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Capsinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719942/synthesis-of-medium-chain-length-capsinoids-from-coconut-oil-catalyzed-by-candida-rugosa-lipases
#1
Jovana Trbojević Ivić, Nenad Milosavić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Marija Gavrović Jankulović, Dejan Bezbradica, Dušan Kolarski, Dušan Veličković
A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697214/activation-and-recruitment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-by-cold-exposure-and-food-ingredients-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita
Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through transient receptor potential channels (TRP), most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various food ingredients...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443171/a-new-method-of-infrared-thermography-for-quantification-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-healthy-adults-tactical-a-randomized-trial
#3
Qi Yan Ang, Hui Jen Goh, Yanpeng Cao, Yiqun Li, Siew-Pang Chan, Judith L Swain, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow
The ability to alter the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults is a potential strategy to manage obesity and related metabolic disorders associated with food, drug, and environmental stimuli with BAT activating/recruiting capacity. Infrared thermography (IRT) provides a non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to the current methods (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET) used to assess BAT. We have quantified BAT activation in the cervical-supraclavicular (C-SCV) region using IRT video imaging and a novel image computational algorithm by studying C-SCV heat production in healthy young men after cold stimulation and the ingestion of capsinoids in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269658/towards-leanness-by-feeding-a-novel-thermogenic-pathway
#4
Jens Lund, Matthew Paul Gillum
Upon activation, brown and beige adipocytes help to fight excessive fat in rodents, and their oxidative properties can be induced by cooling, capsinoids, and fish oil. New research now suggests that synergistic anti-obesity effects can be achieved by combining such strategies, and that a novel pathway mediates part of the effect.
August 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135066/assessment-of-human-brown-adipose-tissue-density-during-daily-ingestion-of-thermogenic-capsinoids-using-near-infrared-time-resolved-spectroscopy
#5
Shinsuke Nirengi, Toshiyuki Homma, Naohiko Inoue, Hitoshi Sato, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita, Toshimitsu Kameya, Hiroki Sugie, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Masayuki Saito, Naoki Sakane, Yuko Kurosawa, Takafumi Hamaoka
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDGPET/CT) is widely used as a standard method for evaluating human brown adipose tissue (BAT), a recognized therapeutic target of obesity. However, a longitudinal BAT study using FDG-PET/CT is lacking owing to limitations of the method. Near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (NIR(TRS)) is a technique for evaluating human BAT density noninvasively. This study aimed to test whether NIRTRS could detect changes in BAT density during or after long-term intervention...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936964/a-synergistic-antiobesity-effect-by-a-combination-of-capsinoids-and-cold-temperature-through-promoting-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis
#6
Kana Ohyama, Yoshihito Nogusa, Kosaku Shinoda, Katsuya Suzuki, Makoto Bannai, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes emerge postnatally within the white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure. Because of its highly recruitable nature and relevance to adult humans, beige adipocytes have gained much attention as an attractive cellular target for antiobesity therapy. However, molecular circuits that preferentially promote beige adipocyte biogenesis remain poorly understood. We report that a combination of mild cold exposure at 17°C and capsinoids, a nonpungent analog of capsaicin, synergistically and preferentially promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and ameliorates diet-induced obesity...
May 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686003/capsaicinoids-a-spicy-solution-to-the-management-of-obesity
#7
REVIEW
A Tremblay, H Arguin, S Panahi
Capsaicin is the molecule that is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers. It stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids have been found to accentuate the impact of caloric restriction on body weight loss. Some studies have also shown that capsinoids, the non-pungent analogs of capsaicinoids, increase energy expenditure. Capsaicin supplementation attenuates or even prevents the increase in hunger and decrease in fullness as well as the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which normally result from energy restriction...
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26602570/capsaicin-and-related-food-ingredients-reducing-body-fat-through-the-activation-of-trp-and-brown-fat-thermogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Masayuki Saito
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of sympathetically activated adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis, thereby being involved in the regulation of energy balance and body fatness. Recent radionuclide imaging studies have revealed the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure and contributes to cold-induced increase in whole-body energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation...
2015: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26048129/a-low-pungency-s3212-genotype-of-capsicum-frutescens-caused-by-a-mutation-in-the-putative-aminotransferase-p-amt-gene
#9
Young-Jun Park, Tomotaro Nishikawa, Mineo Minami, Kazuhiro Nemoto, Tomohiro Iwasaki, Kenichi Matsushima
The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic mechanism underlying capsinoid biosynthesis in S3212, a low-pungency genotype of Capsicum frutescens. Screening of C. frutescens accessions for capsaicinoid and capsiate contents by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that low-pungency S3212 contained high levels of capsiate but no capsaicin. Comparison of DNA coding sequences of pungent (T1 and Bird Eye) and low-pungency (S3212) genotypes uncovered a significant 12-bp deletion mutation in exon 7 of the p-AMT gene of S3212...
December 2015: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25618665/use-of-multivariate-statistical-techniques-to-optimize-the-separation-of-17-capsinoids-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-using-different-columns
#10
Janclei P Coutinho, Gerardo F Barbero, Oreto F Avellán, A Garcés-Claver, Helena T Godoy, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso
In this work a multivariate statistical tool (Derringer and Suich optimization) was proposed for the separation of seventeen capsinoids (natural and synthetic) using the UHPLC-DAD chromatography. Capsinoids were analyzed at 280 nm. The variables optimized were the mobile phase (water (0.1% acetic acid as solvent A) and acetonitrile (0.1% as solvent B)), gradient time and flow rate. Two columns with different length (50 and 100 mm) were used for the chromatographic separation. The two columns used properly separated the seventeen capsinoids, however the 100 mm column length showed a better chromatographic separation with a shorter run time and smaller peak widths...
March 2015: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25516550/a-combination-of-exercise-and-capsinoid-supplementation-additively-suppresses-diet-induced-obesity-by-increasing-energy-expenditure-in-mice
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kana Ohyama, Yoshihito Nogusa, Katsuya Suzuki, Kosaku Shinoda, Shingo Kajimura, Makoto Bannai
Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25421144/capsinoids-suppress-fat-accumulation-via-lipid-metabolism
#12
Qin Hong, Chen Xia, Hu Xiangying, Yuan Quan
Capsaicin, found in red peppers, has been reported to have anti‑obesity, anti‑hypertension, anti‑diabetes and anti‑inflammatory functions. In the present study, we determined the effect of non‑pungent capsinoids on the metabolism of adipocytes. We demonstrated that capsinoids suppressed fat accumulation in vivo and in vitro in mice. Liver, the main tissue of lipid metabolism, was treated by capsinoids, and HMG‑CoA reductase, CPT‑1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4 were found to be increased significantly, which demonstrated promotion of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues...
March 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25078570/capsaicinoids-but-not-their-analogue-capsinoids-lower-plasma-cholesterol-and-possess-beneficial-vascular-activity
#13
Weihuan Huang, Wai San Cheang, Xiaobo Wang, Lin Lei, Yuwei Liu, Ka Ying Ma, Fangrui Zheng, Yu Huang, Zhen-Yu Chen
Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2...
August 20, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24941669/capsaicin-as-an-anti-obesity-drug
#14
REVIEW
Felix W Leung
Laboratory studies support a role of capsaicin as an anti-obesity agent. Intestinal mucosal afferent nerves appear to play a role in controlling adipose tissue distribution between visceral and subcutaneous sites. Activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. A neurogenic mechanism modulates the regulation of fat metabolism by transient receptor potential vanilloid-1-sensitive sensory nerves. A neural pathway enables the selective activation of the central network that regulates brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity in response to a specific stimulation of gastrointestinal transient receptor potential channels...
2014: Progress in Drug Research. Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung. Progrès des Recherches Pharmaceutiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24147886/potent-production-of-capsaicinoids-and-capsinoids-by-capsicum-peppers
#15
Kenji Kobata, Mai Sugawara, Makoto Mimura, Susumu Yazawa, Tatsuo Watanabe
The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact fruits of a pungent cultivar, Peru, and a non-pungent cultivar, CH-19 Sweet...
November 20, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24100669/transient-receptor-potential-activated-brown-fat-thermogenesis-as-a-target-of-food-ingredients-for-obesity-management
#16
REVIEW
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Masayuki Saito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold exposure activates brown adipose tissue (BAT), the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermognenesis, via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Capsaicin and its nonpungent analogue (capsinoids) are agonists for a vanilloid subtype one of TRP, and have the potential to increase whole-body energy expenditure and reduce body fat. This article reviews the regulatory roles of BAT for energy expenditure and body fat in humans, particularly focusing on food ingredients activating the TRP-BAT axis...
November 2013: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24026939/one-procedure-synthesis-of-capsiate-from-capsaicin-by-lipase-catalyzed-dynamic-transacylation
#17
Kohji Ishihara, Soon-Il Kwon, Noriyoshi Masuoka, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hiroki Hamada
Capsiate has a structure similar to capsaicin but no oral pungency. Furthermore, capsiate displayed antioxidant activity and inhibited angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and therefore, showed potential as a medicine and food supplement. Capsaicin is now commercially available, however capsiate is scarcely present in natural foods. We investigated the direct enzymatic conversion of a capsaicinoid to a capsinoid. It was observed that the rate of lipase-catalyzed acylation of vanillyl alcohol with nonanoic acid was faster than that of hydrolysis of N-vanillylnonanamide to vanillyl amide and nonanoic acid in n-hexane at 70°C...
July 2010: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23867622/recruited-brown-adipose-tissue-as-an-antiobesity-agent-in-humans
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Sayuri Aita, Mami Matsushita, Takashi Kayahara, Toshimitsu Kameya, Yuko Kawai, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Masayuki Saito
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. Using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography, we previously reported that BAT decreases with age and thereby accelerates age-related accumulation of body fat in humans. Thus, the recruitment of BAT may be effective for body fat reduction. In this study, we examined the effects of repeated stimulation by cold and capsinoids (nonpungent capsaicin analogs) in healthy human subjects with low BAT activity...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23441053/brown-adipose-tissue-as-a-regulator-of-energy-expenditure-and-body-fat-in-humans
#19
Masayuki Saito
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is recognized as the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermogenesis during cold exposure and after spontaneous hyperphagia, thereby controling whole-body energy expenditure and body fat. In adult humans, BAT has long been believed to be absent or negligible, but recent studies using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, in combination with computed tomography, demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in energy expenditure...
February 2013: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23298960/capsinoids-and-related-food-ingredients-activating-brown-fat-thermogenesis-and-reducing-body-fat-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Capsaicin and its nonpungent analog (capsinoids) are known to be food ingredients that increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. This article reviews the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) for the thermogenic effect of these compounds in humans and proposes the possibility of some other antiobesity food ingredients. RECENT FINDINGS: A single oral ingestion of capsinoids increases energy expenditure in human individuals with metabolically active BAT, but not those without it, indicating that capsinoids activate BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure...
February 2013: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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