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Philosophy of meaning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805128/the-reception-of-broadcast-terrorism-recruitment-and-radicalisation
#1
Edgar Jones
The declaration of a caliphate by Islamic State in June 2014 witnessed the recruitment of increasing numbers of foreign terrorist fighters drawn from a diverse range of nations across the globe. This paper seeks to explore the appeal of extreme groups and how recruiters persuade young people to risk either their lives or lengthy terms of imprisonment. The processes of radicalization and recruitment are differentiated and compared with conventional means of encouraging individuals to enlist in state-sanctioned armed forces...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803226/nursing-students-and-faculty-members-experiences-of-comfort-during-transition-to-context-based-learning
#2
Vivian Puplampu
There is evidence supporting student-centered learning (SCL) as an effective pedagogy to prepare professionals to work in the evolving health care system of the twenty-first century. SCL has many benefits, among them that it helps students to learn to work in teams and develop problem-solving, critical thinking and communication skills. The focus on the student means that the teacher's power is decreased. This, along with openness of the approach, can make the transition to SCL a challenge. This study used an exploratory descriptive qualitative design to explore how comfortable nursing students and faculty members were in a context-based learning (CBL) program, a version of SCL...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801760/the-need-for-authenticity-based-autonomy-in-medical-ethics
#3
Lucie White
The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts...
August 11, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799478/researching-health-care-as-a-meaningful-practice-toward-a-nondualistic-view-on-evidence-for-qualitative-research
#4
Els van Wijngaarden, Hanneke van der Meide, Karin Dahlberg
Being able to describe how research findings become evidence is crucial in providing a justification for all kinds of research findings. However, qualitative researchers in health care, including those who conduct phenomenological research, are usually fairly modest when it comes qualifying their research findings as such. We advocate a view of evidence for phenomenological research, an approach that is rooted in philosophy of science, including perspectives of ontology, epistemology, and methodology. We suggest that phenomenology can become an exemplar for how qualitative research can make convincing arguments and thus can be better appreciated...
September 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795918/the-role-of-implementation-science-training-in-global-health-from-the-perspective-of-graduates-of-the-field-s-first-dedicated-doctoral-program
#5
Arianna R Means, David E Phillips, Grégoire Lurton, Anne Njoroge, Sabine M Furere, Rong Liu, Wisal M Hassan, Xiaochen Dai, Orvalho Augusto, Peter Cherutich, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Soi, Dong Roman Xu, Christopher G Kemp
Bridging the 'know-do gap' is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the 'know-do gap'...
December 2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750250/philosophical-and-theoretical-content-of-the-nursing-discipline-in-academic-education-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis
#6
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Rega, Fabia Telaretti, Rosaria Alvaro, Mari Kangasniemi
BACKGROUND: Nursing as clinical practice, management and research are based on nursing philosophy and theory. Thus, the philosophical and theoretical content is required to be incorporated in academic education in order to enable nurses' skills for reflection, analysis, and thinking about the profession. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to describe what is known of the philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline within academic education...
July 13, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740949/good-surgeon-a-search-for-meaning
#7
REVIEW
Andrey L Akopov, Dmitri Y Artioukh
The art and philosophy of surgery are not as often discussed as scientific discoveries and technological advances in the modern era of surgery. Although these are difficult to teach and pass on to the next generations of surgeons they are no less important for training good surgeons and maintaining their high standards. The authors of this review and opinion article tried to define what being a good surgeon really means and to look into the subject by analysing the essential conditions for being a good surgeon and the qualities that such a specialist should possess...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683014/the-everything-about-the-existence-experiences-of-turkish-women-with-infertility-solicited-diaries-in-qualitative-research
#8
İlkay Boz, Hülya Okumuş
BACKGROUND: Infertility as a gynecological illness causes many psychological problems. In Turkey, only a limited number of studies have used qualitative methods to explore the experiences of infertile women. PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to investigate the infertility experiences of women using Watson's Theory of Human Caring as a guide and to sensitize healthcare professionals to the importance of the personal stories of these women. METHODS: A phenomenological approach was used to guide our exploration of the stories of infertile women during their treatment for infertility...
August 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676980/clinical-and-radiological-outcome-at-10-years-of-follow-up-after-total-cervical-disc-replacement
#9
Christoph Mehren, Franziska Heider, Christoph J Siepe, Bernhard Zillner, Ralph Kothe, Andreas Korge, H Michael Mayer
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated that total cervical disc replacement (cTDR) represents a viable treatment alternative to the 'gold standard' anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the treatment of well-defined cervical pathologies at short- and mid-term follow-up (FU). However, the implementation and acceptance of a non-fusion philosophy is closely associated with its avoidance of adjacent segment degeneration. Proof of the functional sustainability and clinical improvement of symptoms at long-term FU is still pending...
July 4, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669128/phenomenology-of-pregnancy-and-the-ethics-of-abortion
#10
Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner...
July 1, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660393/re-evaluating-concepts-of-biological-function-in-clinical-medicine-towards-a-new-naturalistic-theory-of-disease
#11
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ross E G Upshur
Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches...
August 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646495/nursing-philosophy-of-community-mental-health-nurses-in-japan-a-qualitative-descriptive-study
#12
Koji Tanaka, Masami Hasegawa, Yutaka Nagayama, Masato Oe
The present study reports the findings of a qualitative, descriptive study that sought to clarify nursing philosophy for community mental health nurses (CMHN) working at independent psychiatric home-visit nursing agencies in Japan. We carried out participant observation and semistructured interviews with 13 CMHN in rural and urban areas. We identified eight subthemes and three higher-order themes based on these subthemes. CMHN embraced a nursing philosophy in which they: (i) have respect for consumers' ways of life and their self-realization; (ii) find harmony between view of life and work; and (iii) build communities where residents support each other beyond their roles...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624506/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-general-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Jorge Navarro, Wu Kun, Bi Lin, Pedro C Marijuán
Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic/signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622587/statistical-characterization-of-noise-for-spatial-standardization-of-ct-scans-enabling-comparison-with-multiple-kernels-and-doses
#14
Gonzalo Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Maria J Ledesma-Carbayo, George R Washko, Raúl San José Estépar
Computerized tomography (CT) is a widely adopted modality for analyzing directly or indirectly functional, biological and morphological processes by means of the image characteristics. However, the potential utilization of the information obtained from CT images is often limited when considering the analysis of quantitative information involving different devices, acquisition protocols or reconstruction algorithms. Although CT scanners are calibrated as a part of the imaging workflow, the calibration is circumscribed to global reference values and does not circumvent problems that are inherent to the imaging modality...
June 7, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613132/the-wheel-and-the-ladder-freudian-and-loewaldian-accounts-of-individuation
#15
Linus Recht
In this paper, I use comparisons of Freud, Loewald, and Plato to explore what it means to individuate and to desire in a world of frustration, pain, and loss. The metaphors of the "wheel" versus the "ladder" present basic images for Freud's tragic conception of a person's emerging into a world of pain, transience and loss, in contrast to Loewald's sense of individuation as an increasing attainment of individual ego and world enrichment, constructed from metabolized grieved objects. I then argue that Plato's Symposium offers comparable visions of the possibilities of love, and that the juxtaposition of Freud and Loewald can be connected to ancient philosophical considerations...
June 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605275/exploring-social-work-student-education-the-effect-of-a-harm-reduction-curriculum-on-student-knowledge-and-attitudes-regarding-opioid-use-disorders
#16
Anthony Estreet, Paul Archibald, M Taqi Tirmazi, Sapphire Goodman, Tracy Cudjoe
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the degree to which a harm reduction intervention course module impacted Master of Social Work (MSW) students' knowledge and attitudes towards addressing opioid use disorder issues and clients. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, data from 124 MSW students were collected between 2011 and 2015. Students completed a 3-hour course module that focused on harm reduction philosophy and interventions specifically for opioid use disorders...
June 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598741/toward-a-research-agenda-for-competency-based-medical-education
#17
Larry Gruppen, Jason R Frank, Jocelyn Lockyer, Shelley Ross, M Dylan Bould, Peter Harris, Farhan Bhanji, Brian D Hodges, Linda Snell, Olle Ten Cate
Competency-based medical education (CBME) is both an educational philosophy and an approach to educational design. CBME has already had a broad impact on medical schools, residency programs, and continuing professional development in health professions around the world. As the CBME movement evolves and CBME programs are implemented, a wide range of emerging research questions will warrant scholarly examination. In this paper, we describe a proposed CBME research agenda developed by the International CBME Collaborators...
June 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597986/tensions-in-the-personal-world-of-the-nurse-family-carer-a-phenomenological-approach
#18
Loretto Quinney, Trudy Dwyer, Ysanne Chapman
The incidence of chronic illness is growing globally. As a result, there are fiscal and social implications for health delivery. Alongside the increased burden on health resources is the expectation that someone within the family will assume the responsibility of carer for those who are chronically ill. The expectation to assume the role of carer may be amplified for family members who are also nurses. Currently, there is little research that investigates the impact of nurses who are carers for family with a chronic illness...
June 9, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595441/healing-spirituality-and-integrative-medicine
#19
David M Steinhorn, Jana Din, Angela Johnson
Spirituality plays a prominent role in the lives of most palliative patients whether or not they formally adhere to a specific religion and belief. As a result, the palliative care team is frequently called upon to support families who are experiencing their "dark night of the soul" and struggling to make sense of their lives during a healthcare crisis. While conventional religious practices provide a source of comfort and guidance for many of our patients, a significant number of our patients do not have a strong religious community to which to turn...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587725/a-hermeneutic-phenomenological-explorations-of-living-in-old-age
#20
Ma Ángeles De Juan Pardo, María Teresa Russo, María Victoria Roqué Sánchez
Although there have been some studies that explore the meaning of aging and give voice to older people, the impact that the aging experience can have on them justifies continued research in this area. In this study, with a hermeneutic phenomenological design and an interpretation method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 elderly people at a social day center in Rome (Italy). The analysis revealed three central themes associated with the experience of being old: changes and limitations related with being aged, the experience that comes from having lived a long life, and an awareness of death...
June 3, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
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