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Philosophy of meaning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155443/the-philosophy-of-practice-for-comprehensive-medication-management-evaluating-its-meaning-and-application-by-practitioners
#1
Deborah L Pestka, Lindsay A Sorge, Mary Roth McClurg, Todd D Sorensen
OBJECTIVE: Philosophy of practice is the foundation to any patient care practice as it provides a set of professional values and beliefs that guide actions and decisions in practice. Study objectives were to understand how pharmacists providing comprehensive medication management (CMM) describe their philosophy of practice and compare how participants' philosophies align with predefined tenets of a CMM philosophy of practice. METHODS: An instrument with closed and open-ended items was developed and administered online to the lead pharmacist at 36 clinics participating in a large CMM study...
November 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153052/palliative-care-issues-and-challenges-in-saudi-arabia-knowledge-assessment-among-nursing-students
#2
Omar Mohammad Khraisat, Mahmoud Hamdan, Mohannad Ghazzawwi
BACKGROUND: Nurses are the heart of the palliative care team who provide high standards of care since they spend the longest time with patients. However, lack of adequate knowledge of palliative care is considered as one of the main obstacles to palliative care improvement. AIM: A survey was conducted to assess Saudi nursing students' knowledge about palliative care. METHODS: Using a descriptive design, 154 students who enrolled in first year and who will graduate within 1 year were surveyed in a nursing college located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147898/-don-t-mind-the-gap-reflections-on-improvement-science-as-a-paradigm
#3
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140436/-%C3%A2-what-god-and-the-angels-know-of-us-character-autonomy-and-best-interests-in-minimally-conscious-state
#4
Giles Birchley
Determining the best interests of incapacitated patients has been observed to be an opaque area of the law, and this is no less so in decisions about the (non-)treatment of patients in the minimally conscious state. A systematic examination of the way best interests are used in judgments relating to this population suggests that narratives involving the character of the patient frequently form an important plank of judicial reasoning. Since insights into the concept of best interests may be gained by an engagement with the philosophy of well-being, I identify the court's character-based approach with perfectionist theories of well-being...
November 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127673/technology-development-as-a-normative-practice-a-meaning-based-approach-to-learning-about-values-in-engineering-damming-as-a-case-study
#5
Mahdi G Nia, Mehdi F Harandi, Marc J de Vries
Engineering, as a complex and multidimensional practice of technology development, has long been a source of ethical concerns. These concerns have been approached from various perspectives. There are ongoing debates in the literature of the philosophy of engineering/technology about how to organize an optimized view of the values entailed in technology development processes. However, these debates deliver little in the way of a concrete rationale or framework that could comprehensively describe different types of engineering values and their multi-aspect interrelations in real engineering practices...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120112/sociology-as-moral-philosophy-and-vice-versa
#6
Frédéric Vandenberghe
In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions...
November 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111798/perioperative-medicine-a-new-model-of-care
#7
Lena Al-Shammari, Deborah Douglas, Geetha Gunaratnam, Chris Jones
The discipline of perioperative medicine provides a foundation for the consistent delivery of safe and good quality care to surgical patients. Its goals include the identification and optimal care of the high-risk surgical patient, fostering patient-centred decision making throughout the surgical perioperative pathway, and reducing unwarranted variation in practice. In turn, this should reduce preventable complications and improve patient satisfaction, long-term morbidity and survival. This review concludes a series of articles which have described the epidemiology of surgical disease, the growth in the objective means of risk assessment, and novel outcome measures...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105237/scientism-conflicts-of-interest-and-the-marginalization-of-ethics-in-medical-education
#8
Christopher Mayes, Jane Williams, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth
AIM: This paper reports on the findings from 6 focus groups conducted with Australian medical students. The focus groups sought students' perspectives on how the influence of commercial interests on medical practice and education could be managed. METHOD: We conducted 6 focus groups with medical students in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were recruited via student-run medical society and faculty e-mail lists. Forty-nine students from 6 medical schools in New South Wales participated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#9
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
November 6, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102853/conceptualization-of-competency-based-curricula-in-pre-service-nursing-and-midwifery-education-a-grounded-theory-approach
#10
Claudine Muraraneza, Gloria Ntombifikile Mtshali
In health professional education, the competency-based curriculum concept has been an important driver of reform in the training of competent graduates for the 21st century. In African countries, although there has been implementing it in pre-service nursing and midwifery education and the literature reports a lack of understanding of what is it on the part of the implementers. This article explores the meaning of competency based curriculum in pre-service nursing and midwifery education in Rwanda. A grounded theory approach, following Corbin and Strauss, was used...
October 6, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080802/hospice-exposure-is-associated-with-lower-healthcare-expenditures-in-taiwanese-cancer-decedents-last-year-of-life-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Yen-Ni Hung, Fur-Hsing Wen, Tsang-Wu Liu, Jen-Shi Chen, Siew Tzuh Tang
CONTEXT: Evidence for the association of hospice exposure with lower healthcare expenditures at end of life (EOL) remains inconclusive and neglects EOL care being concentrated in patients' last few months. OBJECTIVE: The association between hospice exposure and healthcare expenditures in cancer patients' last 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated. METHODS: In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, Taiwanese cancer decedents in 2001-2010 (N=195,228) were matched 1:1, with proportions of matched hospice users reaching 87...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075982/pterygomandibular-suspension-suture-a-simple-modification-of-uvulopalatopharyngoplasty-for-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#12
Yen-Ting Lu, Shyh-Kuan Tai, Tsung-Lun Lee
BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study is to introduce pterygomandibular suspension suture as a simple modification of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe obstructive sleep apnea in dealing with lateral pharyngeal wall and retropalatal space collapse. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Ten adult patients underwent modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with pterygomandibular suspension suture according to following inclusion criteria: severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 30 events/h), type I Fujita with lateral pharyngeal wall collapse, and failure for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy...
October 26, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065751/assessing-staff-oriented-care-with-developmental-support-approach-in-iranian-nicus
#13
Zahra Eskandari, Mostajab Razavi Nejad, Forouzan Akrami, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mohammad Heidarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Regarding improvements in preterm infants survival rates, it is necessary the improvement of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICUs) status in order to provide comprehensive care. The aim of this study was to assess the aspects of staffing-oriented neonatal care in NICUs affiliated to Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS: This survey is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in 23 NICUs of 9 type-1 Universities of Medical Sciences across country...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057563/models-versus-theories-as-a-primary-carrier-of-nursing-knowledge-a-philosophical-argument
#14
Miriam Bender
Theories and models are not equivalent. I argue that an orientation towards models as a primary carrier of nursing knowledge overcomes many ongoing challenges in philosophy of nursing science, including the theory-practice divide and the paradoxical pursuit of predictive theories in a discipline that is defined by process and a commitment to the non-reducibility of the health/care experience. Scientific models describe and explain the dynamics of specific phenomenon. This is distinct from theory, which is traditionally defined as propositions that explain and/or predict the world...
October 22, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030395/dignitarian-medical-ethics
#15
Linda Barclay
Philosophers and bioethicists are typically sceptical about invocations of dignity in ethical debates. Many believe that dignity is essentially devoid of meaning: either a mere rhetorical gesture used in the absence of good argument or a faddish term for existing values like autonomy and respect. On the other hand, the patient experience of dignity is a substantial area of research in healthcare fields like nursing and palliative care. In this paper, it is argued that philosophers have much to learn from the concrete patient experiences described in healthcare literature...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990861/qualitative-vs-quantitative-conceptions-of-homogeneity-in-nineteenth-century-dimensional-analysis
#16
Sybil Gertrude De Clark
The emergence of dimensional analysis in the early nineteenth century involved a redefinition of the pre-existing concepts of homogeneity and dimensions, which entailed a shift from a qualitative to a quantitative conception of these notions. Prior to the nineteenth century, these concepts had been used as criteria to assess the soundness of operations and relations between geometrical quantities. Notably, the terms in such relations were required to be homogeneous, which meant that they needed to have the same geometrical dimensions...
October 9, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939326/peircean-cosmogony-s-symbolic-agapistic-self-organization-as-an-example-of-the-influence-of-eastern-philosophy-on-western-thinking
#17
REVIEW
Søren Brier
Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most important Eastern philosophical traditions that encompass scientific knowledge and the idea of spontaneous evolutionary development. This article attempts to show how Peirce's non-mechanical triadic semiotic process theory can embrace the quantum field view better than the mechanical and information views in a theory of the emergence of consciousness...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937344/deep-brain-stimulation-authenticity-and-value
#18
Sven Nyholm, Elizabeth O'Neill
In this article, we engage in dialogue with Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen, and Julian Savulescu about how to best interpret the potential impacts of deep brain stimulation on the self. We consider whether ordinary peoples' convictions about the true self should be interpreted in essentialist or existentialist ways. Like Pugh, Maslen, and Savulescu, we argue that it is useful to understand the notion of the true self as having both essentialist and existentialist components. We also consider two ideas from existentialist philosophy-Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir's ideas about "bad faith" and "ambiguity"-to argue that there can be value to patients in regarding themselves as having a certain amount of freedom to choose what aspects of themselves should be considered representative of their true selves...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936750/person-centered-care-and-personalized-medicine-irreconcilable-opposites-or-potential-companions
#19
Leila El-Alti, Lars Sandman, Christian Munthe
In contrast to standardized guidelines, personalized medicine and person centered care are two notions that have recently developed and are aspiring for more individualized health care for each single patient. While having a similar drive toward individualized care, their sources are markedly different. While personalized medicine stems from a biomedical framework, person centered care originates from a caring perspective, and a wish for a more holistic view of patients. It is unclear to what extent these two concepts can be combined or if they conflict at fundamental or pragmatic levels...
September 21, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923126/-drawing-aside-the-curtain-natural-childbirth-on-screen-in-1950s-britain
#20
Salim Al-Gailani
This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
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