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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454007/destruction-of-noradrenergic-terminals-increases-dopamine-concentration-and-reduces-dopamine-metabolism-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Rita Gálosi, Zoltán Petykó, Veronika Kállai, Attila Tóth, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Anita Kovács, Beata Berta, László Lénárd
Effects of destroyed noradrenergic (NE) innervation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were examined on dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. 6-hydroxy-DOPA (6-OHDOPA) or 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in combination with a potent DA reuptake inhibitor GBR 12935 or 6-OHDA were injected bilaterally into the mPFC in separate groups of animals. In addition, GBR 12935 or vehicle was injected into the mPFC in two other groups of animals as control experiments. NE and DA concentrations from postmortem tissue of the mPFC were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448886/augmenting-treatment-efficiency-in-exposure-therapy-for-ptsd-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-yohimbine-hcl
#2
Peter W Tuerk, Bethany C Wangelin, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Ron Acierno, Ursula S Myers, Scott P Orr, Edna B Foa, Mark B Hamner
The alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, can facilitate fear extinction in animals and humans. One potential mechanism is increased noradrenergic activity and associated arousal in the presence of conditioned stimuli. Accordingly, yohimbine might augment prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where heightened exposure-oriented arousal is a theorized driver and empirical predictor of treatment success. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (NCT 01031979) piloted yohimbine augmentation in 26 males with combat-related PTSD...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424320/reserpine-induces-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-hormone-independent-prostate-cancer-cells-through-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-failure
#3
Manjula Devi Ramamoorthy, Ashok Kumar, Mahesh Ayyau, Kannan Narayanan Dhiraviam
Reserpine, an indole alkaloid commonly used for hypertension, is found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina. Although the root extract has been used for the treatment of cancer, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer activity on hormonal independent prostate cancer remains elusive. Therefore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of reserpine and other indole alkaloids, yohimbine and ajmaline on prostate cancer cells (PC3) using MTT assay. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis using a combination of techniques including acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, high content imaging of Annexin V-FITC staining, flow cytometric quantification of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle analysis...
February 9, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412228/the-protective-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-in-a-rat-ex-vivo-lung-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Yan Zhou, Xinqiao Zhou, Wenjuan Zhou, Qingfeng Pang, Zhiping Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: An IL-2 ex vivo lung perfusion system was used to establish a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Drugs were added to the perfusion solution for reperfusion. Lung injury was assessed by histopathological changes, airway pressure (Res), lung compliance (Compl), perfusion flow (Flow), pulmonary venous oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio...
January 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408007/neuropharmacological-characterization-of-frutalin-in-mice-evidence-of-an-antidepressant-like-effect-mediated-by-the-nmda-receptor-no-cgmp-pathway
#5
João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, José de Maria Albuquerque de Melo Júnior, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal Damasceno, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues Santos, Antônio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Adriana Rolim Campos, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira
In this study we evaluated the effect of frutalin (FTL) on mouse behavior. Mice (n = 6/group) were treated (i.p.) with FTL (0.25; 0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or vehicle and submitted to several tests (hole-board/HBT, elevated plus maze/PMT, open field/OFT, tail suspension/TST, or forced swimming/FST). Yohimbine, ketamine, l-NAME, aminoguanidine, 7-NI, methylene blue, l-arginine or dl-serine was administered 30 min before FTL (0.5 mg/kg). To evaluate the subchronic effect, animals were injected with FTL or vehicle for 7 days and submitted to the FST...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407513/dissociable-roles-of-glucocorticoid-and-noradrenergic-activation-on-social-discounting
#6
Zsofia Margittai, Marijn van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Marian Joëls, Tobias Kalenscher
People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382555/reliability-and-robustness-of-feedback-evoked-brain-heart-coupling-after-placebo-dopamine-and-noradrenaline-challenge
#7
Maximilian Lueckel, Christian Panitz, Urs M Nater, Erik M Mueller
External and internal performance feedback triggers not only neural but also cardiac modulations, suggesting communication between brain and heart during feedback processing. Using Cardio-Electroencephalographic Covariance Tracing (CECT), it has accordingly been shown that feedback-evoked centromedial single-trial EEG at the P300 latency intraindividually predicts subsequent changes in heart period - the so called N300H phenomenon. While previous findings suggest that the N300H depends on serotonin, its relationship to central dopamine and noradrenaline is currently unknown...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374304/differences-in-trait-impulsivity-do-not-bias-the-response-to-pharmacological-drug-challenge-in-the-rat-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#8
Rebecca L Barlow, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
RATIONALE: Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366515/antinociceptive-profiles-and-mechanisms-of-centrally-administered-oxyntomodulin-in-various-mouse-pain-models
#9
Soo-Hyun Park, Jae-Ryeong Lee, Sang-Pil Jang, Seyung-Hwan Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Jung-Woo Hong, Hong-Won Suh
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of oxyntomodulin were examined in ICR mice. Oxyntomodulin administered intrathecally (i.t.) and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) (from 1 to 5μg/5μl) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Moreover, cumulative response time of nociceptive behaviors induced by intraplantar formalin injection was reduced by i.t. or i.c.v. treatment with oxyntomodulin during the second, but not the first phase...
January 20, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360563/adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-suppresses-oxidative-metabolism-in-isolated-rat-islets-and-min6-cells
#10
Amy C Kelly, Leticia E Camacho, Ken Pendarvis, Hailey M Davenport, Nathan R Steffens, Kate E Smith, Craig S Weber, Ronald M Lynch, Klearchos K Papas, Sean W Limesand
Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose metabolism and inhibited by catecholamines through adrenergic receptor stimulation. We determined whether catecholamines suppress oxidative metabolism in β-cells through adrenergic receptors. In Min6 cells and isolated rat islets, epinephrine decreased oxygen consumption rates compared to vehicle control or co-administration of epinephrine with α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine. Epinephrine also decreased forskolin-stimulated oxygen consumption rates, indicating cAMP dependent and independent actions...
January 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304410/simultaneous-quantitative-determination-of-bioactive-terpene-indole-alkaloids-in-ethanolic-extracts-of-catharanthus-roseus-l-g-don-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Sunil Kumar, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Bikarma Singh, Lal Bahadur, Mohan Lal
A rapid, sensitive and reproducible method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QqQLIT-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of anticancer (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine), antihypertensive (ajmaline, ajmalicine, reserpine), aphrodisiac (yohimbine), sedative (serpentine) agents, dietary supplement (vinpocetine, yohimbine) and precursor of vinblastine (vindoline) from crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304162/adrenergic-receptors-inhibit-trpv1-activity-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-of-rats
#12
Yumi Matsushita, Miki Manabe, Naoki Kitamura, Izumi Shibuya
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299193/quetiapine-reverses-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice-role-of-alpha2-adrenergic-receptors
#13
Alireza Abed, Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud, Mehdi Taghian, Mahbubeh Aliasgharzadeh, Azam Mesdaghinia
Objectives: Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of cancer chemo -therapy. This neuropathy has a profound impact on quality of life and patient's survival. Preventing and treating paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major concern. First- and second-generation antipsychotics have shown analgesic effects both in humans and animals. Quetiapine is a novel atypical antipsychotic with low propensity to induce extrapyramidal or hyperprolactinemia side effects...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274881/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-antiallodynic-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-a-mice-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
Andressa de Souza, Daniel F Martins, Liciane Fernandes Medeiros, Catharina Nucci, Thiago César Martins, Aline Siteneski, Wolnei Caumo, Adair Roberto Soares Dos Santos, Iraci L S Torres
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is relatively common and occurs in approximately 6-8% of the population. It is associated with allodynia and hyperalgesia. Thus, non-pharmacological treatments, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for relieving pain. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the antiallodynic effect of tDCS in a mice model of neuropathic pain, and the underlying neurotransmission systems that could drive these effects...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222687/chrysophyllum-cainito-apple-star-a-fruit-with-gastroprotective-activity-in-experimental-ulcer-models
#15
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195907/presynaptic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-in-vitro
#16
Shi-Yu Peng, Bin Li, Kang Xi, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The nucleus accumbens (NAc), integrating information from the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures, plays a critical role in reward and emotion regulation. Previous studies have reported that the NAc shell receives direct noradrenergic projections, and activation of α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) in the NAc shell decreases the fear or anxiety level of rats. However, the underlying mechanism is still little known. Intriguingly, glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAc shell is closely related to reward and emotion...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167492/radioligand-binding-analysis-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-with-11-c-yohimbine-in-brain-in-vivo-extended-inhibition-plot-correction-for-plasma-protein-binding
#17
Jenny-Ann Phan, Anne M Landau, Steen Jakobsen, Albert Gjedde
We describe a novel method of kinetic analysis of radioligand binding to neuroreceptors in brain in vivo, here applied to noradrenaline receptors in rat brain. The method uses positron emission tomography (PET) of [(11)C]yohimbine binding in brain to quantify the density and affinity of α 2 adrenoceptors under condition of changing radioligand binding to plasma proteins. We obtained dynamic PET recordings from brain of Spraque Dawley rats at baseline, followed by pharmacological challenge with unlabeled yohimbine (0...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165814/reverse-effect-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-l-juice-and-seeds-aqueous-extract-on-gastric-emptying-and-small-bowel-motility-in-rat
#18
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163237/-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-rats-with-prolonged-cocaine-self-administration-suggests-potential-brain-biomarkers-for-addictive-behavior
#19
Nazzareno Cannella, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Mareike Roscher, Tatiane T Takahashi, Nils Vogler, Björn Wängler, Rainer Spanagel
The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126857/impact-of-endogenous-progesterone-on-reactivity-to-yohimbine-and-cocaine-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-women
#20
Megan M Moran-Santa Maria, Brian J Sherman, Kathleen T Brady, Nathaniel L Baker, J Madison Hyer, Chantelle Ferland, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data from clinical and preclinical models of relapse suggest that progesterone attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior. In a recent study, we found that cocaine-dependent women reported greater subjective responses to cues that were preceded by a stressor than cocaine-dependent men. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of endogenous progesterone on the subjective and endocrine responses to a drug-paired cue that was preceded by a stressor in cocaine-dependent women...
November 7, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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