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Philosophy of meaning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350668/concealed-lung-anatomy-in-botticelli-s-masterpieces-the-primavera-and-the-birth-of-venus
#1
Davide Lazzeri
Sandro Botticelli was one of the most esteemed painters and draughtsmen among Renaissance artists. Under the patronage of the De' Medici family, he was active in Florence during the flourishing of the Renaissance trend towards the reclamation of lost medical and anatomical knowledge of ancient times through the dissection of corpses. Combining the typical attributes of the elegant courtly style with hallmarks derived from the investigation and analysis of classical templates, he left us immortal masterpieces, the excellence of which incomprehensibly waned and was rediscovered only in the 1890s...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294937/understanding-how-domestic-violence-shelter-rules-may-influence-survivor-empowerment
#2
Katie Gregory, Nkiru Nnawulezi, Cris M Sullivan
Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284958/evaluation-of-microhardness-of-residual-dentin-in-primary-molars-following-caries-removal-with-conventional-and-chemomechanical-techniques-an-in-vitro-study
#3
A Shihab Anwar, R Krishna Kumar, V Arun Prasad Rao, N Venugopal Reddy, V J Reshma
Background: Many patients consider removal of caries to be a very unpleasant experience. Removal of caries with conventional drill is considered traumatic mainly due to fear and anxiety of children and their parents. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralization, and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations, thus reaching the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238116/a-schutzian-analysis-of-prayer-with-perspectives-from-linguistic-philosophy
#4
K Hoshikawa, M Staudigl
In this paper, we propose to analyze the phenomenon of Christian prayer by way of combining two different analytical frameworks. We start by applying Schutz's theories of "intersubjectivity," "inner time," "politheticality," and "multiple realities," and then proceed by drawing on the ideas and insights of linguistic philosophers, notably, Wittgenstein's "language-game," Austin's "speech act," and Evans's "logic of self-involvement". In conjoining these accounts, we wish to demonstrate how their combination sheds new light on understanding the phenomenon of prayer...
2017: Human Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235386/how-is-palliative-care-understood-in-the-context-of-dementia-results-from-a-massive-open-online-course
#5
Fran McInerney, Kathleen Doherty, Aidan Bindoff, Andrew Robinson, James Vickers
BACKGROUND: A palliative approach to the care of people with dementia has been advocated, albeit from an emergent evidence base. The person-centred philosophy of palliative care resonates with the often lengthy trajectory and heavy symptom burden of this terminal condition. AIM: To explore participants' understanding of the concept of palliative care in the context of dementia. The participant population took an online course in dementia. DESIGN: The participant population took a massive open online course on 'Understanding Dementia' and posted answers to the question: 'palliative care means …' We extracted these postings and analysed them via the dual methods of topic modelling analysis and thematic analysis...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218963/mental-health-recovery-a-review-of-the-peer-reviewed-published-literature
#6
Sini Jacob, Ian Munro, Beverley Joan Taylor, Debra Griffiths
The concept of mental health recovery promotes collaborative partnership among consumers, carers and service providers. However views on mental health recovery are less explored among carers and service providers. The aim of this review was to analyse contemporary literature exploring views of mental health consumers, carers and service providers in relation to their understanding of the meaning of mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery. The literature review questions were: How is mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery viewed by consumers, carers and service providers? What are the differences and similarities in those perceptions? How can the outcomes and recommendations inform the Australian mental health practices? A review of the literature used selected electronic databases and specific search terms and supplemented with manual searching...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199093/evolutionary-epistemology-reviewing-and-reviving-with-new-data-the-research-programme-for-distributed-biological-intelligence
#7
REVIEW
Predrag Slijepcevic
Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research...
November 30, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182480/evaluation-of-state-plans-and-the-livestock-emergency-response-plan-lerp
#8
Amy M Schaffer, Kenneth R Burton
The Livestock Emergency Response Plan (LERP) was published in 2014 as a toolkit to assist state agricultural emergency planners in writing or modifying state foreign animal disease/high-consequence disease (FAD/HCD) plans. This research serves as a follow-up to and expands on an initial survey conducted in 2011 by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Health Affairs, Food, Ag, and Veterinary Defense Branch. The purpose of this project is to describe the status of current state animal disease response plans in relation to how closely their content, order, and terminology relate to that described in the LERP template...
November 28, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155443/the-philosophy-of-practice-for-comprehensive-medication-management-evaluating-its-meaning-and-application-by-practitioners
#9
Deborah L Pestka, Lindsay A Sorge, Mary Roth McClurg, Todd D Sorensen
OBJECTIVE: Philosophy of practice is the foundation to any patient care practice as it provides a set of professional values and beliefs that guide actions and decisions in practice. Study objectives were to understand how pharmacists providing comprehensive medication management (CMM) describe their philosophy of practice and compare how participants' philosophies align with predefined tenets of a CMM philosophy of practice. METHODS: An instrument with closed and open-ended items was developed and administered online to the lead pharmacist at 36 clinics participating in a large CMM study...
November 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153052/palliative-care-issues-and-challenges-in-saudi-arabia-knowledge-assessment-among-nursing-students
#10
Omar Mohammad Khraisat, Mahmoud Hamdan, Mohannad Ghazzawwi
BACKGROUND: Nurses are the heart of the palliative care team who provide high standards of care since they spend the longest time with patients. However, lack of adequate knowledge of palliative care is considered as one of the main obstacles to palliative care improvement. AIM: A survey was conducted to assess Saudi nursing students' knowledge about palliative care. METHODS: Using a descriptive design, 154 students who enrolled in first year and who will graduate within 1 year were surveyed in a nursing college located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia...
July 2017: Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147898/-don-t-mind-the-gap-reflections-on-improvement-science-as-a-paradigm
#11
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140436/-%C3%A2-what-god-and-the-angels-know-of-us-character-autonomy-and-best-interests-in-minimally-conscious-state
#12
Giles Birchley
Determining the best interests of incapacitated patients has been observed to be an opaque area of the law, and this is no less so in decisions about the (non-)treatment of patients in the minimally conscious state. A systematic examination of the way best interests are used in judgments relating to this population suggests that narratives involving the character of the patient frequently form an important plank of judicial reasoning. Since insights into the concept of best interests may be gained by an engagement with the philosophy of well-being, I identify the court's character-based approach with perfectionist theories of well-being...
November 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127673/technology-development-as-a-normative-practice-a-meaning-based-approach-to-learning-about-values-in-engineering-damming-as-a-case-study
#13
Mahdi G Nia, Mehdi F Harandi, Marc J de Vries
Engineering, as a complex and multidimensional practice of technology development, has long been a source of ethical concerns. These concerns have been approached from various perspectives. There are ongoing debates in the literature of the philosophy of engineering/technology about how to organize an optimized view of the values entailed in technology development processes. However, these debates deliver little in the way of a concrete rationale or framework that could comprehensively describe different types of engineering values and their multi-aspect interrelations in real engineering practices...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120112/sociology-as-moral-philosophy-and-vice-versa
#14
Frédéric Vandenberghe
In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions...
November 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111798/perioperative-medicine-a-new-model-of-care
#15
Lena Al-Shammari, Deborah Douglas, Geetha Gunaratnam, Chris Jones
The discipline of perioperative medicine provides a foundation for the consistent delivery of safe and good quality care to surgical patients. Its goals include the identification and optimal care of the high-risk surgical patient, fostering patient-centred decision making throughout the surgical perioperative pathway, and reducing unwarranted variation in practice. In turn, this should reduce preventable complications and improve patient satisfaction, long-term morbidity and survival. This review concludes a series of articles which have described the epidemiology of surgical disease, the growth in the objective means of risk assessment, and novel outcome measures...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105237/scientism-conflicts-of-interest-and-the-marginalization-of-ethics-in-medical-education
#16
Christopher Mayes, Jane Williams, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth
AIM: This paper reports on the findings from 6 focus groups conducted with Australian medical students. The focus groups sought students' perspectives on how the influence of commercial interests on medical practice and education could be managed. METHOD: We conducted 6 focus groups with medical students in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were recruited via student-run medical society and faculty e-mail lists. Forty-nine students from 6 medical schools in New South Wales participated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#17
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
November 6, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102853/conceptualization-of-competency-based-curricula-in-pre-service-nursing-and-midwifery-education-a-grounded-theory-approach
#18
Claudine Muraraneza, Gloria Ntombifikile Mtshali
In health professional education, the competency-based curriculum concept has been an important driver of reform in the training of competent graduates for the 21st century. In African countries, although there has been implementing it in pre-service nursing and midwifery education and the literature reports a lack of understanding of what is it on the part of the implementers. This article explores the meaning of competency based curriculum in pre-service nursing and midwifery education in Rwanda. A grounded theory approach, following Corbin and Strauss, was used...
October 6, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080802/hospice-exposure-is-associated-with-lower-healthcare-expenditures-in-taiwanese-cancer-decedents-last-year-of-life-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Yen-Ni Hung, Fur-Hsing Wen, Tsang-Wu Liu, Jen-Shi Chen, Siew Tzuh Tang
CONTEXT: Evidence for the association of hospice exposure with lower healthcare expenditures at end of life (EOL) remains inconclusive and neglects EOL care being concentrated in patients' last few months. OBJECTIVE: The association between hospice exposure and healthcare expenditures in cancer patients' last 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was evaluated. METHODS: In this population-based, retrospective cohort study, Taiwanese cancer decedents in 2001-2010 (N=195,228) were matched 1:1, with proportions of matched hospice users reaching 87...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075982/pterygomandibular-suspension-suture-a-simple-modification-of-uvulopalatopharyngoplasty-for-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#20
Yen-Ting Lu, Shyh-Kuan Tai, Tsung-Lun Lee
BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study is to introduce pterygomandibular suspension suture as a simple modification of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe obstructive sleep apnea in dealing with lateral pharyngeal wall and retropalatal space collapse. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Ten adult patients underwent modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with pterygomandibular suspension suture according to following inclusion criteria: severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 30 events/h), type I Fujita with lateral pharyngeal wall collapse, and failure for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy...
October 26, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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