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Philosophy of meaning

Chong Meng Lee, Malkit K Dhillon, Mohd Amin Sulaiman
Background: The use of navigation for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) improves limb alignment in the coronal and sagittal planes. However, similar improvements in femoral and tibial component rotation have not yet been realized using currently available systems. Methods: We developed a modified navigated TKA technique in which femoral rotation was set using the resected tibial plane as the reference with the aim of achieving a rectangular flexion gap. Limb alignment was assessed in a cohort of 30 knees using the navigation system...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Marjorie Montreuil, Franco A Carnevale
When conducting ethics research with children in health care settings, studying children's experiences is essential, but so is the context in which these experiences happen and their meaning. Using Charles Taylor's hermeneutic philosophy, we developed a methodological framework for health ethics research with children that bridges key aspects of ethnography, participatory research, and hermeneutics. This qualitative framework has the potential to offer rich data and discussions related to children as well as family members and health care workers' moral experiences in specific health care settings, while examining the institutional norms, structures, and practices and how they interrelate with experiences...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Luis C L Correia, Guilherme B Barcellos, Vitor Calixto, André Volschan, José A S Barreto-Filho, Renato D Lopes, Anis Rassi, Wendy Levinson, Angelo A V de Paola
Objective: (i) To describe how aligned the 'Choosing Wisely' concept is with the medical culture among Brazilian cardiologists and (ii) to identify predictors for physicians' preference for avoiding wasteful care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Participants: Cardiologists who agree to fill a web questionary. Intervention: A task force of 12 Brazilian cardiologists prepared a list of 13 'do not do' recommendations, which were made available on the Brazilian Society of Cardiology website for affiliates to assign a supported score of 1 to 10 to each recommendation...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Erik I Svensson
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES)...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Yakov Shapiro
Psychodynamic psychiatry is not limited to psychotherapy practice. It is defined by systematic attention to the "common factors" underlying both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology outcomes, which include the patient's subjective systems of meaning and the complex flow of the patient-provider relationship in addition to the patient's "objective" psychopathology. It allows for a non-reductionist milieu where the meaning of the illness and the full complexity of the treatment process can be explored in order to achieve a qualitative and lasting change in the patient's psychopathology...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Eva Nieuwenhuis, Johan Post, Alex Duinmeijer, Jeroen Langeveld, François Clemens
The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built...
February 13, 2018: Water Research
Lillemor Lindwall, Maj-Britt Råholm, Vibeke Lohne, Synnøve Caspari, Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Berit Saeteren, Åshild Slettebø, Bente Høy, Dagfinn Nåden
The implementation of theoretical knowledge in clinical practice and the implementation of good clinical practice into theory have been of interest in caring science for the last 30 years. The aim of this article was to elaborate and discuss a methodology named clinical application research. The method is grounded in a hermeneutical design inspired by Gadamer's philosophy. The methodology, clinical application research, has been used in a research project A life in dignity and experiences from the researchers forms the bases for the elaboration and discussion...
February 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
M E Mayes, C Wilkinson, S Kuah, G Matthews, D Turnbull
BACKGROUND: The present study examines the introduction of an innovation in intrapartum foetal monitoring practice in Australia. ST-Analysis (STan) is a technology that adds information to conventional fetal monitoring (cardiotocography) during labour, with the aim of reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. Adoption of this technology has been controversial amongst obstetricians and midwives, particularly as its use necessitates a more invasive means of monitoring (a scalp clip), compared to external monitoring from cardiotocography alone...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Louise Byrne, Stephanie Schoeppe, Julie Bradshaw
In Western nations, the Recovery approach has become a widely accepted philosophy and treatment concept in mental health. Yet, community understanding of the Recovery approach remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate (i) people's awareness of the principles underpinning the Recovery approach in mental health, and (ii) the treatment approaches people consider most important, and whether these align with the Recovery approach. To achieve these aims, a random sample of 1217 Australian adults participated in the National Social Survey (QSS) via telephone interview...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
May Helen Midtbust, Rigmor Einang Alnes, Eva Gjengedal, Else Lykkeslet
BACKGROUND: People dying with dementia have significant healthcare needs, and palliative care, with its focus on comfort and quality of life, should be made available to these patients. The aim of this study was to explore and increase knowledge of healthcare professionals' experiences with palliative care to people with severe dementia in nursing homes. METHODS: To describe the phenomenon under investigation, we used a phenomenological research approach grounded in the philosophy of Husserl...
February 13, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Rosamond H Madden, Anita Bundy
AIMS: Fifteen years after the publication of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), we investigated: How ICF applications align with ICF aims, contents and principles, and how the ICF has been used to improve measurement of functioning and related statistics. METHODS: In a scoping review, we investigated research published 2001-2015 relating to measurement and statistics for evidence of: a change in thinking; alignment of applications with ICF specifications and philosophy; and the emergence of new knowledge...
February 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Guido Giunti, Jan Kool, Octavio Rivera Romero, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders, with symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and issues with mobility. Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) helps people with MS reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. The use of mobile technologies for health has grown in recent years with little involvement from relevant stakeholders. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy with the goal of creating solutions specific to the needs and tasks of the intended users...
February 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Jeremy Henry, Carl Craver
We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Davide Lazzeri
Sandro Botticelli was one of the most esteemed painters and draughtsmen among Renaissance artists. Under the patronage of the De' Medici family, he was active in Florence during the flourishing of the Renaissance trend towards the reclamation of lost medical and anatomical knowledge of ancient times through the dissection of corpses. Combining the typical attributes of the elegant courtly style with hallmarks derived from the investigation and analysis of classical templates, he left us immortal masterpieces, the excellence of which incomprehensibly waned and was rediscovered only in the 1890s...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Katie Gregory, Nkiru Nnawulezi, Cris M Sullivan
Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
A Shihab Anwar, R Krishna Kumar, V Arun Prasad Rao, N Venugopal Reddy, V J Reshma
Background: Many patients consider removal of caries to be a very unpleasant experience. Removal of caries with conventional drill is considered traumatic mainly due to fear and anxiety of children and their parents. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralization, and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations, thus reaching the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
K Hoshikawa, M Staudigl
In this paper, we propose to analyze the phenomenon of Christian prayer by way of combining two different analytical frameworks. We start by applying Schutz's theories of "intersubjectivity," "inner time," "politheticality," and "multiple realities," and then proceed by drawing on the ideas and insights of linguistic philosophers, notably, Wittgenstein's "language-game," Austin's "speech act," and Evans's "logic of self-involvement". In conjoining these accounts, we wish to demonstrate how their combination sheds new light on understanding the phenomenon of prayer...
2017: Human Studies
Fran McInerney, Kathleen Doherty, Aidan Bindoff, Andrew Robinson, James Vickers
BACKGROUND: A palliative approach to the care of people with dementia has been advocated, albeit from an emergent evidence base. The person-centred philosophy of palliative care resonates with the often lengthy trajectory and heavy symptom burden of this terminal condition. AIM: To explore participants' understanding of the concept of palliative care in the context of dementia. The participant population took an online course in dementia. DESIGN: The participant population took a massive open online course on 'Understanding Dementia' and posted answers to the question: 'palliative care means …' We extracted these postings and analysed them via the dual methods of topic modelling analysis and thematic analysis...
March 2018: Palliative Medicine
Sini Jacob, Ian Munro, Beverley Joan Taylor, Debra Griffiths
The concept of mental health recovery promotes collaborative partnership among consumers, carers and service providers. However views on mental health recovery are less explored among carers and service providers. The aim of this review was to analyse contemporary literature exploring views of mental health consumers, carers and service providers in relation to their understanding of the meaning of mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery. The literature review questions were: How is mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery viewed by consumers, carers and service providers? What are the differences and similarities in those perceptions? How can the outcomes and recommendations inform the Australian mental health practices? A review of the literature used selected electronic databases and specific search terms and supplemented with manual searching...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
Predrag Slijepcevic
Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research...
January 2018: Bio Systems
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