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Philosophy of meaning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923777/parent-and-clinician-preferences-for-an-asthma-app-to-promote-adolescent-self-management-a-formative-study
#1
Lorie L Geryk, Courtney A Roberts, Adam J Sage, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Betsy L Sleath, Delesha M Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Most youth asthma apps are not designed with parent and clinician use in mind, and rarely is the app development process informed by parent or clinician input. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to generate formative data on the use, attitudes, and preferences for asthma mHealth app features among parents and clinicians, the important stakeholders who support adolescents with asthma and promote adolescent self-management skills. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study from 2013 to 2014 employing a user-centered design philosophy to acquire feedback from a convenience sample of 20 parents and 6 clinicians...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909972/can-we-estimate-short-and-intermediate-term-survival-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-metastatic-bone-disease
#2
Jonathan A Forsberg, Rikard Wedin, Patrick J Boland, John H Healey
BACKGROUND: Objective means of estimating survival can be used to guide surgical decision-making and to risk-stratify patients for clinical trials. Although a free, online tool ( www.pathfx.org ) can estimate 3- and 12-month survival, recent work, including a survey of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, indicated that estimates at 1 and 6 months after surgery also would be helpful. Longer estimates help justify the need for more durable and expensive reconstructive options, and very short estimates could help identify those who will not survive 1 month and should not undergo surgery...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899839/practical-insights-for-the-pharmacist-educator-on-student-engagement
#3
REVIEW
Douglas R Oyler, Frank Romanelli, Peggy Piascik, Jeff Cain
Student engagement continues to be a point of emphasis in pharmacy education, yet there remains little data on tangible means to increase organic student engagement. This review attempts to better define student engagement, draws from educational theorists to emphasize the importance of student engagement, and provides the reader with practice philosophies that can be used across of variety of teaching settings to help develop an engaging learning environment.
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895604/virtue-existential-career-model-a-dialectic-and-integrative-approach-echoing-eastern-philosophy
#4
Shu-Hui Liu, Jui-Ping Hung, Hsin-I Peng, Chia-Hui Chang, Yi-Jen Lu
Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859520/what-are-the-true-statistics-of-the-environment
#5
Jacob Feldman
A widespread assumption in the contemporary discussion of probabilistic models of cognition, often attributed to the Bayesian program, is that inference is optimal when the observer's priors match the true priors in the world-the actual "statistics of the environment." But in fact the idea of a "true" prior plays no role in traditional Bayesian philosophy, which regards probability as a quantification of belief, not an objective characteristic of the world. In this paper I discuss the significance of the traditional Bayesian epistemic view of probability and its mismatch with the more objectivist assumptions about probability that are widely held in contemporary cognitive science...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846928/the-role-of-implementation-science-training-in-global-health-from-the-perspective-of-graduates-of-the-field-s-first-dedicated-doctoral-program
#6
Arianna R Means, David E Phillips, Grégoire Lurton, Anne Njoroge, Sabine M Furere, Rong Liu, Wisal M Hassan, Xiaochen Dai, Orvalho Augusto, Peter Cherutich, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Soi, Dong Xu, Christopher G Kemp
Bridging the 'know-do gap' is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the 'know-do gap'...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834205/rigorous-science-a-how-to-guide
#7
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word "rigor" is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763925/suffering-of-traumatic-amputees-in-spain-meaning-spirituality-and-biomedicine
#8
José Luis Díaz, César Leal, Klaus Schriewer, Paloma Echevarría
Amputation is a traumatic incident that entails a chain of psychological, physical, and social events. The objectives of the study are to describe the beliefs and the philosophies of life related to the experience of suffering of traumatic amputees, analyze the importance of biomedical care, and describe other forms of care used.
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763673/jung-s-psychoid-concept-and-bion-s-proto-mental-concept-a-comparison
#9
Ann Addison
Jung and Bion both developed theoretical concepts propounding a deeply unknowable area of the psyche in which body and mind are undifferentiated and the individual has no distinct identity, from which a differentiated consciousness arises. In Jung's case, this is enshrined in his psychoid concept and the associated notion of synchronicity and, in Bion's case, in his proto-mental concept and his ideas on group dynamics. It is by means of these two concepts that Jung and Bion approach and locate a combined body-mind, a monism, in which body and mind are seen as different aspects of the same thing...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762613/effect-of-vibram-fivefingers-minimalist-shoes-on-the-abductor-hallucis-muscle
#10
Nicholas A Campitelli, Scott A Spencer, Kaitlyn Bernhard, Kristen Heard, Alan Kidon
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of Vibram FiveFingers Bikila minimalist shoes on intrinsic foot musculature. We hypothesized that a gradual transition into minimalist shoes will increase the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle. METHODS: Forty-one individuals were divided into four groups: control (traditional shod) (n = 9), restricted walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11), running in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 10), and unlimited walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747528/evaluation-of-the-stiffness-characteristics-of-rapid-palatal-expander-screws
#11
Luca Lombardo, Enrico Sacchi, Maria Larosa, Francesco Mollica, Valentina Mazzanti, Giorgio Alfredo Spedicato, Giuseppe Siciliani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. METHODS: Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type "S", Forestadent Anatomic Expander type "S" for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S...
December 2016: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692212/overlapping-ontologies-and-indigenous-knowledge-from-integration-to-ontological-self-determination
#12
David Ludwig
Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692210/mechanistic-explanation-cognitive-systems-demarcation-and-extended-cognition
#13
Dingmar van Eck, Huib Looren de Jong
Approaches to the Internalism-Externalism controversy in the philosophy of mind often involve both (broadly) metaphysical and explanatory considerations. Whereas originally most emphasis seems to have been placed on metaphysical concerns, recently the explanation angle is getting more attention. Explanatory considerations promise to offer more neutral grounds for cognitive systems demarcation than (broadly) metaphysical ones. However, it has been argued that explanation-based approaches are incapable of determining the plausibility of internalist-based conceptions of cognition vis-à-vis externalist ones...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676137/resident-centered-care-in-10-u-s-nursing-homes-residents-perspectives
#14
Jill Harrison, Susan Frampton
PURPOSE: With increased focus on resident-centered care (RCC) as an organizational imperative and a guiding principle of culture change for long-term care communities, evaluation of its success has centered primarily on the organizational perspective. METHODS: For this case report, we examine resident perspectives of RCC in 10 nursing homes across the United States that had adopted RCC as a philosophy and model of care for at least 12 months with a maximum engagement of 3 years using a phenomenological approach...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642632/with-great-power-comes-great-responsibility-a-personal-philosophy-for-communicating-science-in-society
#15
E Paul Zehr
Many think that communicating science is a necessary and rewarding activity. Yet finding compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between challenging scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public can be difficult. Since science continues to influence more and more aspects of daily life and knowledge, there is a parallel need for communication about science in our society. Here I discuss the "middle-ground hypothesis" using popular culture for science communication and applying the "FUNnel model," where popular culture is used as a lead-in and wrap-up when discussing science...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578812/influences-on-students-career-decisions-concerning-general-practice-a-focus-group-study
#16
Sandra Nicholson, Adrian Michael Hastings, Robert Kee McKinley
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns about recruitment to UK general practice, there has been no concerted educational intervention to address them. AIM: To better understand how medical students' perceptions of their experiences of their undergraduate curriculum may affect choosing general practice as a career. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study comprising focus groups of a total of 58 students from a range of medical schools across the UK. METHOD: A range of UK medical schools students were invited by email to participate in focus groups and return a questionnaire detailing their current career choice to facilitate sampling students with varied career preferences...
October 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575028/the-geochemically-analogous-process-of-metal-recovery-from-second-hand-resources-via-mechanochemistry-an-atom-economic-case-study-and-its-implications
#17
Zhiyuan James Ou, Jinhui Li
In the context of recycling metal to embrace the sustainability challenge, this work proposes a geochemically-analogous process of metal recovery through mechanochemistry for the first time, to avoid the limitations of on-going methods and to establish an innovative technology philosophy. This work systematically investigates this geochemically-analogous process, to keep it green and to generalize it further. Copper recovery from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), a typical copper-rich waste, is chosen as a case study in this work...
August 26, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557744/what-does-caring-mean-to-nursing-and-social-work-students
#18
R Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, V Zydziunaite, T Suominen, P Astedt-Kurki
AIM: The aim of this study in Lithuania was to discover how the meaning of caring is perceived by nursing and social work students. BACKGROUND: Nursing and social work are caring professions, which provide care in different ways. It is still unclear what features constitute the meaning of caring for nursing and social work students as future caring professionals. METHODS: Snowball sampling technique was applied in the study. The data were collected as reflective narratives...
September 2016: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543087/engaging-with-communities-engaging-with-patients-amendment-to-the-napcrg-1998-policy-statement-on-responsible-research-with-communities
#19
Michele L Allen, Jon Salsberg, Michaela Knot, Joseph W LeMaster, Maret Felzien, John M Westfall, Carol P Herbert, Katherine Vickery, Kathleen A Culhane-Pera, Vivian R Ramsden, Linda Zittleman, Ruth Elwood Martin, Ann C Macaulay
BACKGROUND: In 1998, the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) adopted a groundbreaking Policy Statement endorsing responsible participatory research (PR) with communities. Since that time, PR gained prominence in primary care research. OBJECTIVES: To reconsider the original 1998 Policy Statement in light of increased uptake of PR, and suggest future directions and applications for PR in primary care. This work contributed to an updated Policy Statement endorsed by NAPCRG in 2015...
August 19, 2016: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516684/proteomics-approaches-shed-new-light-on-traditional-iranian-medicine
#20
Mina Movahhed, Zohreh Poursaleh
BACKGROUND: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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