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Philosophy of meaning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182960/paediatric-nurses-perceptions-and-practices-of-family-centred-care-in-saudi-hospitals-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
Hawa Alabdulaziz, Cheryle Moss, Beverley Copnell
BACKGROUND: Family-centred care is widely accepted as the underlying philosophy of paediatric nursing. Studies of family-centred care have mainly been conducted in western countries and little is known of its practice in other contexts. No studies have been undertaken in the Middle East. AIM: To explore family-centred care in the Saudi context from the perspectives of paediatric nurses. DESIGN: A mixed methodology was utilised with an explanatory sequential design...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156534/the-benefits-and-burdens-of-cancer-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
Krysta Shutske, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Claire M Wharton, Kevin Scott Baker, Kira O'Neil Bona, Joanne Wolfe, Abby R Rosenberg
: 243 Background: Much of the literature describing psychosocial consequences of cancer among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) has reported negative outcomes; however, AYAs also have potential for protective, positive outcomes. We aimed to prospectively characterize AYA patient-reported benefit and burden-finding after cancer diagnosis and hypothesized that benefit finding would be a salient coping mechanism. METHODS: Semi-structured, 1:1 interviews were conducted with AYA patients after cancer diagnosis at 3 time points over 2 years, to elicit their expectations, hopes, worries, personal strengths, and challenges...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126586/conceptualisation-of-the-good-self-manager-a-qualitative-investigation-of-stakeholder-views-on-the-self-management-of-long-term-health-conditions
#3
J Ellis, E Boger, S Latter, A Kennedy, F Jones, C Foster, S Demain
Healthcare policy in developed countries has, in recent years, promoted self-management among people with long-term conditions. Such policies are underpinned by neoliberal philosophy, as seen in the promotion of greater individual responsibility for health through increased support for self-management. Yet still little is known about how self-management is understood by commissioners of healthcare services, healthcare professionals, people with long-term conditions and family care-givers. The evidence presented here is drawn from a two-year study, which investigated how self-management is conceptualised by these stakeholder groups...
January 17, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114357/young-adults-belief-in-genetic-determinism-and-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-modern-genetics-and-genomics-the-puggs-questionnaire
#4
Rebecca Bruu Carver, Jérémy Castéra, Niklas Gericke, Neima Alice Menezes Evangelista, Charbel N El-Hani
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094427/minimalism-in-art-medical-science-and-neurosurgery
#5
Ali İhsan Ökten
The word ''minimalism'' is a word derived from French the word ''minimum''. Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is ''the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something'', its expression in mathematics can be described as ''the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal''. Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other...
December 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054440/-sufficient-health-as-perceived-by-thai-villagers-a-qualitative-study
#6
Manee Arpanantikul, Rutja Phuphaibul, Kusuma Khuwatsumrit
Globalization has led to the rapid modernization of Thai villagers' traditional lifestyle, with significant consequential changes in health. The integration of the sufficiency economy philosophy with health - a concept known as "sufficient health" - can improve health and wellbeing; however, little is known of the actual meaning of "sufficient health." This qualitative study explored the meaning of sufficient health as perceived by Thai villagers. Data were collected from 122 villagers living in a rural Thai community and analyzed using content analysis...
January 5, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051888/the-benefits-and-burdens-of-cancer-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Joelle P Straehla, Krysta S Barton, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Claire Wharton, Kevin Scott Baker, Kira Bona, Joanne Wolfe, Abby R Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and early young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at high risk for poor outcomes. Positive psychological responses such as benefit-finding may buffer the negative impacts of cancer but are poorly understood in this population. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively describe the content and trajectory of benefit- and burden-finding among AYAs to develop potential targets for future intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with English-speaking AYA patients (aged 14-25 years) within 60 days of diagnosis of a noncentral nervous system malignancy requiring chemotherapy, 6-12 and 12-18 months later...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009093/contract-theories-and-partnership-in-health-care-a-philosophical-inquiry-to-the-philosophy-of-john-rawls-and-seyla-benhabib
#8
Sylvia Määttä, Kim Lützén, Stina Öresland
Over the last 20 years, a paternalistic view in health care has been losing ground. The question about less asymmetrical positions in the healthcare professional-patient relationship is, for example, being addressed by the increased emphasis on person-centred care, promoted in disciplines such as medicine and nursing. Partnership is considered as a key component in person-centred care. Although the previous studies have addressed the attributes inherent in partnership, there is still potential for further discussion on how the various interpretations of partnership influence their use in healthcare literature...
December 23, 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992279/compassion-and-care-at-the-end-of-life-oncology-nurses-experiences-in-south-east-iran
#9
Mahnaz Ghaljeh, Sedigheh Iranmanesh, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, Batool Tirgari, Behjat Kalantarri
BACKGROUND: End of life (EOL) care is newly established in the Iranian context. Context, in this case, refers to the internal and external manifestation of the nurse values, norms and experiences that are learnt throughout life. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients in Iran. METHODS: A phenomenological hermeneutic approach, influenced by the philosophy of Ricoeur, was used to analyse 10 oncology nurses' experiences of caring for dying persons...
December 2016: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977540/empowerment-of-parents-in-the-intensive-care-questionnaire-translation-and-validation-in-italian-picus
#10
Andrea Wolfler, Alberto Giannini, Martina Finistrella, Ida Salvo, Edoardo Calderini, Giulia Frasson, Immacolata Dall'Oglio, Michela Di Furia, Rossella Iuzzolino, Massimo Musicco, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: To translate and validate the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care questionnaire to measure parent satisfaction and experiences in Italian PICUs. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter study. SETTING: Four medical/surgical Italian PICUs in three tertiary hospitals. PATIENTS: Families of children, 0-16 years old, admitted to the PICUs were invited to participate. Inclusion criteria were PICU length of stay greater than 24 hours and good comprehension of Italian language by parents/guardians...
February 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923777/parent-and-clinician-preferences-for-an-asthma-app-to-promote-adolescent-self-management-a-formative-study
#11
Lorie L Geryk, Courtney A Roberts, Adam J Sage, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Betsy L Sleath, Delesha M Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Most youth asthma apps are not designed with parent and clinician use in mind, and rarely is the app development process informed by parent or clinician input. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to generate formative data on the use, attitudes, and preferences for asthma mHealth app features among parents and clinicians, the important stakeholders who support adolescents with asthma and promote adolescent self-management skills. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study from 2013 to 2014 employing a user-centered design philosophy to acquire feedback from a convenience sample of 20 parents and 6 clinicians...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909972/can-we-estimate-short-and-intermediate-term-survival-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-metastatic-bone-disease
#12
Jonathan A Forsberg, Rikard Wedin, Patrick J Boland, John H Healey
BACKGROUND: Objective means of estimating survival can be used to guide surgical decision-making and to risk-stratify patients for clinical trials. Although a free, online tool ( www.pathfx.org ) can estimate 3- and 12-month survival, recent work, including a survey of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, indicated that estimates at 1 and 6 months after surgery also would be helpful. Longer estimates help justify the need for more durable and expensive reconstructive options, and very short estimates could help identify those who will not survive 1 month and should not undergo surgery...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899839/practical-insights-for-the-pharmacist-educator-on-student-engagement
#13
REVIEW
Douglas R Oyler, Frank Romanelli, Peggy Piascik, Jeff Cain
Student engagement continues to be a point of emphasis in pharmacy education, yet there remains little data on tangible means to increase organic student engagement. This review attempts to better define student engagement, draws from educational theorists to emphasize the importance of student engagement, and provides the reader with practice philosophies that can be used across of variety of teaching settings to help develop an engaging learning environment.
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895604/virtue-existential-career-model-a-dialectic-and-integrative-approach-echoing-eastern-philosophy
#14
Shu-Hui Liu, Jui-Ping Hung, Hsin-I Peng, Chia-Hui Chang, Yi-Jen Lu
Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859520/what-are-the-true-statistics-of-the-environment
#15
Jacob Feldman
A widespread assumption in the contemporary discussion of probabilistic models of cognition, often attributed to the Bayesian program, is that inference is optimal when the observer's priors match the true priors in the world-the actual "statistics of the environment." But in fact the idea of a "true" prior plays no role in traditional Bayesian philosophy, which regards probability as a quantification of belief, not an objective characteristic of the world. In this paper I discuss the significance of the traditional Bayesian epistemic view of probability and its mismatch with the more objectivist assumptions about probability that are widely held in contemporary cognitive science...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846928/the-role-of-implementation-science-training-in-global-health-from-the-perspective-of-graduates-of-the-field-s-first-dedicated-doctoral-program
#16
Arianna R Means, David E Phillips, Grégoire Lurton, Anne Njoroge, Sabine M Furere, Rong Liu, Wisal M Hassan, Xiaochen Dai, Orvalho Augusto, Peter Cherutich, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Soi, Dong Xu, Christopher G Kemp
Bridging the 'know-do gap' is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the 'know-do gap'...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834205/rigorous-science-a-how-to-guide
#17
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word "rigor" is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763925/suffering-of-traumatic-amputees-in-spain-meaning-spirituality-and-biomedicine
#18
José Luis Díaz, César Leal, Klaus Schriewer, Paloma Echevarría
Amputation is a traumatic incident that entails a chain of psychological, physical, and social events. The objectives of the study are to describe the beliefs and the philosophies of life related to the experience of suffering of traumatic amputees, analyze the importance of biomedical care, and describe other forms of care used.
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763673/jung-s-psychoid-concept-and-bion-s-proto-mental-concept-a-comparison
#19
Ann Addison
Jung and Bion both developed theoretical concepts propounding a deeply unknowable area of the psyche in which body and mind are undifferentiated and the individual has no distinct identity, from which a differentiated consciousness arises. In Jung's case, this is enshrined in his psychoid concept and the associated notion of synchronicity and, in Bion's case, in his proto-mental concept and his ideas on group dynamics. It is by means of these two concepts that Jung and Bion approach and locate a combined body-mind, a monism, in which body and mind are seen as different aspects of the same thing...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762613/effect-of-vibram-fivefingers-minimalist-shoes-on-the-abductor-hallucis-muscle
#20
Nicholas A Campitelli, Scott A Spencer, Kaitlyn Bernhard, Kristen Heard, Alan Kidon
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of Vibram FiveFingers Bikila minimalist shoes on intrinsic foot musculature. We hypothesized that a gradual transition into minimalist shoes will increase the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle. METHODS: Forty-one individuals were divided into four groups: control (traditional shod) (n = 9), restricted walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11), running in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 10), and unlimited walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
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