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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092131/finish-line-plant-insect-interactions-mediated-by-insect-feeding-mode-and-plant-interference-a-case-study-of-brassica-interactions-with-diamondback-moth-and-turnip-aphid
#1
Mahmoud Soufbaf, Yaghoub Fathipour, Jeffrey A Harvey, Cang Hui
There are gaps in our understanding of plant responses under different insect phytophagy modes and their subsequent effects on the insect herbivores' performance at late season. Here we compared different types of insect feeding by an aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, and a lepidopteran, Plutella xylostella, and how this affected defensive metabolites in leaves of two Brassica species when plants gain maturity. Thiocyanate concentrations after P. xylostella and L. erysimi feeding activities were the same. Total phenolics was higher after the phloem feeder feeding than the folivore activity...
January 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091614/transcriptomic-basis-for-drought-resistance-in-brassica-napus-l
#2
Pei Wang, Cuiling Yang, Hao Chen, Chunpeng Song, Xiao Zhang, Daojie Wang
Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081489/protective-effect-of-chitosan-on-photosynthesis-and-antioxidative-defense-system-in-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-in-the-presence-of-cadmium
#3
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081140/bnlate-a-cys2-his2-type-zinc-finger-protein-enhances-silique-shattering-resistance-by-negatively-regulating-lignin-accumulation-in-the-silique-walls-of-brassica-napus
#4
Zhangsheng Tao, Yi Huang, Lida Zhang, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
Silique shattering resistance is one of the most important agricultural traits in oil crop breeding. Seed shedding from siliques prior to and during harvest causes devastating losses in oilseed yield. Lignin biosynthesis in the silique walls is thought to affect silique-shattering resistance in oil crops. Here, we identified and characterized B. napus LATE FLOWERING (BnLATE), which encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. Heterologous expression of BnLATE under the double enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (D35S) in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in a marked decrease in lignification in the replum, valve layer (carpel) and dehiscence zone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#5
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077071/an-integrated-analysis-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-provides-further-insights-and-promising-candidates-for-pod-number-variation-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#6
Jiang Ye, Yuhua Yang, Bo Chen, Jiaqin Shi, Meizhong Luo, Jiepeng Zhan, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: As the most important yield component in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), pod number is determined by a series of successive growth and development processes. Pod number shows extensive variation in rapeseed natural germplasm, which is valuable for genetic improvement. However, the genetic and especially the molecular mechanism for this kind of variation are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping and RNA sequencing, respectively, using the BnaZNRIL population and its two parental cultivars Zhongshuang11 and No...
January 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076430/effects-of-zn-deficiency-and-bicarbonate-on-the-growth-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-four-plant-species
#7
Kuan Zhao, Yanyou Wu
Calcareous soils are characterized by low nutrient contents, high bicarbonate (HCO3-) content, and high alkalinity. The effects of HCO3- addition under zinc-sufficient (+Zn) and zinc-deficient (-Zn) conditions on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of two Moraceae species (Broussonetia papyrifera and Morus alba) and two Brassicaceae species (Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) were investigated. These four species were hydroponically grown in nutrient solution with 0 mM Zn (-Zn) or 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076392/arthropod-pest-control-for-uk-oilseed-rape-comparing-insecticide-efficacies-side-effects-and-alternatives
#8
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071031/study-of-variation-of-tocochromanol-and-phytosterol-contents-in-black-and-yellow-seeds-of-brassica-napus-l-doubled-haploid-populations
#9
Teresa Cegielska-Taras, Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka, Laurencja Szala, Aleksander Siger
BACKGROUND: In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. METHODS: The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069590/identification-of-ssr-markers-closely-linked-to-the-yellow-seed-coat-color-gene-in-heading-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#10
Yanjing Ren, Junqing Wu, Jing Zhao, Lingyu Hao, Lugang Zhang
Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1,575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded '92S105' and yellow-seeded '91-125'). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01- A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068426/screening-of-candidate-leaf-morphology-genes-by-integration-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-technologies-in-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-l
#11
Hongju Jian, Bo Yang, Aoxiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Xinfu Xu, Jiana Li, Liezhao Liu
Leaf size and shape play important roles in agronomic traits, such as yield, quality and stress responses. Wide variations in leaf morphological traits exist in cultivated varieties of many plant species. By now, the genetics of leaf shape and size have not been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of leaf morphology traits. Furthermore, fresh young leaves of extreme lines with more leaf lobes (referred to as 'A') and extreme lines with fewer lobes (referred to as 'B') selected from the RIL population and leaves of dissected lines (referred to as 'P') were used for transcriptional analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#12
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056775/genetic-effects-and-genotype%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-environment-interactions-govern-seed-oil-content-in-brassica-napus-l
#13
Yanli Guo, Ping Si, Nan Wang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Jitao Zou, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
BACKGROUND: As seed oil content (OC) is a key measure of rapeseed quality, better understanding the genetic basis of OC would greatly facilitate the breeding of high-oil cultivars. Here, we investigated the components of genetic effects and genotype × environment interactions (GE) that govern OC using a full diallel set of nine parents, which represented a wide range of the Chinese rapeseed cultivars and pure lines with various OCs. RESULTS: Our results from an embryo-cytoplasm-maternal (GoCGm) model for diploid seeds showed that OC was primarily determined by genetic effects (VG) and GE (VGE), which together accounted for 86...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054984/detection-of-ribosomal-dna-sequence-polymorphisms-in-the-protist-plasmodiophora-brassicae-for-the-identification-of-geographical-isolates
#14
Rawnak Laila, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Gyung Ja Choi, Jong-In Park, Ill-Sup Nou
Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae). It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates), collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053168/ccnet-database-of-co-expression-networks-with-functional-modules-for-diploid-and-polyploid-gossypium
#15
Qi You, Wenying Xu, Kang Zhang, Liwei Zhang, Xin Yi, Dongxia Yao, Chunchao Wang, Xueyan Zhang, Xinhua Zhao, Nicholas J Provart, Fuguang Li, Zhen Su
Plant genera with both diploid and polyploid species are a common evolutionary occurrence. Polyploids, especially allopolyploids such as cotton and wheat, are a great model system for heterosis research. Here, we have integrated genome sequences and transcriptome data of Gossypium species to construct co-expression networks and identified functional modules from different cotton species, including 1155 and 1884 modules in G. arboreum and G. hirsutum, respectively. We overlayed the gene expression results onto the co-expression network...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052459/functional-analysis-of-brassica-napus-phloem-protein-and-ribonucleoprotein-complexes
#16
Anna Ostendorp, Steffen Pahlow, Lena Krüßel, Patrizia Hanhart, Marcel Y Garbe, Jennifer Deke, Patrick Giavalisco, Julia Kehr
Phloem sap contains a large number of macromolecules, including proteins and RNAs from different classes. Proteome analyses of phloem samples from different plant species under denaturing conditions identified hundreds of proteins potentially involved in diverse processes. Surprisingly, these studies also found a significant number of ribosomal and proteasomal proteins. This led to the suggestion that active ribosome and proteasome complexes might be present in the phloem, challenging the paradigm that protein synthesis and turnover are absent from the enucleate sieve elements of angiosperms...
January 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050732/nutrient-supply-and-simulated-herbivory-differentially-alter-the-metabolite-pools-and-the-efficacy-of-the-glucosinolate-based-defense-system-in-brassica-species
#17
Makhdora Almuziny, Charlotte Decker, Dong Wang, Patrick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050618/clubroot-resistance-qtl-are-modulated-by-nitrogen-input-in-brassica-napus
#18
A Laperche, Y Aigu, M Jubault, M Ollier, S Guichard, P Glory, S E Strelkov, A Gravot, M J Manzanares-Dauleux
Nitrogen levels can modulate the effectiveness of clubroot resistance in an isolate- and host-specific manner. While the same QTL were detected under high and low nitrogen, their effects were altered. Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most damaging diseases of oilseed rape and is known to be affected by nitrogen fertilization. However, the genetic factors involved in clubroot resistance have not been characterized under nitrogen-limiting conditions. This study aimed to assess the variability of clubroot resistance under different nitrogen levels and to characterize the impact of nitrogen supply on genetic resistance factors...
January 3, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045929/detecting-the-hormonal-pathways-in-oilseed-rape-behind-induced-systemic-resistance-by-trichoderma-harzianum-th12-to-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#19
Jawadayn Talib Alkooranee, Tamarah Raad Aledan, Ali Kadhim Ali, Guangyuan Lu, Xuekun Zhang, Jiangsheng Wu, Chunhua Fu, Maoteng Li
Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035722/effects-of-nacl-stress-on-seed-germination-and-seedling-development-of-brassica-insularis-moris-brassicaceae
#20
Andrea Santo, Efisio Mattana, Luca Frigau, Antoni Marzo Pastor, Mari Carme Picher Morelló, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Brassica insularis is a protected plant that grows on both coastal and inland cliffs in the western Mediterranean Basin. The objective of this study was to test if any variability exists in the salt stress response during seed germination and seedling development in this species relative to its provenance habitat. Variability among three populations in the salt stress effects on the seed germination and its recovery under different temperatures was evaluated. The effect of nebulisation of a salt solution on seedling development was evaluated between populations growing to different distance from the sea...
December 30, 2016: Plant Biology
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