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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#1
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
December 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222848/digital-image-analysis-agrees-with-visual-estimates-of-adult-bone-marrow-trephine-biopsy-cellularity
#2
A S Hagiya, A Etman, I N Siddiqi, S Cen, G R Matcuk, R K Brynes, M E Salama
INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of cellularity is an essential component of bone marrow trephine biopsy examination. The standard practice is to report the results as visual estimates (VE). Digital image analysis (DIA) offers the promise of more objective measurements of cellularity. METHODS: Adult bone marrow trephine biopsy sections were assessed for cellularity by VE. Sections were scanned using an Aperio AT2 Scanscope and analyzed using a Cytonuclear (version 1.4) algorithm on halo software...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222707/quantitative-3d-scintigraphy-shows-increased-muscular-uptake-of-pyrophosphate-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy
#3
Karin Folmer Thøgersen, Jane Angel Simonsen, Svend Hvidsten, Oke Gerke, Søren Jacobsen, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Karen Middelbo Buch-Olsen, Louise Pyndt Diederichsen
BACKGROUND: Nuclear imaging is increasingly being used in the diagnostic work-up of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Increased muscular uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) has hitherto been assessed qualitatively by planar scintigraphy. We set out to perform quantitative tomographic scintigraphy in IIM. RESULTS: Ninety IIM patients and 48 control subjects underwent 99mTc-PYP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT of the upper and lower body...
December 8, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220695/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-early-course-schizophrenia
#4
Aastha Sharma, Arvind Kumar, Sadhana Singh, Triptish Bhatia, R P Beniwal, Subash Khushu, Konasale M Prasad, Smita N Deshpande
Impaired connectivity is proposed to underlie pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Existing studies on functional connectivity show inconsistent results. We examined functional connectivity in a clinically homogenous sample of 34 early course schizophrenia patients compared with/to 19 healthy controls using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Mean duration of illness for schizophrenia patients was 4 ± 1.78 years. Following a comprehensive clinical assessment, rsfMRI data were acquired using a 3...
November 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220390/maldi-msi-of-melim-melanoma-searching-for-differences-in-protein-profiles
#5
Roman Guran, Lucie Vanickova, Vratislav Horak, Sona Krizkova, Petr Michalek, Zbynek Heger, Ondrej Zitka, Vojtech Adam
BACKGROUND: Treatment of advanced cutaneous melanoma remains challenging, and new data on melanoma biology are required. The most widely accepted criteria for the prognostic evaluation of melanoma are histopathological and clinical parameters, and the identification of additional tumor markers is thus of paramount importance. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), an important tool in cancer research, is useful for unraveling the molecular profile of melanoma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219940/factors-influencing-postpartum-fatigue-in-vaginal-birth-women-testing-a-path-model
#6
Ching-Hsing Hsieh, Chien-Lan Chen, Tan-Ju Han, Pei-Ju Lin, Hui-Chun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Postpartum fatigue is a very common complaint among postpartum women. Although current evidence indicates that several factors (e.g., parity, epidural analgesia, perineal trauma, perineal pain, and longer second stage of labor) are associated with postpartum, not enough is known about the relationships among these physical factors simultaneously and how they contribute to the development of postpartum fatigue. Increased awareness of the complex relationships among these factors will help nurses assess, prevent, and alleviate postpartum fatigue...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218407/short-vs-long-pulses-for-testing-knee-extensor-neuromuscular-properties-does-it-matter
#7
Caroline Giroux, Boris Roduit, Javier Rodriguez-Falces, Jacques Duchateau, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: The present study aimed at comparing knee extensor neuromuscular properties determined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation using two pulse durations before and after a standardized fatigue protocol. METHODS: In the first sub-study, 19 healthy participants (ten women and nine men; 28 ± 5 years) took part to two separate testing sessions involving the characterization of voluntary activation (twitch interpolation technique), muscle contractility (evoked forces by single and paired stimuli), and neuromuscular propagation (M-wave amplitude from vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles) obtained at supramaximal intensity with a pulse duration of either 0...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217455/a-new-method-to-analyse-the-effect-of-multifocal-contact-lenses-on-visual-function
#8
I Sanchez, S Ortiz-Toquero, M Blanco, R Martin
PURPOSE: Presbyopic contact lens (CL) fittings produce simultaneous vision, providing different retinal images that reduce visual quality and wearers' satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to isolate the multifocality effect of different CL options to manage presbyopia, analysing the impact on binocular visual acuity (VA), stereopsis and contrast sensitivity (CS) and determining the effect of the use of a yellow filter (YF) on visual function. METHODS: A prospective and double-masked randomized pilot study involving 20 healthy volunteers was conducted...
December 4, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216963/psychophysiological-effects-of-bamboo-plants-on-adults
#9
Ahmad Hassan, Qi Bing Chen, Tao Jiang, Bing Yang Lyu, Nian Li, Shu Li, Zi Yue Shangguan, Yun Ting Li, Zhou Li Jun, Qian Luo, Xin Yi Chen, Yi Yan Wang, Cheng Cheng Zeng, Jun Yang, Muhammad Sohaib Tahir
The present study was conducted to clarify the psychophysiological relaxation effects of viewing bamboo on university students. Forty healthy Chinese participants enrolled in this study to clarify the psychophysiological relaxation effects of viewing bamboo. The effects of visual stimulation using a pot both with and without a bamboo were recorded by measuring the student's blood pressure, EEG and STAI. We observed that viewing bamboo plants resulted in significantly lower systolic (female, P < 0.001; male, P < 0...
November 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216478/reach-and-grasp-deficits-following-damage-to-the-dorsal-pulvinar
#10
Melanie Wilke, Lukas Schneider, Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Kristina Miloserdov, Ahmad Nazzal, Peter Dechent, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Hansjörg Scherberger, Igor Kagan, Mathias Bähr
Expansion of the dorsal pulvinar in humans and its anatomical connectivity suggests its involvement in higher-order cognitive and visuomotor functions. We investigated visuomotor performance in a 31 year old patient (M.B.) with a lesion centered on the medial portion of the dorsal pulvinar (left > right) due to an atypical Sarcoidosis manifestation. Unlike lesions with a vascular etiology, the lesion of M.B. did not include primary sensory or motor thalamic nuclei. Thus, this patient gave us the exceedingly rare opportunity to study the contribution of the dorsal pulvinar to visuomotor behavior in a human without confounding losses in primary sensory or motor domains...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216459/pushing-the-boundaries-of-neuroimaging-with-optoacoustics
#11
REVIEW
Saak V Ovsepian, Ivan Olefir, Gil Westmeyer, Daniel Razansky, Vasilis Ntziachristos
With the central ability to visualize a variety of endogenous chromophores and biomarkers or exogenous contrast agents, optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging empowers new experimental capabilities for investigating brain mechanisms and functions. Here, the operational principles of optoacoustic neuroimaging are reviewed in conjunction with recent advances enabling high-resolution and real-time observation, which extend beyond the reach of optical imaging methods. Multiple implementations of optoacoustics for monitoring hemodynamics and neuro-vascular responses in the brain are showcased...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215606/cognitive-and-mood-effects-of-a-nutrient-enriched-breakfast-bar-in-healthy-adults-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-groups-study
#12
David O Kennedy, Emma L Wightman, Joanne Forster, Julie Khan, Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay, Philippa A Jackson
OBJECTIVES: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. METHODS: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215167/plasmonic-metaparticles-on-a-blackbody-create-vivid-reflective-colors-for-naked-eye-environmental-and-clinical-biodetection
#13
Mady Elbahri, Moh Eb Abdelaziz, Shahin Homaeigohar, Abdou Elsharawy, Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati, Christian Röder, Mamdouh El Haj Assad, Ramzy Abdelaziz
Plasmonic dipoles are famous for their strong absorptivity rather than their reflectivity. Here, the as-yet unknown specular reflection and the Brewster effect of ultrafine plasmonic dipoles, metaparticles, are introduced and exploited as the basis of new design rules for advanced applications. A configuration of "Plasmonic metaparticles on a blackbody" is demonstrated and utilized for the design of a tailored perfect-colored absorber and for visual detection of environmental dielectrics that is not readily done by extinction plasmonics...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214728/disruption-of-network-for-visual-perception-of-natural-motion-in-primary-dystonia
#14
Koji Fujita, Wataru Sako, An Vo, Susan B Bressman, David Eidelberg
In healthy subjects, brain activation in motor regions is greater during the visual perception of "natural" target motion, which complies with the two-thirds power law, than of "unnatural" motion, which does not. It is unknown whether motion perception is normally mediated by a specific network that can be altered in the setting of disease. We used block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging and covariance analysis to identify normal network topographies activated in response to "natural" versus "unnatural" motion...
December 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213492/bells-test-are-there-differences-in-performance-between-adult-groups-aged-40-59-and-60-75
#15
Silvio Cesar Escovar Paiva, Vanisa Fante Viapiana, Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Objective: To verify whether differences exist between groups of Brazilian adults aged 40-59 and 60-75 in respective performance on the Bells Test, given the dearth of literature investigating the relationship between focused visual attention and the age factor. Methods: Eighty-four neurologically healthy adults (half aged 40-59 and half 60-75) with high educational level (40-59 years group: M=17.75 years' education; SD=4.00; 60-75 years group: M=15.85 years education; SD=3...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213233/multisensory-and-modality-specific-influences-on-adaptation-to-optical-prisms
#16
Elena Calzolari, Federica Albini, Nadia Bolognini, Giuseppe Vallar
Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA) is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs), as related to the sensory modality of the target...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213051/a-robot-aided-visuo-motor-training-that-improves-proprioception-and-spatial-accuracy-of-untrained-movement
#17
Naveen Elangovan, Leonardo Cappello, Lorenzo Masia, Joshua Aman, Jürgen Konczak
Proprioceptive function can become enhanced during motor learning. Yet, we have incomplete knowledge to what extent proprioceptive function is trainable and how a training that enhances proprioception may influence performance in untrained motor skills. To address this knowledge gap, healthy young adults (N = 14) trained in a visuomotor task that required learners to make increasingly accurate wrist movements. Using a robotic exoskeleton coupled with a virtual visual environment, participants tilted a virtual table through continuous wrist flexion/extension movements with the goal to position a rolling ball on table into a target...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212618/altered-cerebral-perfusion-in-infants-born-preterm-compared-with-infants-born-full-term
#18
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Jonathan Murnick, Marie Brossard-Racine, Taeun Chang, Eman Mahdi, Marni Jacobs, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) in infants born very preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy newborns born full term and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on CBF in the cohort born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study included infants born very preterm (gestational age at birth <32 weeks; birth weight <1500 g) and healthy infants born full term. Using noninvasive 3T arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified regional CBF in the cerebral cortex: sensorimotor/auditory/visual cortex, superior medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and lateral posterior parietal cortex, as well as in the brainstem, and deep gray matter...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212586/hypercortisolemia-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-involved-in-visual-research
#19
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211951/a-double-blinded-randomized-study-evaluating-the-in-vivo-effects-of-a-novel-dental-gel-on-enamel-surface-microstructure-and-microhardness
#20
Afarin Golabgir Anbarani, Jessica Ho, Thinh Hung Vu, Ali Forghany, Tracie Lam, Erisa Khashai, Karan Sahni, Thair Takesh, Petra Wilder-Smith
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of a 2.6% edathamil gel (Livionex® Dental Gel) on surface microhardness and microstructure in 180 pre-eroded enamel chips. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized study. Two enamel chips each were cut from 90 healthy sterilized extracted teeth. One chip from each pair underwent microhardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to establish baselines. The remaining 90 samples were demineralized, and then mounted onto intra-oral retainers worn by nine subjects, with five chips mounted on each retainer for each of the two study arms...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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