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Ninu Sharma, Joseph D Schwartzman, Edward J Gutmann, Jonathan D Marotti, Xiaoying Liu
Cokeromyces recurvatus is a zygomycetes yeast form that is very rarely detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, in which it typically represents an innocuous colonizer. Its morphology closely resembles that of the better known Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , which can disseminate widely and cause clinically significant disease. We present a case of C. recurvatus detected in a cervical liquid-based preparation obtained from a 38-year old healthy woman. Careful cytomorphologic evaluation, in combination with culture and molecular techniques, was utilized to make a diagnosis and prevent the misdiagnosis of P...
2018: CytoJournal
Sheila J Sestari, Wesley A Brito, Bruno J Neves, Celia M A Soares, Silvia M Salem-Izacc
A critical step in the lifecycle of many fungal pathogens is the ability to switch between filamentous and yeast growth, a process known as dimorphism. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) controls morphological changes and the pathogenicity of several animal and plant pathogenic fungi. In this work, we report the analysis of PKA activity during the mycelium to yeast transition in the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides lutzii. This fungus, as well as the closely related species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that affects thousands of people in Latin America...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Priscila Marques de Macedo, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Marcos de Abreu Almeida, Rowena Alves Coelho, Marcio Amaral de Oliveira Filho, Denise Machado Medeiros, Adriano Gomes-Silva, Jéssica Ribeiro de Lima, Alda Maria Da-Cruz, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle
The authors report the first case of fatal septic shock, a rare clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1. We also provide an immunological evaluation of the patient. Severe clinical signs such as organ dysfunction and digital gangrene occurred in this case. The patient presented a remarkable cell activation profile and diminished percentage of peripheral blood T regulatory cells. A decrease in anti-inflammatory IL-1RA plasma level showed the potential for endothelium damage, probably contributing to a vasculitis process...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Ayaz Ghani, Molly Weinberg, Nusrat Pathan, Ramapriya Vidhun, Steven Sieber
Paracoccidioides infection is a rare entity in the USA. This dimorphic fungus is found in Central and South America and is thought to be acquired by inhalation through the soil. We report a case of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection presenting as a clavicular bone lesion, peripancreatic mass, and various skin lesions. A 35-year-old man with a history significant for Hodgkin lymphoma presented with a left clavicular mass that was suspected clinically and radiologically as recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma. He was not experiencing any associated symptoms and was undergoing chemotherapy treatment for his known Hodgkin disease...
February 23, 2018: Mycopathologia
Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
Fungal bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the environment and human exposure can result in a variety of health effects ranging from systemic, subcutaneous, and cutaneous infections to respiratory morbidity including allergy, asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Recent research has focused on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) following fungal exposure and is overlooked, yet important, group of regulators capable of influencing fungal immune responses through a variety of cellular mechanisms. These small non-coding ribose nucleic acids function to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to participate in multiple disease pathways including cancer, heart disease, apoptosis, as well as immune responses to microbial hazards and occupational allergens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Adriele Dandara Levorato, Daniela Vanessa Moris, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Tatiane Fernanda Sylvestre, Priscila Zacarias de Azevedo, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
A prospective study was performed in 200 paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 51 presenting the acute/subacute form (AF) and 149 the chronic form (CF), submitted to the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system at admission and during the follow-up treatment with cotrimoxazole (CMX) or itraconazole (ITC). This study aimed to better evaluate the involvement of the hepatobiliary system in PCM and the effect of these antifungal compounds on this system. Serum levels of direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were evaluated...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Juan David Puerta-Arias, Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Julián Camilo Arango, Lina María Salazar-Peláez, Angel González
Itraconazole (ITC) is the drug of choice for treating paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM); nonetheless, patients with the chronic form of this mycosis develop fibrosis, a residual pulmonary abnormality, even after treatment. Recently, we observed that the depletion of neutrophils with a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb-anti-Ly6G) during the chronic stages of PCM was associated with a decrease in the fungal burden, the inflammatory response and a reduction of fibrosis. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the effect of ITC in combination with the mAb-anti-Ly6G in an experimental model of pulmonary PCM...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Priscila Marques de Macedo, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Marcos de Abreu Almeida, Rowena Alves Coelho, Hugo Boechat Andrade, Ana Beatriz Teixeira Brandão Camello Ferreira, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America and the leading fungal cause of mortality in non-immunosuppressed individuals in Brazil. However, HIV/PCM co-infection can increase the clinical severity in these co-infected patients. This co-infection is rarely reported in the literature mainly because of the different epidemiological profiles of these infections. Furthermore, PCM is a neglected and non-notifiable disease, which may underestimate the real importance of this disease...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Daniele G Castilho, Marina V Navarro, Alison F A Chaves, Patricia Xander, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a cause of disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. The infection begins after inhalation of the fungal propagules and their thermo-dimorphic shift to yeast form. The development of the disease depends on factors associated with the host immune response and the infectious agent's characteristics, especially virulence. The oxidative stress response is an important virulence attribute in several fungi. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic repertoire of responses to oxidative stress in the Pb18 isolate with different degrees of virulence...
February 2, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Renata Buccheri, Vanessa Dos Santos Moraes, Camila Mika Kamikawa, Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal, Gabriel Naves, Gilda Maria Barbaro Del Negro, Adriana Pardini Vicentini, Gil Benard
Negative results in serological routine screening of patients with microbiologically proven PCM are occasionally reported. Failure in detecting anti-Paracoccidioides antibodies has been ascribed to factors either related to serological techniques or to the status of the host immune reactivity. Recently, this issue has been renewed by the recognition that the Paracoccidioides genera comprises two species, lutzii and brasiliensis, which have distinct antigenic profiles and, therefore, may elicit different host antibody responses...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Liliana Scorzoni, Maria Pilar de Lucas, Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patricia Akemi Assato, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection affecting mainly Latin American countries that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. During the study of fungal pathogenesis, in vivo studies are crucial to understand the overall mechanisms involving the infection as well as to search for new therapeutic treatments and diagnosis. Caenorhabditis elegans is described as an infection model for different fungi species and a well-characterized organism to study the innate immune response...
January 18, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Marluce Francisca Hrycyk, Hans Garcia Garces, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Sílvio Luis de Oliveira, Sílvio Alencar Marques, Eduardo Bagagli
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the related species P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii (Ascomycota, Ajellomycetaceae) are the etiological agents of paracoccidoidoimycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. They are dimorphic fungi, with a mycelial life cycle in soil and a yeast phase associated with tissues of mammalian hosts. This study aimed to detect Paracoccidioides spp. in armadillo tissues and associated soil samples in three well-defined geographic areas, including the Alta Floresta, an area not only endemic for PCM in the central region of Brazil but also of probable P...
January 6, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Fabiana Barcelos Furtado, Bruna Cristina Borges, Thaise Lara Teixeira, Hans Garcia Garces, Luiz Domingues de Almeida Junior, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo Alves, Claudio Vieira da Silva, Ary Fernandes Junior
Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lilian C Baeza, Fabiana R da Mata, Laurine L Pigosso, Maristela Pereira, Gustavo H M F de Souza, Alexandre S G Coelho, Célia M de Almeida Soares
The genus Paracoccidioides comprises known fungal pathogens of humans and can be isolated from different infection sites. Metabolic peculiarities in different members of the Paracoccidioides led us to perform proteomic studies in the presence of the two-carbon molecule acetate, which predominates in the nutrient-poor environment of the phagosome. To investigate the expression rates of proteins of different members of Paracoccidioides , including one isolate of P. lutzii ( Pb 01) and three isolates of P. brasiliensis ( Pb 03, Pb 339, and Pb EPM83), using sodium acetate as a carbon source, proteins were quantified using label-free and data-independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ivy Rafacho Vieira, Reginaldo Keller Fernandes, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Carolina Mendonça Gorgulho, Ramon Kaneno, Ângela Maria Victoriano Campos Soares
Microorganisms killing by dendritic cells (DCs) is an important effector mechanism during innate immune response, as it can avoid dissemination of infection during migration of these cells toward draining lymph nodes. However, this function depends on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to which the microorganism will bind in these cells. Regarding this, TLR9 activation, by stimulating the oxidative metabolism, induces increase in microbicidal activity of these cells. Accordingly, we showed that DCs treatment with a TLR9 agonist results in an increase in fungicidal activity of these cells against the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), which however, was not associated to higher H2O2 levels...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Luiza Sarmento Tatagiba, Luana Bridi Pivatto, Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Tânia Regina Grão Velloso, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires Camargo, Aloísio Falqueto
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease caused by Paracoccidioides spp., which can cause a systemic granulomatous infection with tegumentary and visceral involvement. Sarcoid-like skin lesions are uncommon and can be misdiagnosed due to similarities with other granulomatous diseases. We report a case of a women presenting with erythematous infiltrated plaques on her face that was treated for leprosy and rosacea with no response and was later diagnosed with PCM, presenting positive serology for Paracoccidioides lutzii...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Juliana Santana de Curcio, Marielle Garcia Silva, Mirelle Garcia Silva Bailão, Sônia Nair Báo, Luciana Casaletti, Alexandre Mello Bailão, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
Aim: During infection development in the host, Paracoccidioides spp. faces the deprivation of micronutrients, a mechanism called nutritional immunity. This condition induces the remodeling of proteins present in different metabolic pathways. Therefore, we attempted to identify membrane proteins and their regulation by zinc in Paracoccidioides lutzii. Materials & methods: Membranes enriched fraction of yeast cells of P. lutzii were isolated, purified and identified by 2D LC-MS/MS detection and database search...
November 2017: Future Science OA
Alexandre Giannecchini Romagnolo, Juliana Carvalho de Quaglia E Silva, Amanda Manoel Della Coletta, Taiane Priscila Gardizani, Ana Teresa Loyola Martins, Graziela Gorete Romagnoli, Ramon Kaneno, Angela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Julio Defaveri, Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio
Fungal recognition by Dectin-1 receptor triggers a series of cellular mechanisms involved in a protective activation of the immune system. In this study we aimed to evaluate the participation of Dectin-1 receptor in the induction of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-17A secretion by human monocytes activated with different cytokines, and challenged in vitro with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). Our results show that monocytes challenged with P. brasiliensis (Pb265) are able to produce IL-12, IL-8, IL-17, IL-10, and TNF-α...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
Natália Ketelut-Carneiro, Sreya Ghosh, Stuart M Levitz, Katherine A Fitzgerald, João Santana da Silva
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is equipped with an arsenal of virulence factors that are crucial for causing infection. Our group previously defined the NLRP3 inflammasome as a mediator of P. brasiliensis-induced cell damage recognition, and induction of effective Th1 immune responses. However, deficiency of caspase-1 only partially reduced IL-1β levels. Here we identify an additional pathway for IL-1β production in response to P. brasiliensis infection. P. brasiliensis initiated caspase-8-mediated IL-1β production, an event that was necessary for transcriptional priming and posttranslational processing of pro-IL-1β...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bruna Barros Garbim, Larissa D Ávila, Sumara Zuanazi Pinto Rigatto, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Vera Maria Santoro Belangero, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
Hypercalcemia is a rare condition in childhood; the most common causes are primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, prolonged immobilisation, thyrotoxicosis, thiazide diuretic, supplements containing calcium, milk-alkali syndrome, vitamin D intoxication, infections and idiopathic. We present three cases of severe hypercalcemia of unusual causes in children. The first patient had high fever, poor general condition, weight loss and myalgia. Extensive preliminary investigation did not define the etiology, but a review of medical history revealed prolonged contact with pet bird and a positive serology for Chlamydia confirmed the diagnosis of psittacosis...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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