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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222687/chrysophyllum-cainito-apple-star-a-fruit-with-gastroprotective-activity-in-experimental-ulcer-models
#1
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195907/presynaptic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-in-vitro
#2
Shi-Yu Peng, Bin Li, Kang Xi, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The nucleus accumbens (NAc), integrating information from the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures, plays a critical role in reward and emotion regulation. Previous studies have reported that the NAc shell receives direct noradrenergic projections, and activation of α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) in the NAc shell decreases the fear or anxiety level of rats. However, the underlying mechanism is still little known. Intriguingly, glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAc shell is closely related to reward and emotion...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167492/radioligand-binding-analysis-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-with-11-c-yohimbine-in-brain-in-vivo-extended-inhibition-plot-correction-for-plasma-protein-binding
#3
Jenny-Ann Phan, Anne M Landau, Steen Jakobsen, Albert Gjedde
We describe a novel method of kinetic analysis of radioligand binding to neuroreceptors in brain in vivo, here applied to noradrenaline receptors in rat brain. The method uses positron emission tomography (PET) of [(11)C]yohimbine binding in brain to quantify the density and affinity of α 2 adrenoceptors under condition of changing radioligand binding to plasma proteins. We obtained dynamic PET recordings from brain of Spraque Dawley rats at baseline, followed by pharmacological challenge with unlabeled yohimbine (0...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165814/reverse-effect-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-l-juice-and-seeds-aqueous-extract-on-gastric-emptying-and-small-bowel-motility-in-rat
#4
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163237/-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-rats-with-prolonged-cocaine-self-administration-suggests-potential-brain-biomarkers-for-addictive-behavior
#5
Nazzareno Cannella, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Mareike Roscher, Tatiane T Takahashi, Nils Vogler, Björn Wängler, Rainer Spanagel
The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126857/impact-of-endogenous-progesterone-on-reactivity-to-yohimbine-and-cocaine-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-women
#6
Megan M Moran-Santa Maria, Brian J Sherman, Kathleen T Brady, Nathaniel L Baker, J Madison Hyer, Chantelle Ferland, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data from clinical and preclinical models of relapse suggest that progesterone attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior. In a recent study, we found that cocaine-dependent women reported greater subjective responses to cues that were preceded by a stressor than cocaine-dependent men. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of endogenous progesterone on the subjective and endocrine responses to a drug-paired cue that was preceded by a stressor in cocaine-dependent women...
November 7, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111111/anti-aggregation-effect-of-aroxyalkyl-derivatives-of-2-methoxyphenylpiperazine-is-due-to-their-5-ht2a-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonistic-properties-a-comparison-with-ketanserin-sarpogrelate-prazosin-yohimbine-and-arc239
#7
Monika Kubacka, Grzegorz Kazek, Magdalena Kotańska, Barbara Filipek, Anna Maria Waszkielewicz, Szczepan Mogilski
Serotonin (5-HT) and adrenaline acting at platelet 5-HT2A-serotoninergic and α2-adrenergic receptors are involved in platelet aggregation. We have evaluated the antagonistic potency at 5-HT2A, α2A-, and α2B-adrenoceptors as well as an anti-aggregation effect of aroxyalkyl derivatives of 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine and compared them with ketanserin, sarpogrelate, prazosin, yohimbine and ARC239 (2-[2-[4-(o-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-ethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2H,4H)-isoquinolindione). Functional bioassays at cells expressing human receptors, revealed studied compounds to be moderate antagonists of 5-HT2A and α2-adrenoceptors, with around 2-7 times stronger antagonistic effect at α2B subtype than α2A subtype...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106989/gonadal-hormones-affect-alcohol-drinking-but-not-cue-yohimbine-induced-alcohol-seeking-in-male-and-female-rats
#8
Megan L Bertholomey, Mary M Torregrossa
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing disease characterized by maladaptive patterns of alcohol drinking and seeking. Though sex differences exist in the etiology of AUD, much remains to be elucidated concerning the mechanisms underlying sex-related vulnerability to developing excessive alcohol-motivated behavior. While a large body of evidence points to an important role of circulating gonadal hormones in mediating cocaine reinforcement, findings are less consistent with respect to ethanol. Critically, the effects of gonadal hormones on the reinstatement of ethanol seeking, a model of "craving"-like behavior that reveals pronounced sex differences, has not yet been examined...
October 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064725/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-ir-neurons-density-changes-after-single-dose-of-clonidine-and-yohimbine-administration-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-rat
#9
M Jahanshahi, E Nikmahzar, L Elyasi, F Babakordi, E Hooshmand
OBJECTIVE: Despite the important role of α2-adrenoceptors in pain modulation processes, the impact of administration of α2-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist on density of hippocampal α2-adrenoceptor-immunoreative neurons has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of single doses of clonidine and yohimbine on the density of α2-adrenoceptorimmunoreactive neurons in rat hippocampus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats received a single dose of clonidine (0...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058089/evidence-based-treatment-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-and-related-symptoms
#10
REVIEW
Sabine Eschlböck, Gregor Wenning, Alessandra Fanciulli
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension and exercise-induced hypotension are common features of cardiovascular autonomic failure. Despite the serious impact on patient's quality of life, evidence-based guidelines for non-pharmacological and pharmacological management are lacking at present. Here, we provide a systematic review of the literature on therapeutic options for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and related symptoms with evidence-based recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)...
December 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042954/dexmedetomidine-ameliorates-the-inflammatory-immune-response-in-rats-with-acute-kidney-damage
#11
Weihua Liu, Wenli Yu, Yiqi Weng, Yongwang Wang, Mingwei Sheng
It has been demonstrated that dexmedetomidine (Dex) can protect patients with acute kidney injury from experiencing further tissue damage, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study investigated the immune modulatory functions of Dex in rats with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced via injection of lipopolysaccharide into the tail vein. ELISA analysis showed that Dex reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats with AKI in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the regulatory effects of Dex on cytokine production disappeared when the α-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist Yohimbine (YOH) was added...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018364/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-oct%C3%AE-2-receptor-and-tyr1-receptor-in-the-chagas-disease-vector-rhodnius-prolixus
#12
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
Octopamine and tyramine, both biogenic amines, are bioactive chemicals important in diverse physiological processes in invertebrates. In insects, octopamine and tyramine operate analogously to epinephrine and norepinephrine in the vertebrates. Octopamine and tyramine bind to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leading to changes in second messenger levels and thereby modifying the function in target tissues and insect behavior. In this paper, we report the cDNA sequences of two GPCRs, RhoprOctβ2-R, and RhoprTyr1-R, have been cloned and functionally characterized from Rhodnius prolixus...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952182/effects-of-duloxetine-on-pain-and-walking-distance-in-neuropathic-pain-models-via-modulation-of-the-spinal-monoamine-system
#13
K Minami, R Tamano, E Kasai, H Oyama, M Hasegawa, S Shinohara, T Asaki
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of patients with chronic low back pain have a neuropathic component. In this study, we assessed the effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity and walking distance in the rat cauda equina compression (CEC) model of neuropathic low back pain. METHODS: The effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity were examined using the von Frey test in CEC and partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) models. Effects on walking distance were assessed using a treadmill test...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948610/the-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptor-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-to-both-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-in-layer-4-barrel-cortex
#14
Minoru Ohshima, Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
KEY POINTS: The effects of noradrenaline on excitatory synaptic transmission to regular spiking (excitatory) cells as well as regular spiking non-pyramidal and fast spiking (both inhibitory) cells in cortical layer 4 were studied in thalamocortical slice preparations, focusing on vertical input from thalamus and layer 2/3 in the mouse barrel cortex. Excitatory synaptic responses were suppressed by noradrenaline. However, currents induced by iontophoretically applied glutamate were not suppressed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935564/antinociception-induced-by-a-novel-%C3%AE-2a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-in-rodents-acute-and-chronic-pain-models
#15
Roberto Takashi Sudo, Rachel Vieiralves do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Maria do Carmo Lima, Guilherme Carneiro Montes, Douglas Gordon Ririe, Kenichiro Hayashida, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
The mechanisms and antinociceptive effects of a novel α2A adrenoceptor agonist, 3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzil)-imidazolinide-2,4-dione (PT-31) were investigated using animal models of acute and chronic pain. The effects of PT-31 on pain responses were examined using hot plate and formalin tests in mice and spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced hyperalgesia in rats. The effects of antagonists acting on α adrenoceptor were assessed to investigate the interaction of these pathways upon PT-31 induced antinociception...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914648/dexmedetomidine-maintains-its-direct-cardioprotective-effect-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-hypertensive-hypertrophied-myocardium
#16
Yusuke Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Hirata, Ryoichi Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki Tokinaga, Michiaki Yamakage
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a direct cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation via α2-adrenoreceptor (α2-AR). By using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat models, the cardioprotective effect of DEX in hypertrophied myocardium and the differential characteristics of cardiac α2-AR and the I1 imidazoline receptor (I1R) were examined. METHODS: Langendorff-perfused rat hearts underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion in the presence or absence of DEX before ischemia...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889125/brimonidine-protects-auditory-hair-cells-from-in-vitro-induced-toxicity-of-gentamicin
#17
Maurizio Cortada, Soledad Levano, Daniel Bodmer
Brimonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonist, has neuroprotective effects in the visual system and in spiral ganglion neurons. Auditory hair cells (HCs) express all 3 α2-AR subtypes, but their roles in HCs remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of brimonidine on auditory HCs that were also exposed to gentamicin, which is toxic to HCs. Organ of Corti explants were exposed to gentamicin in the presence or absence of brimonidine, and the α2-AR protein expression levels and Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation levels were determined...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856391/dissociable-effects-of-cocaine-and-yohimbine-on-impulsive-action-and-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking
#18
Nienke Broos, Yvar van Mourik, Dustin Schetters, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij
RATIONALE: A strong association has been demonstrated between various forms of impulsivity and addiction-like behavior in both humans and rats. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated how impulsive action, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is affected during various stages of cocaine taking and seeking and by relapse-provoking stimuli in animals that were trained both in an intravenous cocaine self-administration paradigm and in the 5-CSRTT...
November 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818747/antidepressant-like-activity-of-methyl-jasmonate-involves-modulation-of-monoaminergic-pathways-in-mice
#19
Solomon Umukoro, Adaeze Adebesin, Gladys Agu, Osarume Omorogbe, Stephen Babajide Asehinde
PURPOSE: The efficacy of current antidepressant drugs has been compromised by adverse effects, low remission and delay onset of action necessitating the search for alternative agents. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a bioactive compound isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum has been shown to demonstrate antidepressant activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the role of monoaminergic systems in the antidepression-like activity of MJ was investigated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were given i...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795276/topiramate-via-nmda-ampa-kainate-gabaa-and-alpha2-receptors-and-by-modulation-of-creb-bdnf-and-akt-gsk3-signaling-pathway-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-methylphenidate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#20
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Tabassom Beiranvand, Shiva Mozaffari
Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal cell death. Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective effects, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the role of various doses of TPM and its possible mechanisms, receptors and signaling pathways involved against MPH-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration were evaluated in vivo. Thus, domoic acid (DOM) was used as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidol (HAL) was used as dopamine D2 receptor antagonist...
November 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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