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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042954/dexmedetomidine-ameliorates-the-inflammatory-immune-response-in-rats-with-acute-kidney-damage
#1
Weihua Liu, Wenli Yu, Yiqi Weng, Yongwang Wang, Mingwei Sheng
It has been demonstrated that dexmedetomidine (Dex) can protect patients with acute kidney injury from experiencing further tissue damage, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study investigated the immune modulatory functions of Dex in rats with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced via injection of lipopolysaccharide into the tail vein. ELISA analysis showed that Dex reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats with AKI in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the regulatory effects of Dex on cytokine production disappeared when the α-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist Yohimbine (YOH) was added...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018364/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-oct%C3%AE-2-receptor-and-tyr1-receptor-in-the-chagas-disease-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#2
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
Octopamine and tyramine, both biogenic amines, are bioactive chemicals important in diverse physiological processes in invertebrates. In insects, octopamine and tyramine operate analogously to epinephrine and norepinephrine in the vertebrates. Octopamine and tyramine bind to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leading to changes in second messenger levels and thereby modifying the function in target tissues and insect behavior. In this paper, we report the cDNA sequences of two GPCRs, RhoprOctβ2-R, and RhoprTyr1-R, have been cloned and functionally characterized from Rhodnius prolixus...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952182/effects-of-duloxetine-on-pain-and-walking-distance-in-neuropathic-pain-models-via-modulation-of-the-spinal-monoamine-system
#3
K Minami, R Tamano, E Kasai, H Oyama, M Hasegawa, S Shinohara, T Asaki
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of patients with chronic low back pain have a neuropathic component. In this study, we assessed the effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity and walking distance in the rat cauda equina compression (CEC) model of neuropathic low back pain. METHODS: The effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity were examined using the von Frey test in CEC and partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) models. Effects on walking distance were assessed using a treadmill test...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948610/the-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptor-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-to-both-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-in-layer-4-barrel-cortex
#4
Minoru Ohshima, Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
The mammalian neocortex is widely innervated by noradrenergic (NA) fibres from the locus coeruleus. To determine the effects of NA on vertical synaptic inputs to layer 4 (L4) cells from the ventrobasal (VB) thalamus and layer 2/3 (L2/3), thalamocortical slices were prepared and whole-cell recordings were made from L4 cells. Excitatory synaptic responses were evoked by electrical stimulation of the thalamus or L2/3 immediately above. Recorded cells were identified as regular spiking (RS), regular spiking non-pyramidal (RSNP) or fast spiking (FS) cells through their firing patterns in response to current injections...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935564/antinociception-induced-by-a-novel-%C3%AE-2a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-in-rodents-acute-and-chronic-pain-models
#5
Roberto Takashi Sudo, Rachel Vieiralves do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Maria do Carmo Lima, Guilherme Carneiro Montes, Douglas Gordon Ririe, Kenichiro Hayashida, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
The mechanisms and antinociceptive effects of a novel α2A adrenoceptor agonist, 3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzil)-imidazolinide-2,4-dione (PT-31) were investigated using animal models of acute and chronic pain. The effects of PT-31 on pain responses were examined using hot plate and formalin tests in mice and spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced hyperalgesia in rats. The effects of antagonists acting on α adrenoceptor were assessed to investigate the interaction of these pathways upon PT-31 induced antinociception...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914648/dexmedetomidine-maintains-its-direct-cardioprotective-effect-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-hypertensive-hypertrophied-myocardium
#6
Yusuke Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Hirata, Ryoichi Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki Tokinaga, Michiaki Yamakage
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a direct cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation via α2-adrenoreceptor (α2-AR). By using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat models, the cardioprotective effect of DEX in hypertrophied myocardium and the differential characteristics of cardiac α2-AR and the I1 imidazoline receptor (I1R) were examined. METHODS: Langendorff-perfused rat hearts underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion in the presence or absence of DEX before ischemia...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889125/brimonidine-protects-auditory-hair-cells-from-in-vitro-induced-toxicity-of-gentamicin
#7
Maurizio Cortada, Soledad Levano, Daniel Bodmer
Brimonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonist, has neuroprotective effects in the visual system and in spiral ganglion neurons. Auditory hair cells (HCs) express all 3 α2-AR subtypes, but their roles in HCs remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of brimonidine on auditory HCs that were also exposed to gentamicin, which is toxic to HCs. Organ of Corti explants were exposed to gentamicin in the presence or absence of brimonidine, and the α2-AR protein expression levels and Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation levels were determined...
September 9, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856391/dissociable-effects-of-cocaine-and-yohimbine-on-impulsive-action-and-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking
#8
Nienke Broos, Yvar van Mourik, Dustin Schetters, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij
RATIONALE: A strong association has been demonstrated between various forms of impulsivity and addiction-like behavior in both humans and rats. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated how impulsive action, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is affected during various stages of cocaine taking and seeking and by relapse-provoking stimuli in animals that were trained both in an intravenous cocaine self-administration paradigm and in the 5-CSRTT...
August 30, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818747/antidepressant-like-activity-of-methyl-jasmonate-involves-modulation-of-monoaminergic-pathways-in-mice
#9
Solomon Umukoro, Adaeze Adebesin, Gladys Agu, Osarume Omorogbe, Stephen Babajide Asehinde
PURPOSE: The efficacy of current antidepressant drugs has been compromised by adverse effects, low remission and delay onset of action necessitating the search for alternative agents. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a bioactive compound isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum has been shown to demonstrate antidepressant activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the role of monoaminergic systems in the antidepression-like activity of MJ was investigated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were given i...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795276/topiramate-via-nmda-ampa-kainate-gabaa-and-alpha2-receptors-and-by-modulation-of-creb-bdnf-and-akt-gsk3-signaling-pathway-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-methylphenidate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#10
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Tabassom Beiranvand, Shiva Mozaffari
Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal cell death. Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective effects, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the role of various doses of TPM and its possible mechanisms, receptors and signaling pathways involved against MPH-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration were evaluated in vivo. Thus, domoic acid (DOM) was used as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidol (HAL) was used as dopamine D2 receptor antagonist...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764559/characterisation-of-phenolic-compounds-of-the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-tabernaemontana-catharinensis-and-its-potential-antidepressant-like-effect
#11
Nathielli Nayara Pauleti, Jonas Mello, Diogo Alexandre Siebert, Gustavo Amadeu Micke, Cláudia Almeida Coelho de Albuquerque, Michele Debiasi Alberton, Sara Cristiane Barauna
This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect and analysed the qualitative and quantitative 74 phenolic standards of ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves. Acute administration of fraction in mice reduced the immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests confirming its antidepressant-like activity. The anti-immobility effect elicited by this fraction was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg kg(-1)), ketanserin (5 mg kg(-1)), SCH 23,390 (0...
August 1, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753906/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-plays-a-neuroprotective-role-and-suppresses-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#12
Shou-Liang Wang, Lian Duan, Bin Xia, Zhifei Liu, Yu Wang, Gong-Ming Wang
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine has been reported to play an efficient role on multi-organ protection. Our study aims to investigate the neuroprotective of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on cerebral ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury and investigate the underlining signaling mechanisms. METHODS: Cerebral I/R models were established with SD rats through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2h of ischemia followed by 7days of reperfusion, the degree of cerebral tissue injury was detected by HE, Nissl and TUNEL staining...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750292/cortisol-boosts-risky-decision-making-behavior-in-men-but-not-in-women
#13
Lisa Marieke Kluen, Agorastos Agorastos, Klaus Wiedemann, Lars Schwabe
Acute stress may escalate risky decision-making in men, while there is no such effect in women. Although first evidence links these gender-specific effects of stress to stress-induced changes in cortisol, whether elevated cortisol is indeed sufficient to boost risk-taking, whether a potential cortisol effect depends on simultaneous noradrenergic activation, and whether cortisol and noradrenergic activation exert distinct effects on risk-taking in men and women is unknown. In this experiment, we therefore set out to elucidate the impact of cortisol and noradrenergic stimulation on risky decision-making in men and women...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741626/dopamine-and-stress-system-modulation-of-sex-differences-in-decision-making
#14
Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Shambhu Bhat, J Kathleen Tracy, Istvan J Merchenthaler, Margaret M McCarthy, Todd D Gould
Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men versus women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, while male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#15
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats, and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
October 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715875/acute-orexigenic-effect-of-agmatine-involves-interaction-between-central-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-and-gabaergic-receptors
#16
Brijesh Gulabrao Taksande, Omi Sharma, Manish Manohar Aglawe, Mayur Bhimrao Kale, Dinesh Yugraj Gawande, Milind Janraoji Umekar, Nandkishor Ramdas Kotagale
Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABAA positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABAA receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α2-adrenoceptors and the close association between α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693859/the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nachr-partial-agonist-at-1001-attenuates-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking-in-a-rat-model-of-relapse-and-induces-minimal-withdrawal-in-dependent-rats
#17
Menglu Yuan, Ariana M Malagon, Dennis Yasuda, James D Belluzzi, Frances M Leslie, Nurulain T Zaveri
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal...
August 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663125/characterization-of-three-serotonin-receptors-from-the-small-white-butterfly-pieris-rapae
#18
Yi-Xiang Qi, Miao Jin, Xu-Yang Ni, Gong-Yin Ye, Youngseok Lee, Jia Huang
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays a key role in modulating diverse physiological processes and behaviors in both protostomes and deuterostomes. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, which are recognized as potential insecticide targets. We investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of three 5-HT receptors (Piera5-HT1A, Piera5-HT1B, Piera5-HT7) from the small white butterfly Pieris rapae, an important pest of cultivated cabbages and other mustard family crops...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633926/synergic-stimulation-of-serotonin-5-ht1a-receptor-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-for-neuropathic-pain-relief-preclinical-effects-of-2-substituted-imidazoline-derivatives
#19
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Carla Ghelardini, Laura Micheli, Fabio Del Bello, Mario Giannella, Alessandro Piergentili, Maria Pigini, Wilma Quaglia
Neuropathic pain affects millions of people causing disability and impairing quality of life. Commonly used analgesics are generally characterized by limited therapeutic outcomes. The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and the α2 adrenergic receptors are involved in central nociceptive mechanisms with a pivotal role in the inhibitory descending pain pathway. Since their stimulation may modulate the nervous signaling altered by neuropathies, the purpose of the present research is the study of the combined activation of 5-HT1A and α2 receptors by rationally designed imidazoline ligands ((S)-(-)-1 and 2-5) in a rat model of neuropathic pain (chronic constriction injury - CCI)...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627793/increased-sympathetic-outflow-induces-adaptation-to-acute-experimental-pain
#20
Lior Dayan, Uri Hochberg, Hadas Nahman-Averbuch, Silviu Brill, Jacob N Ablin, Giris Jacob
BACKGROUND: There are interrelationships between the autonomic nervous system and pain. This study aims to explore the effect of different autonomic manipulations on pain perception and modulation. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women, mean age 25±3) participate in this single-blinded, semi-randomized, controlled study, which included 2 study visits. Warm and heat pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation and pain adaptation were tested before and after administration of phenylephrine, clonidine, yohimbine and saline...
June 19, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
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