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Adedayo O Mofikoya, Minna Kivimäenpää, James D Blande, Jarmo K Holopainen
The perennial evergreen woody shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum, confers associational resistance against herbivory and oviposition on neighbouring plants through passive adsorption of some of its constitutively emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adsorption process is dependent on transport of VOCs in the air. In polluted atmospheres, the VOCs may be degraded and adsorption impeded. We studied the effect of elevated ozone regimes on the adsorption of R. tomentosum volatiles to white cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and the oviposition of the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella on the exposed plants...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yalong Yang, Kher Zahr, Michael W Harding, Stephen E Strelkov, Krista Zuzak, David Feindel, Jie Feng
A commonly used protocol for DNA extraction from Plasmodiophora brassicae was modified by adding an alkaline treatment step to increase the purity of resting spores. The quality of DNA extracted by the modified protocol was improved due to the removal of DNA contamination from host plant cells and other microorganisms.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Seung Hee Eom, Seung-A Baek, Jae Kwang Kim, Tae Kyung Hyun
Although drought stress is one of the most limiting factors in growth and production of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), the underlying biochemical and molecular causes are poorly understood. In the present study, to address the mechanisms underlying the drought responses, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of Chinese cabbage grown under drought conditions. Drought stress transcriptionally activated several transcription factor genes, including AP2 / ERFs , bHLHs , NACs and bZIPs , and was found to possibly result in transcriptional variation in genes involved in organic substance metabolic processes...
May 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Feiyi Huang, Tongkun Liu, Jin Wang, Xilin Hou
BcFLC2 functioned as a repressor of flowering by directly regulating BcTEM1, BcMAF2, BcSOC1 and BcSPL15 in Pak-choi. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays an important role in regulating flowering time. Here, we functionally described an FLC homologous gene, BcFLC2, that negatively regulated flowering in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). The sequence comparison to Arabidopsis FLC showed that BcFLC2 also had a MADS-box domain at the N terminus. BcFLC2 was highly expressed in the leaves, roots, stems and stamens, and its expression was repressed by vernalization in Pak-choi...
May 14, 2018: Planta
Dongming Liu, Xin Dong, Zezhou Liu, Jun Tang, Mu Zhuang, Yangyong Zhang, Honghao Lv, Yumei Liu, Zhansheng Li, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang
Cuticular waxes play important roles in plant protection against various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. The cuticular wax covering gives normal cabbage a glaucous appearance, but the appearance of waxless mutant is glossy green. Based on the present study, inheritance of the glossy green character of mutant HUAYOU2 follows a simple recessive pattern. Genetic analysis of an F2 population comprising 808 recessive individuals derived from HUAYOU2 (P1 , maternal parent) and M36 (P2 , paternal parent) revealed that a single recessive locus, BoWax1 ( Brassica oleracea Wax 1 ), controls glossy green trait in B ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hong Li, Jieyong Ou, Xuedong Wang, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou
The widespread use of cadmium (Cd)-containing organic fertilizers is a source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural soils in suburban areas. Therefore, the research and development of new materials and technologies for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soil is of great significance and has the potential to guarantee the safety of agricultural products and the protection of human health. We performed pot experiments to determine the potential of combined amendments of illite/smectite (I/S) clay with bone chars for the remediation of Cd-contaminated agricultural soils in a suburban area of Beijing, China...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingyue Yu, Guodong Hao, Jianxin Zhou, Jingying Wang, Ejiroghene Ruona Evivie, Jing Li
Glucosinolates are a class of amino acid-derived specialized metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order. Trp derived indolic glucosinolates are essential for the effective plant defense responses to a wide range of pathogens and herbivores. In Arabidopsis, MYB51 is the key transcription factor positively regulates indolic glucosinolate production by activating certain biosynthetic genes. In this study, we report the isolation and identification of a MYB51 from broccoli designated as BoMYB51. Overexpression of BoMYB51 in Arabidopsis increased indolic glucosinolate production by upregulating biosynthetic genes and resulted in enhanced flagellin22 (Flg22) induced callose deposition...
May 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ayako Okuzaki, Takumi Ogawa, Chie Koizuka, Kanako Kaneko, Mizue Inaba, Jun Imamura, Nobuya Koizuka
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated genome editing system has been widely applied as a powerful tool for modifying preferable endogenous genes. This system is highly expected to be further applied for the breeding of various agronomically important plant species. Here we report the modification of a fatty acid desaturase 2 gene (FAD2), which encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation of oleic acid, in Brassica napus cv. Westar using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shaoping Lu, Drew Sturtevant, Mina Aziz, Cheng Jin, Qing Li, Kent D Chapman, Liang Guo
Despite the importance of oilseeds to worldwide human nutrition, and more recently to the production of bio-based diesel fuels, the detailed mechanisms regulating seed oil biosynthesis remain partly understood, especially from a tissue-specific perspective. Here, we investigated the spatial distributions of lipid metabolites and transcripts involved in oil biosynthesis from seeds of two low-erucic acid genotypes of Brassica napus with high and low seed oil content. Integrated results from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) of lipids in situ, lipidome profiling of extracts from seed tissues, and tissue-specific transcriptome analysis revealed complex spatial distribution patterns of lipids and transcripts...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
S M Shivaraj, Aditi Jain, Anandita Singh
Functional characterization of regulatory genes governing flowering time is a research priority for breeding earliness in crop Brassicas. Highly polyploid genomes of Brassicas pose challenges in unraveling homeolog gene function. In Arabidopsis, five MIR172 paralogs control flowering time and floral organ identity by down-regulating AP2 and AP2-like genes. The impact of homeolog diversification on MIR172 loci, however, needs to be examined in morphologically diverse Brassicas. Herein, we analyze fractionation status and phylogeny of MIR172 and target AP2 from Brassicas and compare functionality of MIR172 variants representing distinct sub-genomes and progenitor genomes...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Philip J White
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is not an essential element for plants, although it can benefit their growth and survival in some envionments. Excess tissue Se concentrations are toxic. The ability to sequester Se in vacuoles, synthesise non-toxic Se metabolites, or volatilise Se compounds determines maximum tissue Se concentrations and the ability to colonise seleniferous soils. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review first classifies plant species on their abilities to accumulate Se in their tissues and to colonise seleniferous soils...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Skhawat Ali, Rong Jin, Rafaqat A Gill, Theodore M Mwamba, Na Zhang, Zaid Ul Hassan, Faisal Islam, Shafaqat Ali, Weijun Zhou
Beryllium (Be) could be a threatening heavy metal pollutant in the agroecosystem that may severely affect the performance of crops. The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of Be (0, 100, 200, and 400  μ M) on physiological, ultrastructure, and biochemical attributes in hydroponically grown six-day-old seedlings of two cultivars of Brassica napus L., one tolerant (ZS 758, black seeded) and one sensitive (Zheda 622, yellow seeded). Higher Be concentrations reduced the plant growth, biomass production, chlorophyll contents, and the total soluble protein contents...
2018: BioMed Research International
Parul Goel, Nitesh Kumar Sharma, Monika Bhuria, Vishal Sharma, Rohit Chauhan, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Vandna Chawla, Vishal Acharya, Ravi Shankar, Anil Kumar Singh
Nitrate is the main source of inorganic nitrogen for plants, which also act as signaling molecule. Present study was aimed to understand nitrate regulatory mechanism in Brassica juncea cultivars, with contrasting nitrogen-use-efficiency (NUE) viz. Pusa Bold (PB, high-NUE) and Pusa Jai Kisan (PJK, low-NUE), employing RNA-seq approach. A total of 4031, 3874 and 3667 genes in PB and 2982, 2481 and 2843 genes in PJK were differentially expressed in response to early, low (0.25 mM KNO3 ), medium (2 mM KNO3 ) and high (4 mM KNO3 ) nitrate treatments, respectively, as compared to control (0 mM KNO3 )...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongju Jian, Bo Yang, Aoxiang Zhang, Jinqi Ma, Yiran Ding, Zhiyou Chen, Jiana Li, Xinfu Xu, Liezhao Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in regulating stress-response genes in plants. However, identification of miRNAs and the corresponding target genes that are induced in response to cadmium (Cd) stress in Brassica napus remains limited. In the current study, we sequenced three small-RNA libraries from B. napus after 0 days, 1 days, and 3 days of Cd treatment. In total, 44 known miRNAs (belonging to 27 families) and 103 novel miRNAs were identified. A comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles found 39 differentially expressed miRNAs between control and Cd-treated plants; 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gaofeng Liu, Yudong Xia, Tongkun Liu, Shaojun Dai, Xilin Hou
Cytosine DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism in the silencing of transposable elements, imprinting and regulating gene expression. However, little is known about the potential role of mC in response to heat stress. To determine and explore the functions of the dynamic DNA methylome during heat stress, we characterized single-base resolution methylome maps of Brassica rapa and assessed the dynamic changes of mC under heat stress using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. On average, the DNA methylation levels of CG, CHG and CHH are 39...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca Klopsch, Katja Witzel, Anna Artemyeva, Silke Ruppel, F Hanschen
An in-depth glucosinolate (GLS) profiling was performed on a core collection of 91 Brassica rapa accessions, representing divers morphotypes of heterogenous geographical origin, to better understand the natural variation in GLS accumulation and GLS breakdown product formation. Leaves of the 91 B. rapa accessions were analyzed for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding breakdown products by GC-MS. Fifteen different GLS were identified and aliphatic GLS prevailed regarding diversity and concentration...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yue Zhang, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff
BACKGROUND: Fractionation is the genome-wide process of losing one gene per duplicate pair following whole genome multiplication (doubling, tripling, …). This is important in the evolution of plants over tens of millions of years, because of their repeated cycles of genome multiplication and fractionation. One type of evidence in the study of these processes is the frequency distribution of similarities between the two genes, over all the duplicate pairs in the genome. RESULTS: We study modeling and inference problems around the processes of fractionation and whole genome multiplication focusing first on the frequency distribution of similarities of duplicate pairs in the genome...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Israr Ahmed, Deepanker Yadav, Pawan Shukla, P B Kirti
Annexins are multifunctional proteins with roles in plant development and alleviation of stress tolerance. In the present communication, we report on the effect of heterologous expression of Brassica juncea annexin, AnnBj2 in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing AnnBj2 exhibited salt-tolerant and abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive phenotype at the seedling stage. Biochemical analysis showed that AnnBj2 transgenic plants retained higher chlorophyll and proline content, and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels compared to the null line under salt stress...
May 10, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Yanli Guo, Yi Huang, Jie Gao, Yuanyuan Pu, Nan Wang, Wenyun Shen, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jitao Zou, Jinxiong Shen
Background: Accumulation of storage compounds during seed development plays an important role in the life cycle of oilseed plants; these compounds provide carbon and energy resources to support the establishment of seedlings. Results: In this study, we show that BnCIPK9 has a broad expression pattern in Brassica napus L. tissues and that wounding stress strongly induces its expression. The overexpression of BnCIPK9 during seed development reduced oil synthesis in transgenic B...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chang-Kug Kim, Young-Joo Seol, Sampath Perumal, Jonghoon Lee, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Seungwoo Jin, Beom-Soon Choi, Yeisoo Yu, Ho-Cheol Ko, Ji-Weon Choi, Kyoung-Yul Ryu, Seong-Han Sohn, Isobel Parkin, Tae-Jin Yang
The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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