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Philosophy of meaning

José Luis Díaz, César Leal, Klaus Schriewer, Paloma Echevarría
Amputation is a traumatic incident that entails a chain of psychological, physical, and social events. The objectives of the study are to describe the beliefs and the philosophies of life related to the experience of suffering of traumatic amputees, analyze the importance of biomedical care, and describe other forms of care used.
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Ann Addison
Jung and Bion both developed theoretical concepts propounding a deeply unknowable area of the psyche in which body and mind are undifferentiated and the individual has no distinct identity, from which a differentiated consciousness arises. In Jung's case, this is enshrined in his psychoid concept and the associated notion of synchronicity and, in Bion's case, in his proto-mental concept and his ideas on group dynamics. It is by means of these two concepts that Jung and Bion approach and locate a combined body-mind, a monism, in which body and mind are seen as different aspects of the same thing...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Nicholas A Campitelli, Scott A Spencer, Kaitlyn Bernhard, Kristen Heard, Alan Kidon
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of Vibram FiveFingers Bikila minimalist shoes on intrinsic foot musculature. We hypothesized that a gradual transition into minimalist shoes will increase the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle. METHODS: Forty-one individuals were divided into four groups: control (traditional shod) (n = 9), restricted walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11), running in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 10), and unlimited walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Luca Lombardo, Enrico Sacchi, Maria Larosa, Francesco Mollica, Valentina Mazzanti, Giorgio Alfredo Spedicato, Giuseppe Siciliani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. METHODS: Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type "S", Forestadent Anatomic Expander type "S" for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S...
December 2016: Progress in Orthodontics
David Ludwig
Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Dingmar van Eck, Huib Looren de Jong
Approaches to the Internalism-Externalism controversy in the philosophy of mind often involve both (broadly) metaphysical and explanatory considerations. Whereas originally most emphasis seems to have been placed on metaphysical concerns, recently the explanation angle is getting more attention. Explanatory considerations promise to offer more neutral grounds for cognitive systems demarcation than (broadly) metaphysical ones. However, it has been argued that explanation-based approaches are incapable of determining the plausibility of internalist-based conceptions of cognition vis-à-vis externalist ones...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Jill Harrison, Susan Frampton
PURPOSE: With increased focus on resident-centered care (RCC) as an organizational imperative and a guiding principle of culture change for long-term care communities, evaluation of its success has centered primarily on the organizational perspective. METHODS: For this case report, we examine resident perspectives of RCC in 10 nursing homes across the United States that had adopted RCC as a philosophy and model of care for at least 12 months with a maximum engagement of 3 years using a phenomenological approach...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
E Paul Zehr
Many think that communicating science is a necessary and rewarding activity. Yet finding compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between challenging scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public can be difficult. Since science continues to influence more and more aspects of daily life and knowledge, there is a parallel need for communication about science in our society. Here I discuss the "middle-ground hypothesis" using popular culture for science communication and applying the "FUNnel model," where popular culture is used as a lead-in and wrap-up when discussing science...
September 2016: ENeuro
Sandra Nicholson, Adrian Michael Hastings, Robert Kee McKinley
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about recruitment to UK general practice, there has been no concerted educational intervention to address them. AIM: To better understand how medical students' perceptions of their experiences of their undergraduate curriculum may affect choosing general practice as a career. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study comprising focus groups of a total of 58 students from a range of medical schools across the UK. METHOD: A range of UK medical schools students were invited by email to participate in focus groups and return a questionnaire detailing their current career choice to facilitate sampling students with varied career preferences...
October 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Zhiyuan James Ou, Jinhui Li
In the context of recycling metal to embrace the sustainability challenge, this work proposes a geochemically-analogous process of metal recovery through mechanochemistry for the first time, to avoid the limitations of on-going methods and to establish an innovative technology philosophy. This work systematically investigates this geochemically-analogous process, to keep it green and to generalize it further. Copper recovery from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), a typical copper-rich waste, is chosen as a case study in this work...
August 26, 2016: Waste Management
R Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, V Zydziunaite, T Suominen, P Astedt-Kurki
AIM: The aim of this study in Lithuania was to discover how the meaning of caring is perceived by nursing and social work students. BACKGROUND: Nursing and social work are caring professions, which provide care in different ways. It is still unclear what features constitute the meaning of caring for nursing and social work students as future caring professionals. METHODS: Snowball sampling technique was applied in the study. The data were collected as reflective narratives...
September 2016: International Nursing Review
Michele L Allen, Jon Salsberg, Michaela Knot, Joseph W LeMaster, Maret Felzien, John M Westfall, Carol P Herbert, Katherine Vickery, Kathleen A Culhane-Pera, Vivian R Ramsden, Linda Zittleman, Ruth Elwood Martin, Ann C Macaulay
BACKGROUND: In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. OBJECTIVES: To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015...
August 19, 2016: Family Practice
Mina Movahhed, Zohreh Poursaleh
BACKGROUND: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Jan Sprenger
This paper develops a probabilistic reconstruction of the No Miracles Argument (NMA) in the debate between scientific realists and anti-realists. The goal of the paper is to clarify and to sharpen the NMA by means of a probabilistic formalization. In particular, I demonstrate that the persuasive force of the NMA depends on the particular disciplinary context where it is applied, and the stability of theories in that discipline. Assessments and critiques of "the" NMA, without reference to a particular context, are misleading and should be relinquished...
2016: Eur J Philos Sci
Åsa Kneck, Lars E Eriksson, Berit Lundman, Ingegerd Fagerberg
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to illuminate the meanings of trigger situations experienced in everyday life when learning to live with diabetes. BACKGROUND: Adults become active learners when faced with situations they do not know how to manage, triggering a need to understand something in a different way than before. Knowing more about experiential learning for persons living with diabetes is important for understanding how learning can be supported by health care...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Giovanni Buccino, Ivan Colagè, Nicola Gobbi, Giorgio Bonaccorso
This work reviews key behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data on the neural substrates for processing the meaning of linguistic material, and tries to articulate the picture emerging from those findings with the notion of meaning coming from specific approaches in philosophy of language (the "internalist" view) and linguistics (words point at experiential clusters). The reviewed findings provide evidence in favour of a causal role of brain neural structures responsible for sensory, motor and even emotional experiences in attributing meaning to words expressing those experiences and, consequently, lend substantial support to an embodied and "internalist" conception of linguistic meaning...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Daniela Helbig, Dalia Nassar
Over the last few decades, the meaning of the scientific theory of epigenesis and its significance for Kant's critical philosophy have become increasingly central questions. Most recently, scholars have argued that epigenesis is a key factor in the development of Kant's understanding of reason as self-grounding and self-generating. Building on this work, our claim is that Kant appealed to not just any epigenetic theory, but specifically Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's account of generation, and that this appeal must be understood not only in terms of self-organization, but also in terms of the demarcation of a specific domain of inquiry: for Blumenbach, the study of life; for Kant, the study of reason...
August 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Zequn Jie, Xiaodan Liang, Jiashi Feng, Wen Feng Lu, Eng Hock Francis Tay, Shuicheng Yan
Object proposal is essential for current state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. However, the existing proposal methods generally fail in producing results with satisfying localization accuracy. The case is even worse for small objects, which, however, are quite common in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel scale-aware pixelwise object proposal network (SPOP-net) to tackle the challenges. The SPOP-net can generate proposals with high recall rate and average best overlap, even for small objects...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Marissa E Barnes, Scott Greer
This article focuses on the history of psychology as a core area in the field of psychology. Does the discipline recognize the contributions of historical research, or does the history of psychology only serve a pedagogical function in the discipline? Our concerns center on the relationship (or lack thereof) between pedagogy and research in the academy. This stems from the fact that historical research is not viewed as contributing to the advancement of the field both professionally and pedagogically. We summarize the pedagogical function that the history of psychology serves in the academic discipline, as well as its status for professionalism in psychology...
August 2016: History of Psychology
Tiago S Jesus, Felicity Bright, Nicola Kayes, Cheryl A Cott
INTRODUCTION: Person-centredness is a philosophy for organising and delivering healthcare based on patients' needs, preferences and experiences. Although widely endorsed, the concept suffers from a lack of detail and clarification, in turn accounting for ambiguous implementation and outcomes. While a conceptual framework based on a systematic review defines person/patient-centred care components (Scholl et al, 2014), it applies across healthcare contexts and may not be sensitive to the nuances of the rehabilitation of adults with physical impairments...
2016: BMJ Open
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