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Kiwoung Yang, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Md Abdul Kayum, Go-Eun Yi, Jonghoon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ill-Sup Nou
Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA...
2018: PloS One
Pu Liu, Chao Zhang, Jin-Qi Ma, Li-Yuan Zhang, Bo Yang, Xin-Yu Tang, Ling Huang, Xin-Tong Zhou, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hong Yang, Jia-Jing Wu, Ting Tang, Ke-De Liu, Cheng Dai
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amarjeet Singh, Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant, to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed AgNPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanostructures was confirmed using UVVis spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400-435 nm. Nanosight and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed monodisperse spherical AgNPs (4-18 nm)...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yan Liu, Xiaoyu Guan, Shengnan Liu, Meng Yang, Junhui Ren, Meng Guo, Zhihui Huang, Yaowei Zhang
Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp . pekinensis ) is a widely cultivated and economically important vegetable crop with typical leaf curvature. The TCP (Teosinte branched1, Cycloidea, Proliferating cell factor) family proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and play important roles in many plant biological processes, especially in the regulation of leaf curvature. In this study, 39 genes encoding TCP TFs are detected on the whole genome of B. rapa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of TCPs between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa , TCP genes of Chinese cabbage are named from BrTCP1a to BrTCP24b ...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Feifei Di, Hongju Jian, Tengyue Wang, Xueping Chen, Yiran Ding, Hai Du, Kun Lu, Jiana Li, Liezhao Liu
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an endogenous phytohormone that plays important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and stress responses. The pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYR/PYL) protein is a core regulatory component of ABA signaling networks in plants. However, no details regarding this family in Brassica napus are available. Here, 46 PYLs were identified in the B. napus genome. Based on phylogenetic analysis, BnPYR1 and BnPYL1-3 belong to subfamily I, BnPYL7-10 belong to subfamily II, and BnPYL4-6 and BnPYL11-13 belong to subfamily III...
March 12, 2018: Genes
Aditi Jain, Saurabh Anand, Neer K Singh, Sandip Das
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome)...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Misa Matsuda, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba
DSBs differently affect endoreduplication and organ size in radish cotyledons and hypocotyls in different light conditions, suggesting that DSBs-mediated endoreduplication varies based on different developmental and environmental cues. Endoreduplication induced by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and cultured cells has been reported in recent years. In this study, we investigated whether DSBs-mediated endoreduplication also occurs in other tissues, such as cotyledons and hypocotyls of radish (Raphanus sativus var...
March 12, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Miaomiao Xing, Chao Sun, Hailong Li, Shilin Hu, Lei Lei, Jungen Kang
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata), an important vegetable crop in the Brassicaceae family, is economically important worldwide. In the process of hybrid seed production, Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (OguCMS), controlled by the mitochondrial gene orf138, has been extensively used for cabbage hybrid production with complete and stable male sterility. To identify the critical genes and pathways involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, the anther of OguCMS line R2P2CMS and the fertile line R2P2 were used for RNA-seq and iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) proteome analysis...
2018: PloS One
Muhammad A Farooq, Kangni Zhang, Faisal Islam, Jian Wang, Habib U R Athar, Aamir Nawaz, Zafar Ullah Zafar, Jianxiang Xu, Weijun Zhou
Brassica napus plants exposed to 200 μM arsenic (As) exhibited high-level of stress condition, which led to inhibit growth, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and disrupted cellular ultra-structures. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alleviated the As-induced oxidative stress and improves the plant growth and photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated changes in the B. napus leaf proteome in order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in MeJA -induced As tolerance. Our study identified 177 proteins were differentially expressed in cultivar ZS 758; while 200 differentially expressed proteins were accumulated in zheda 622, when exposed to As alone and MeJA+As treatments, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Proteomics
Colton O'Brien, Arathi H S
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
March 12, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Maria Isidoria Silva Gonzaga, Cheryl Mackowiak, André Quintão de Almeida, Alberto Wisniewski, Danyelle Figueiredo de Souza, Idamar da Silva Lima, Amanda Nascimento de Jesus
Copper contamination and toxicity in soils is a worldwide problem, especially in areas where copper-based fungicides are applied. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants are used in phytoremediation and are also edible crops commonly cultivated in organic agricultural areas. Application of biochar to Cu contaminated soils may reduce Cu availability and uptake, thereby allowing for greater Indian mustard production. A (3 × 2) + 1) experiment in a randomized complete block design was used to evaluate the effect of three different biochars (coconut shell, orange bagasse and sewage sludge) and two application rates (30 and 60 t ha-1 ) on Cu uptake by Indian mustard during three successive growth cycles and Cu immobilization in soil, under greenhouse conditions...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Md Mahabub Alam, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Hirosuke Oku, Masayuki Fujita
To investigate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced paraquat (PQ) tolerance in plants, we pretreated a set of 10-day-old Brassica napus seedlings with 500 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP - a NO donor) for 24 h. Then, three doses of PQ (62.5, 125 and 250 μM) were applied separately, as well as to SNP-pretreated seedlings, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for an additional 48 h. The seedlings treated with PQ showed clear, dose-dependent signs of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde), H2 O2 and O2 - generation, and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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