
Mi Feng, Hua Yin, Hui Peng, Zehua Liu, Guining Lu, Zhi Dang
White rot fungi have been proved to be a promising option for the removal of heavy metals, understanding their toxic response to heavy metals is conducive to developing and popularizing fungi-based remediation technologies so as to lessen the hazard of heavy metals. In this study, Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Pycnoporus sanguineus, a species of white rot fungi were investigated. The results suggested that high level of Cr(VI) promoted the formation of ROS, including H2O2, O2(•-) and ·OH...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527844/evaluation-of-various-pretreatments-to-fiber-post-on-the-push-out-bond-strength-of-root-canal-dentin
#5
Ömer Kırmalı, Özlem Üstün, Alper Kapdan, Alper Kuştarcı
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different pretreatments (fiber post) with the laser-activated irrigation (LAI) technique (for removal of the smear layer) on root canal dentin in terms of push-out bond strength (PBS) in a fiber post. METHODS: Fifty freshly extracted mandibular single-rooted premolars were prepared, and LAI was applied to all roots (17% EDTA was 5 mL for 120 seconds with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser [0...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527339/selective-removal-of-toxic-cr-vi-from-aqueous-solution-by-adsorption-combined-with-reduction-at-a-magnetic-nanocomposite-surface
#6
Nazia H Kera, Madhumita Bhaumik, Kriveshini Pillay, Suprakas Sinha Ray, Arjun Maity
The adsorption of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and its reduction to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) are important processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater. Conducting polymers can adsorb and reduce Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) but have low adsorption capacities due to agglomeration of particles and are difficult to separate from treated water. In this study, magnetic polypyrrole (PPy)-polyaniline (PANI)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocomposite was synthesized for the selective removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527298/enhanced-adsorption-performance-of-mos2-nanosheet-coated-mil-101-hybrids-for-the-removal-of-aqueous-rhodamine-b
#7
Cao Yang, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen, Yongyou Hu
A MoS2 nanosheet-coated chromium terephthalate MIL-101 octahedron hybrid (denoted as MoS2/MIL-101) was prepared via a simple hydrothermal reaction. The obtained MoS2/MIL-101 hybrid exhibited a significantly enhanced adsorption ability toward rhodamine B (RhB) as compared with pure MoS2, MIL-101, and the physical mixture of the two. The results demonstrate that the MoS2/MIL-101 hybrid had a high uptake capacity (Qm ≈ 344.8mgg(-1)) and fast adsorption rate for the removal of aqueous RhB. The excellent adsorption performance is likely related to the synergism of hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking interactions, and direct coordination between the MIL-101 substrate and RhB, as well as electrostatic interactions between MoS2 nanosheets and RhB...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524814/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-exfoliated-buccal-and-nasal-cells-of-chromium-and-cobalt-exposed-electroplaters
#8
Georg Wultsch, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Monika Waldherr, Pavel Vodicka, Ludmila Vodickova, Siegfried Knasmüller
Results of a number of studies indicate that electroplaters have increased cancer risks as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic metals such as chromium (VI) and nickel. These effects may be due to induction of damage of the genetic material which plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, and it was found that workers in galvanization factories exhibited increased levels of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic stability in workers of a bright plating factory who are exposed to chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523848/dietary-supplementation-of-l-arginine-and-chromium-picolinate-in-sows-during-gestation-affects-the-muscle-fibre-characteristics-but-not-the-performance-of-their-progeny
#9
Zhan Shi, Wentao Song, Yuecheng Sun, Liansheng Wang, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan, Zhongpeng Bi
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of L-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on the muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) L-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) L-arginine and 400 ppb CrP...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523620/occurrence-and-fractionation-of-cr-along-the-loushan-river-affected-by-a-chromium-slag-heap-in-east-china
#10
Youyuan Chen, Bingbing Dong, Jia Xin
This study investigated the chromium (Cr) occurrence and distribution along the Loushan River adjacent to a chromium slag heap. The speciation and chemical fractionation of Cr in different environmental media were determined. The potential ecological risks for the surrounding environment were assessed on the basis of both potential ecological risk index (RI) and risk assessment code (RAC). The results show that the surface soil experienced severe Cr contamination with Cr(T) and Cr(VI) values of 3220 ± 6266 and 64 ± 94 mg/kg, respectively, even though the chromium slag heap had already been removed...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521507/biosorption-of-chromium-vi-in-aqueous-solutions-by-chemically-modified-strychnine-tree-fruit-shell
#11
E Nakkeeran, N Selvaraju
Chromium(VI) removal from aqueous solution was performed using sulphuric and phosphoric acid activated Strychnine tree fruit shell (SSTFS and PSTFS) as biosorbents. Effect of various parameters such as adsorbent dose (0.02 - 0.1g/L), temperature (303 - 333K), agitation speed, solution pH (2-9), contact time & initial Cr (VI) concentration (50-250 mg/L) were studied for a batch adsorption system. The optimum pH range for Cr(VI) adsorption was determined as 2. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed with isotherm models and the Langmuir and Freundlich model got best fitted for SSTFS (R(2) value-0...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516390/the-identity-of-chromium-malate
#12
Megan Smart, Silas Brown, Haley Tannehill, Molly Lockart, Michael K Bowman, John B Vincent
Recently, several studies on the effects of a compound named "chromium malate," with the proposed formula "Cr2malate3·xH2O" where x = 3.5 or 5, on the health of healthy and diabetic rats have appeared. However, the compound is poorly characterized, and knowing the identity of this material could be important in the interpretation of the previous and of future studies on the effects of this compound in animals. Consequently, the synthesis, characterization, and identity of this material were explored. A combination of spectroscopic, magnetic, and elemental analyses and mass spectral studies reveal that the compound is probably a polymer, not a discrete molecule, and does not have the composition previously reported...
May 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514699/profiling-of-illicit-cocaine-seized-in-china-by-icp-ms-analysis-of-inorganic-elements
#13
Cuimei Liu, Zhendong Hua, Xin Meng
For the first time in China, the inorganic element profiling of cocaine specimens was performed at the National Narcotics Laboratory. An inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 26 inorganic elements, including sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), aluminuim (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in illicit cocaine samples...
April 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513741/magneto-structural-correlations-in-a-family-of-di-alkoxo-bridged-chromium-dimers
#14
Hector W L Fraser, Gary S Nichol, Gunasekaran Velmurugan, Gopalan Rajaraman, Euan K Brechin
A series of di-alkoxo bridged Cr(iii) dimers have been synthesised using pyridine alcohol ligands. The structures fall into four general categories and are of formula: [Cr2(OMe)2(pic)4]·½MeOH·½Et2O (1), [Cr2(hmp)2(pic)2X2] (where X = Cl (2), Br (3)), [Cr2(L)2Cl4(A)2]·2S (where L = hmp, A = H2O and S = Et2O (4); L = hmp, A = pyridine and S = pyridine (5); L = hmp, A = 4-picoline and no S (6); L = hep, A = H2O and S = MeCN (7)), and [Cr(hmp)(hmpH)Cl2]·MeCN (8). Direct current (DC) magnetic susceptibility measurements show relatively weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Cr(iii) centres with J values <|15| cm(-1) in all of the complexes measured...
May 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513604/exploring-the-statistical-uncertainty-in-acceptable-exposure-limit-values-for-hexavalent-chromium-exposure
#15
Göran Kauermann, Heiko Becher, Verena Maier
Exposure limit values give the exposure level at which an accepted (or acceptable) number of additional work related diseases are expected. The values are derived from dose-response curves and carry a large amount of uncertainty. In this paper we aim to quantify some of this uncertainty with statistical means. We explore the limit value issued by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, CR(VI). We investigate how the dose-response model and statistical estimation variability influences the data-based fixation of exposure limit values...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511949/serum-metal-levels-for-diagnosis-of-adverse-local-tissue-reactions%C3%A2-secondary-to-corrosion-in-metal-on-polyethylene-total%C3%A2-hip%C3%A2-arthroplasty
#16
Yale A Fillingham, Craig J Della Valle, Daniel D Bohl, Mick P Kelly, Deborah J Hall, Robin Pourzal, Joshua J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Recently, corrosion at the head-neck junction in metal-on-polyethylene bearing surface total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been recognized as a cause of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs). Serum metal levels have been advocated as a tool for the diagnosis of ALTR; however, no prior studies have specifically examined their utility. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal cutoff values for serum cobalt and chromium levels in diagnosing ALTR after metal-on-polyethylene bearing surface THA...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508901/from-polyethylene-waxes-to-hdpe-using-an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-bis-arylimino-2-3-5-6-bis-pentamethylene-pyridyl-chromium-iii-chloride-pre-catalyst-in-ethylene-polymerisation
#17
Chuanbing Huang, Shizhen Du, Gregory A Solan, Yang Sun, Wen-Hua Sun
Five examples of α,α'-bis(arylimino)-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridyl-chromium(iii) chlorides (aryl = 2,6-Me2Ph Cr1, 2,6-Et2Ph Cr2, 2,6-i-Pr2Ph Cr3, 2,4,6-Me3Ph Cr4, 2,6-Et2-4-MePh Cr5) have been synthesized by the one-pot template reaction of α,α'-dioxo-2,3:5,6-bis(pentamethylene)pyridine, CrCl3·6H2O and the corresponding aniline. The molecular structures of Cr1 and Cr4 reveal distorted octahedral geometries with the N,N,N-ligand adopting a mer-configuration. On activation with an aluminium alkyl co-catalyst, Cr1-Cr5 exhibited high catalytic activities in ethylene polymerization and showed outstanding thermal stability operating effectively at 80 °C with activities up to 1...
May 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506761/the-decline-in-kidney-function-with-chromium-exposure-is-exacerbated-with-co-exposure-to-lead-and-cadmium
#18
Tsung-Lin Tsai, Chin-Chi Kuo, Wen-Harn Pan, Yu-Teh Chung, Chiu-Ying Chen, Trong-Neng Wu, Shu-Li Wang
Environmental factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. However, these factors, and particularly the toxic effects of heavy metals, have not been completely evaluated. Chromium is a widespread industrial contaminant that has been linked to nephrotoxicity in animal and occupational population studies. Nevertheless, its role in population renal health and its potential interactions with other nephrotoxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, remain unknown. We assessed the association between exposure to chromium, lead, and cadmium with renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in an analysis of 360 Taiwanese adults aged 19-84 years from the National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2005-2008)...
May 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506720/sunlight-activated-near-infrared-phosphorescence-as-a-viable-means-of-latent-fingermark-visualisation
#19
Roberto S P King, Daniel A Skros
The chromium-doped zinc gallogermanate, Zn3Ga2Ge2O10:0.5%Cr(3+), was prepared and modified for use as a near-infrared (NIR) luminescent fingerprint dusting powder. The optical properties of this material are illustrated and have been shown to offer versatility and promise in terms of overcoming troublesome backgrounds during latent fingermark examination and imaging. The highly fluorescent NIR emission of the powder allows inherently fluorescent and patterned substrate backgrounds to be mitigated, whilst the phosphorescent nature of the material allows all conceivable background interference to be removed, whilst also constituting the first reported use of a NIR phosphor for latent fingermark enhancement and imaging...
April 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504747/ultra-slow-light-propagation-by-self-induced-transparency-in-ruby-in-the-superhyperfine-limit
#20
Hans Riesen, Aleksander Rebane, Rajitha Papakutty Rajan, Wayne Hutchison, Steffen Ganschow, Alex Szabo
Self-induced transparency is reported for circularly polarized light in the R<sub>1</sub>(-3/2) line of a 30 ppm ruby (α-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>:Cr<sup>3+</sup>) at 1.7 K in a magnetic field of B‖c=4.5  T. In such a field and temperature, a 30 ppm ruby is in the so-called superhyperfine limit resulting in a long phase memory time, T<sub>M</sub>=50  μs, and a thousand-fold slower pulse propagation velocity of ∼300  m/s was observed, compared to the ∼300  km/s measured in the first observation of self-induced transparency (SIT) ∼50 years ago, that employed a ruby with a 500 ppm chromium concentration in zero field and at 4...
May 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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