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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441717/dexmedetomidine-relieves-formaldehyde-induced-pain-in-rats-through-both-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-and-imidazoline-receptor
#1
Hong Zhang, Xiang Yan, De-Gui Wang, Yu-Fang Leng, Zhan-Hai Wan, Yong-Qiang Liu, Yan Zhang
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. In this study, we investigated the analgesic effect and the underlying mechanisms of DEX on inflammatory visceral pain in rats. Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including control, sham, low dose DEX, medium dose DEX and high dose DEX group. Pain was induced with 10% formalin and scored every 15min till 2 h-post the induction. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the toxicity of DEX on spinal cord neurons...
April 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#2
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427990/neuropeptide-y-not-involved-in-cutaneous-vascular-control-in-young-human-females-taking-oral-contraceptive-hormones
#3
Gary J Hodges, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
We previously reported that the cutaneous vasodilator response to local warming in males required noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY). Animal work has shown no role for NPY in female vascular control. We investigated the contribution of NA and NPY in human female cutaneous vascular control. Nine female and nine male participants volunteered. To elucidate whether synthetic oestrogen and progesterone altered cutaneous vascular responses, females were tested in high-hormone (HH) and low-hormone (LH) phases of oral contraceptive pill (OCP)...
April 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409566/combined-effects-of-glucocorticoid-and-noradrenergic-activity-on-loss-aversion
#4
Zsofia Margittai, Gideon Nave, Marijn Van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Schwabe, Tobias Kalenscher
Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision-making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision-making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385635/effect-of-diazepam-and-yohimbine-on-neuronal-activity-in-sham-and-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#5
Katherine A O'Connor, Emily Mahoney, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Eric S Molho, Julie G Pilitsis, Damian S Shin
The prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are critical for the emotional guidance of behavior and are believed to be a site of action for many anxiolytics and anxiogenics. Despite extensive studies examining how these drugs affect behavior, there is little information regarding their effects on neuronal activity. Additionally, with recent recognition of anxiety as a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, it is unknown if activity in the cortex and the amygdala is altered. Previously, we reported that hemiparkinsonian rats had higher baseline anxiety-like behavior and diminished responsiveness to the acute anxiolytic, diazepam...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379112/comparison-of-two-sedation-protocols-for-short-electroretinography-in-cats
#6
María J Del Sole, Pablo Nejamkin, Verónica Cavilla, Paula Schaiquevich, Laura Moreno
Objectives The objectives were to compare two different sedative combinations, xylazine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine, on the short electroretinography (ERG) protocol and their impact on sedative effect, reversal times and physiological variables in cats. Methods Six healthy spayed female domestic cats were sedated using one of two ketamine-containing protocols: intramuscular xylazine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) plus ketamine hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) (XK), and dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (5 µg/kg) plus ketamine hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) (DK)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369032/bidirectional-regulatory-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-porcine-coronary-tone-in-vitro
#7
Shu-Zhi Zhou, Zhi-Ming Li, Xue-Ru Liu, Jun Zhou, Xiao-Qiu Tan, Yan Yang, Ji-Cheng Wei
BACKGROUND Studies in vivo have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect the myocardium and modulate the coronary blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the direct and concentration-dependent effects of DEX on the tone of porcine coronary artery in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Distal branches of the porcine anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected and cut into 3-5 mm rings. The tones of coronary rings in response to cumulative DEX were measured using the PowerLab system...
April 3, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362179/serotonin-induced-hypophagia-is-mediated-via-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-neonatal-layer-type-chickens
#8
M Zendehdel, F Sardari, S Hassanpour, M Rahnema, A Adeli, E Ghashghayi
1. Serotoninergic and adrenergic systems play crucial roles in feed intake regulation in avians but there is no report on possible interactions among them. So, in this study, 5 experiments were designed to evaluate the interaction of central serotonergic and adrenergic systems on food intake regulation in 3 h food deprived (FD3) neonatal layer-type chickens. 2. In Experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), prazosin (α1 receptor antagonist, 10 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus prazosin...
March 31, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344096/dissociable-effects-of-systemic-and-orbitofrontal-administration-of-adrenoceptor-antagonists-on-yohimbine-induced-motor-impulsivity
#9
Wendy K Adams, Michael M Barrus, Fiona D Zeeb, Paul J Cocker, James Benoit, Catharine A Winstanley
The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, is commonly used as a pharmacological stressor. Its behavioural effects are typically attributed to elevated noradrenaline release via blockade of central, inhibitory autoreceptors. We have previously reported that yohimbine increases motor impulsivity in rats on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), a cognitive behavioural assessment which measures motor impulsivity and visuospatial attention. Furthermore, this effect depended on cyclic adenomonophosphate (cAMP) signalling via cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330727/evaluation-of-bam-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-immobilization
#10
Aleksandr Semjonov, Vladimir Andrianov, Jacobus P Raath, Toomas Orro, Derik Venter, Liesel Laubscher, Silke Pfitzer
OBJECTIVE: The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical trial. ANIMALS: Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. METHODS: The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318897/efficacy-of-off-label-augmentation-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Julia Kleeblatt, Felix Betzler, Laura L Kilarski, Tom Bschor, Stephan Köhler
Treatment of unipolar depression with currently available antidepressants is still unsatisfactory. Augmentation with lithium or second generation antipsychotics is an established practice in non-responders to antidepressant monotherapy, but is also associated with a substantial non-response rate and with non-tolerance. Based on a systematic review of the literature, including meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized comparative studies and case studies, off-label augmentation agents (administered in addition to an antidepressant, without FDA approval for treatment of MDD) were identified and evaluated regarding their efficacy using levels of evidence...
March 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315642/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#12
Christopher F Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara B Kracinovsky, Joseph T Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302559/in-vitro-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-potential-of-alpha-methyltryptamine-analog-new-psychoactive-substances-for-assessing-possible-toxic-risks
#13
Lea Wagmann, Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Tryptamines have emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are distributed and consumed recreationally without preclinical studies or safety tests. Within the alpha-methylated tryptamines, some of the psychoactive effects of the prototypical alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) have been described decades ago and a contributing factor of its acute toxicity appears to involve the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). However, detailed information about analogs is scarce. Therefore, thirteen AMT analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit MAO...
March 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295755/evidence-for-a-functional-vasoconstrictor-role-for-atp-in-the-human-cutaneous-microvasculature
#14
James A Lang, Alex C Krajek, Kevin A Smaller
Noradrenaline is responsible for eliciting ∼60% of the reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) response in young adults, whereas the remainder is due to one or more unidentified coreleased sympathetic adrenergic neurotransmitter(s). Inconsistent evidence has placed neuropeptide Y in this role; however, other putative cotransmitters have yet to be tested. We hypothesize that ATP contributes to the reflex cutaneous VC response. Two protocols were conducted in young adults (n = 10); both involved the placement of three microdialysis (MD) probes in forearm skin and whole-body cooling (Tsk  = 30...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253079/noradrenergic-stimulation-impairs-memory-generalization-in-women
#15
Lisa Marieke Kluen, Agorastos Agorastos, Klaus Wiedemann, Lars Schwabe
Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators, noradrenaline, and glucocorticoids is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248541/cooling-evoked-hemodynamic-perturbations-facilitate-sympathetic-activity-with-subsequent-myogenic-vascular-oscillations-via-alpha2-adrenergic-receptors
#16
Y-H Lin, Y-P Liu, Y-C Lin, P-L Lee, C-S Tung
This study extends our previous work by examining the effects of alpha2-adrenoceptors under cold stimulation involving the increase of myogenic vascular oscillations as increases of very-low-frequency and low-frequency of the blood pressure variability. Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: vehicle; yohimbine; hexamethonium+yohimbine; guanethidine+yohimbine. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, power spectral analysis of spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and spectral coherence at very-low-frequency (0...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242182/desipramine-increases-cardiac-parasympathetic-activity-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-mechanism-in-rats
#17
Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Atsunori Kamiya, Masaru Sugimachi
Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α2-adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg(-1)) were examined in anesthetized rats...
February 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239660/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-blockade-rescues-hypoglossal-motor-defense-against-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Gang Song, Chi-Sang Poon
Decreased noradrenergic excitation of hypoglossal motoneurons during sleep causing hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator muscles is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a widespread disease for which treatment options are limited. Previous OSA drug candidates targeting various excitatory/inhibitory receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons have proved unviable in reactivating these neurons, particularly during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To identify a viable drug target, we show that the repurposed α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine potently reversed the depressant effect of REM sleep on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity (a first-line motor defense against OSA) in rats...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237805/noradrenergic-regulation-of-plasticity-marker-expression-in-the-adult-rodent-piriform-cortex
#19
Krishna C Vadodaria, Sudhirkumar U Yanpallewar, Mayur Vadhvani, Devyani Toshniwal, L Cameron Liles, Karen S Rommelfanger, David Weinshenker, Vidita A Vaidya
The adult rodent piriform cortex has been reported to harbor immature neurons that express markers associated with neurodevelopment and plasticity, namely polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and doublecortin (DCX). We characterized the expression of PSA-NCAM and DCX across the rostrocaudal axis of the rat piriform cortex and observed higher numbers of PSA-NCAM and DCX positive cells in the posterior subdivision. As observed in the rat piriform cortex, Nestin-GFP reporter mice also revealed a similar gradient of GFP-positive cells with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient of expression...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235907/octopamine-and-tyramine-regulate-the-activity-of-reproductive-visceral-muscles-in-the-adult-female-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#20
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
The role of octopamine and tyramine in regulating spontaneous contractions of reproductive tissues was examined in the female Rhodnius prolixus Octopamine decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the oviducts and reduced RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tyramine only reduced the RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions. Both octopamine and tyramine decreased the frequency of spontaneous bursal contractions and completely abolished the contractions at 5×10(-7) M and above...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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