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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909426/effects-of-anxiogenic-drugs-on-the-emission-of-22-and-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-adult-rats
#1
Maria Willadsen, Laura M Best, Markus Wöhr, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE: Adult rat 22-kHz vocalizations are often associated with alarm or distress, whereas a subset of 50-kHz calls is preferentially emitted in response to amphetamine and other rewarding stimuli. Whether any 50-kHz calls reflect anxiety is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of anxiogenic drugs on 50-kHz call rate and call subtype profile, in comparison with D-amphetamine. METHODS: Adult male rats received systemic amphetamine (1 mg/kg) three times several days before testing...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892233/-in-vitro-neurochemical-assessment-of-methylphenidate-and-its-legal-high-analogs-3-4-ctmp-and-ethylphenidate-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#2
Colin Davidson, Christopher A R Raby, Vincenzo Barrese, John Ramsey
3,4-dichloromethylphenidate (3,4-CTMP) and ethylphenidate are new psychoactive substances and analogs of the attention deficit medication methylphenidate. Both drugs have been reported on online user fora to induce effects similar to cocaine. In the UK, 3,4-CTMP appeared on the drug market in 2013 and ethylphenidate has been sold since 2010. We aimed to explore the neurochemical effects of these drugs on brain dopamine and noradrenaline efflux. 3,4-CTMP and ethylphenidate, purchased from online vendors, were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to confirm their identity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885524/extinction-and-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-self-administering-mice-is-associated-with-bidirectional-ampar-mediated-plasticity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#3
Stephanie R Ebner, Erin B Larson, Matthew C Hearing, Anna E Ingebretson, Mark J Thomas
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior show potentiation of synaptic strength at excitatory inputs onto NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881419/evaluation-of-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-activity-of-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-nymphaea-lotus-linn-in-mice
#4
James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Keasling Adam, Zjawiony Jordan K, Costa Elson Alves, Adeleke Adesiyan Aderoju
The search for psychoactive plants possessing therapeutic potential in the treatment of anxiety and depression has attracted growing interest. One such plant, Nymphaea lotus (commonly known as water lily), is used in traditional medicine for analgesic and sedative effects. The present study sought to assess the anti-anxiety and antidepressant activities of crude leaf extract of N. lotus and determine possible mechanisms of action. Barbiturate sleep induction, rota-rod, light/dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT) were conducted...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861097/a-model-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-self-administration-and-reinstatement-that-alters-synaptic-plasticity-in-nucleus-accumbens
#5
Sade Spencer, Daniela Neuhofer, Vivian C Chioma, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Danielle J Schwartz, Nicholas Allen, Michael D Scofield, Tara Ortiz-Ithier, Peter W Kalivas
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if, similar to other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerability to drug reinstatement...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844727/the-possible-mechanisms-of-protocatechuic-acid-induced-central-analgesia
#6
Rana Arslan, Sule Aydin, Dilara Nemutlu Samur, Nurcan Bektas
It is aimed to investigate the central antinociceptive effect of protocatechuic acid and the involvement of stimulation of opioidergic, serotonin 5-HT2A/2C , α2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in protocatechuic acid-induced central analgesia in mice. Time-dependent antinociceptive effects of protocatechuic acid at the oral doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were tested in hot-plate (integrated supraspinal response) and tail-immersion (spinal reflex) tests in mice. To investigate the mechanisms of action; the mice administered 300 mg/kg protocatechuic acid (p...
May 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804894/enhancement-of-exposure-therapy-in-participants-with-specific-phobia-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-yohimbine-propranolol-and-placebo
#7
K Meyerbröker, N Morina, P M G Emmelkamp
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might help better cope with feared situations by reducing accompanying bodily sensations. METHODS: In this controlled trial, fifty-six participants with specific phobia were randomly assigned to either 1) virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) plus YOH, 2) VRET plus Propranolol, or 3) VRET plus placebo...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802841/monoaminergic-and-aminoacidergic-receptors-are-involved-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-ginsenoside-rb1-in-mouse-hippocampus-ca3-and-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Guo-Li Wang, Ying-Ping Wang, Jing-Yu Zheng, Lian-Xue Zhang
Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), as the major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, elicited a novel antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test (FST) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats in our previous study. To further explore the molecular mechanism of Rb1 on the neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in this antidepressant-like effect, the neurochemical changes in the monoaminergic and aminoacidergic receptors were investigated in the present pharmacological study by using reuptake inhibitors, receptors agonists and antagonists...
May 23, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794450/intravenous-anesthetics-enhance-the-ability-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-alleviate-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-receptor-dependent-manner
#9
Jiayu Feng, Weifeng Yao, Yihan Zhang, Andy Peng Xiang, Dongdong Yuan, Ziqing Hei
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The degree of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is highly relevant to the incidence of postoperative liver failure and mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been shown to migrate to the liver and restore the damaged liver. Intravenous anesthetics are commonly used in the perioperative period; however, it is not yet known whether they have an influence on the functions of BM-MSCs and eventually affect the recovery of HIRI. METHODS: A rat model of HIRI and a hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) model using L02 cells were generated, and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) were injected through the portal vein or co-cultured with L02 cells in a Transwell system, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782822/simultaneous-determination-of-intestinal-permeability-and-potential-drug-interactions-of-complex-mixtures-using-caco-2-cells-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-studies-with-rauwolfia-serpentina-extract
#10
Thomas J Flynn, Sanah N Vohra
Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components...
May 18, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775659/%C3%AE-2-receptors-in-the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-generates-the-pressor-response-of-the-cardiovascular-chemoreflex-effects-of-gaba-a-receptor
#11
Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Gholam Reza Namvar, Fahimeh Yeganeh, Masoumeh Hatam
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABAA receptor and α2 -adenoreceptor (α2 -AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Cardiovascular chemoreflex was activated by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN, 80 μg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758386/the-neurokinin-1-receptor-mediates-escalated-alcohol-intake-induced-by-multiple-drinking-models
#12
Michelle K Sequeira, Britta S Nelson, Hannah D Fulenwider, Courtney E King, Sadie E Nennig, Jennifer B Bohannon, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Markus Heilig, Jesse R Schank
We have previously demonstrated that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is upregulated in the central nucleus of the amygdala of alcohol preferring (P) rats and that this receptor mediates escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. However, it is unclear if non-genetic models of escalated consumption are also mediated by NK1R signaling, and if so, what brain regions govern this effect. In the experiments presented here, we use two methods of inducing escalated alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats: yohimbine pretreatment and intermittent alcohol access (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday availability; 20% alcohol)...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758357/pharmacopuncture-with-scolopendra-subspinipes-suppresses-mechanical-allodynia-in-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathic-mice-and-potentiates-clonidine-induced-anti-allodynia-without-hypotension-or-motor-impairment
#13
Seo-Yeon Yoon, Jeong-Yun Lee, Dae-Hyun Roh, Seog Bae Oh
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is a common dose-limiting side effect of anticancer drugs but lacks an effective treatment strategy. Scolopendra subspinipes (SS) has been used in traditional medicine to treat chronic neuronal diseases. Moreover, pharmacopuncture with SS (SSP) produces potent analgesia in humans and experimental animals. In this study, we examined the effect of SSP into the ST36 acupoint on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Acupoint treatment with SSP (0.5%/20 μL) significantly reduced mechanical allodynia produced by a single oxaliplatin injection (10 mg/kg, i...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725523/suppression-of-osteoclastogenesis-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors
#14
Kosuke Hamajima, Kazunori Hamamura, Andy Chen, Hiroki Yokota, Hironori Mori, Shoyoku Yo, Hisataka Kondo, Kenjiro Tanaka, Kyoko Ishizuka, Daisuke Kodama, Takao Hirai, Ken Miyazawa, Shigemi Goto, Akifumi Togari
The sympathetic nervous system is known to regulate osteoclast development. However, the involvement of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) in osteoclastogenesis is not well understood. In the present study, their potential role in osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Guanabenz, clonidine and xylazine were used as agonists of α2-ARs, while yohimbine and idazoxan were employed as antagonists. Using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclast and primary bone marrow cells, the mRNA expression of the osteoclast-related genes nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K was evaluated following induction with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)...
May 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719465/antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ginsenoside-rf-in-a-rat-model-of-incisional-pain
#15
Min Kyoung Kim, Hyun Kang, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, Geun Joo Choi, Hwa Yong Shin, Kyung Soo Kim
Background: Ginseng saponin has long been used as a traditional Asian medicine and is known to be effective in treating various kinds of pain. Ginsenoside Rf is one of the biologically active saponins found in ginseng. We evaluated ginsenoside Rf's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and its mechanism of action on adrenergic and serotonergic receptors, in an incisional pain model. Methods: Mechanical hyperalgesia was induced via plantar incision in rats followed by intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of ginsenoside Rf (vehicle, 0...
April 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700576/targeted-overexpression-of-crh-receptor-subtype-1-in-central-amygdala-neurons-effect-on-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#16
L Broccoli, S Uhrig, G von Jonquieres, K Schönig, D Bartsch, N J Justice, R Spanagel, W H Sommer, M Klugmann, A C Hansson
RATIONALE: The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system is a key mediator of stress-induced responses in alcohol-seeking behavior. Recent research has identified the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region involved in the regulation of fear and stress-induced responses that is especially rich in CRH-positive neurons, as a key player in mediating excessive alcohol seeking. However, detailed characterization of the specific influences that local neuronal populations exert in mediating alcohol responses is hampered by current limitations in pharmacological and immunohistochemical tools for targeting CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1)...
June 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691888/pharmacological-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-like-octopamine-receptor-in-plutella-xylostella
#17
Qing-Ting Huang, Hai-Hao Ma, Xi-Le Deng, Hang Zhu, Jia Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Mao Zhou
The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686743/antinociceptive-activity-of-methanolic-extract-of-clinacanthus-nutans-leaves-possible-mechanisms-of-action-involved
#18
Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Rushduddin Al Jufri Roosli, Mohd Hijaz Mohd Sani, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Siti Farah Mohd Tohid, Fezah Othman, Siew Mooi Ching, Arifah Abdul Kadir
Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes ( β -funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, α 2 -noradrenergic (yohimbine), β -adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride)...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676236/monoamine-involvement-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene
#19
Danillo Ramos Oliveira, Dayane Moreira Silva, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Adriane de Brito, James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Daiany Priscilla Bueno Silva, Fabio da Rocha, Elson Alves Costa, Pablinny Galdino De Carvalho
This study was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of sesquiterpene compound β-caryophyllene (BCP) for the possible contribution of the monoamine and hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Male albino Swiss mice were subjected to the forced swimming test after acute treatment and to the tail suspension test after repeated treatment. Hippocampal levels of BDNF were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The anti-immobility effect of BCP was reverted by pretreatment with inhibitor of catecholamines α-methyl-p-tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i...
April 20, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#20
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
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