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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324244/animal-models-and-antifungal-agents-in-paracoccidioidomycosis-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Luciano Z Goldani, Fernanda Wirth
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The morbidity and mortality associated with paracoccidioidomycosis necessitate our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and discovering of new agents to treat this infection. Animal models have contributed much to the knowledge of fungal infections and their corresponding therapeutic treatments. This is true for animal models of the primary fungal pathogens such as P. brasiliensis...
March 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295653/paracoccidioidomycosis-infection-in-domestic-and-wild-mammals-by-paracoccidioides-lutzii
#2
Josiara F Mendes, Gabriel B Klafke, Ana Paula N Albano, Ângela L Cabana, Alessandra J Teles, Zoilo P de Camargo, Melissa O Xavier, Mário Carlos A Meireles
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis that occurs in several Latin American countries, especially in Brazil. It is caused by the thermo-dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. Serological studies to detect animal infection represent an excellent strategy for data on the agent's ecology. Although the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is an endemic area for PCM in humans, there is scarce information available on the ecology of the agent in the region. This study aimed to investigate the infection by Paracoccidioides lutzii in animals living in RS, Brazil...
March 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279786/miltefosine-is-fungicidal-to-paracoccidioides-spp-yeast-cells-but-subinhibitory-concentrations-induce-melanisation
#3
Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Cristina de Castro Spadari, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Kelly Ishida
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp. The duration of antifungal treatment ranges from months to years and relapses may nevertheless occur despite protracted therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for new therapeutic options. Miltefosine (MLT), an analogue of alkylphospholipids, has antifungal activity against species of yeast and filamentous fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of MLT on the yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239394/standardization-and-validation-of-dot-elisa-assay-for-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-antibody-detection
#4
Camila Mika Kamikawa, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Adriana Pardini Vicentini
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus of the Paracoccidioides genus. The standard diagnosis is based on isolation of the fungi in culture, and by microscopic visualization of characteristic multiple budding yeast cells in biological samples. However, in some situations, access to the site of injury prevents the collection of biological material. A variety of immuno-serological techniques has proven useful for allowing inferring diagnosis with a certain degree of certainty, thus optimizing time...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177048/use-of-fluorescent-oligonucleotide-probes-for-differentiation-between-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-and-paracoccidioides-lutzii-in-yeast-and-mycelial-phase
#5
Thales Domingos Arantes, Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Eduardo Bagagli
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) associated with Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) using oligonucleotides labeled with non-radioactive fluorophores is a promising technique for detection and differentiation of fungal species in environmental or clinical samples, being suitable for microorganisms which are difficult or even impossible to culture. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to standardise an in situ hybridisation technique for the differentiation between the pathogenic species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, by using species-specific DNA probes targeting the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) of the rRNA gene...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176377/novel-taxa-of-thermally-dimorphic-systemic-pathogens-in-the-ajellomycetaceae-onygenales
#6
Karolina Dukik, Jose F Muñoz, Yanping Jiang, Peiying Feng, Lynne Sigler, J Benjamin Stielow, Joanna Freeke, Azadeh Jamalian, Bert Gerrits van den Ende, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Ilan S Schwartz, Nelesh P Govender, Tsidiso G Maphanga, Christina A Cuomo, Leandro F Moreno, Chris Kenyon, Andrew M Borman, Sybren de Hoog
Recent discoveries of novel systemic fungal pathogens with thermally dimorphic yeast-like phases have challenged the current taxonomy of the Ajellomycetaceae, a family currently comprising the genera Blastomyces, Emmonsia, Emmonsiellopsis, Helicocarpus, Histoplasma, Lacazia and Paracoccidioides. Our morphological, phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses demonstrated species relationships and their specific phenotypes, clarified generic boundaries and provided the first annotated genome assemblies to support the description of two new species...
February 7, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093309/paracoccidioides-spp-catalases-and-their-role-in-antioxidant-defense-against-host-defense-responses
#7
Diana Tamayo, José F Muñoz, Agostinho J Almeida, Juan D Puerta, Ángela Restrepo, Christina A Cuomo, Juan G McEwen, Orville Hernández
Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species...
January 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074055/effects-of-two-6-quinolinyl-chalcones-on-the-integrity-of-plasma-membrane-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#8
Nívea P de Sá, Patrícia S Cisalpino, Luciana C Tavares, Leandro Espíndola, Beatriz M Borelli, Paulo Js Barbeira, Gabriele de Matos Cardoso Perdigão, Elaine M Souza-Fagundes, Carlos A Rosa, Moacir G Pizzolatti, Susana Johann
Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, yet few therapeutic options exist. Our aim was to search for new compounds with high efficacy, low toxicity, shorter treatment time and affordable cost. We studied two synthetic 6-quinolinyl chalcones, 3b and 3e, to determine their effects on VERO cells, antifungal activity, survival curve, interaction with other drugs and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. In this study, we verified that the compounds were not toxic, exhibited superior in vitro activity compared with that shown by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and after 5 days of treatment, decreased the fungal cell viability by approximately 70%...
March 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053145/study-of-differential-expression-of-mirnas-in-lung-tissue-of-mice-submitted-to-experimental-infection-by-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#9
Denise Turini Gonzales Marioto, Ana Carolina Navarro Dos Santos Ferraro, Fábio Goulart de Andrade, Marília Barros Oliveira, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Silvana Petrofeza, Emerson José Venancio
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single stranded RNA sequences involved in post-transcriptional regulation of different biological and physiological processes. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and it is a major cause of mortality due to systemic mycoses in Brazil. To date, there have been few reports on the role of miRNAs in the immune response against fungi, especially PCM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differential expression of miRNAs related to the inflammatory response associated with pulmonary infection by P...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039947/acute-pulmonary-involvement-by-paracoccidiodomycosis-disease-immediately-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Marcelo V Radisic, Laura Linares, Javier Afeltra, Natalia Pujato, Roxana G Vitale, Martin Bravo, Ana C Dotta, Domingo H Casadei
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Human disease has been observed in a limited geographic and ecological niche, and it is attributed to exposure to the fungus in soil. Most primary infections are subclinical, as the infection is contained by the host mainly through cell-mediated immune response. However, as the fungus has the ability to survive in a dormant state for long periods, an impairment of the immune response may lead to reactivation and clinical disease...
December 31, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995367/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induces-cytokine-secretion-in-epithelial-cells-in-a-protease-activated-receptor-dependent-par-manner
#11
Priscila de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Saara Maria Batista Dos Santos, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli de Barros, Paloma Korehisa Maza, Rosana Puccia, Erika Suzuki
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549...
December 19, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995053/chronic-paracoccidioidomycosis-with-adrenal-involvement-mimicking-tuberculosis-a-case-report-from-austria
#12
Gernot Wagner, Deddo Moertl, Axel Eckhardt, Ulrich Sagel, Friedrich Wrba, Karl Dam, Birgit Willinger
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and endemic in certain areas of Central and South America. We report a case of a 62-year-old-man with a complex history of tuberculosis and imaging findings of a cerebral lesion and bilateral adrenal enlargement. Biopsy of adrenal gland revealed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This case highlights the importance of travel history for diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis in non-endemic areas and emphasizes the clinical and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992577/tolerogenic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-control-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-infection-by-inducting-regulatory-t-cells-in-an-ido-dependent-manner
#13
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Daniella Helena Medeiros, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Antônio Condino-Neto, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), considered critical for immunity against viruses, were recently associated with defense mechanisms against fungal infections. However, the immunomodulatory function of pDCs in pulmonary paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM), an endemic fungal infection of Latin America, has been poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of pDCs in the pathogenesis of PCM caused by the infection of 129Sv mice with 1 x 106 P. brasiliensis-yeasts. In vitro experiments showed that P. brasiliensis infection induces the maturation of pDCs and elevated synthesis of TNF-α and IFN-β...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895278/paracoccidioidomycosis-in-brazilian-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#14
Fabrício Arantes de Almeida, Fernando Freitas Neves, Delio Jose Mora, Tarcisio Albertin Dos Reis, Diego Moelas Sotini, Barbara De Melo Ribeiro, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Gabriel Nogueira Nascentes, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is endemic to Latin America, where 10 million people may be infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/Paracoccidioides lutzii and 1,600,000 individuals live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An epidemiological overlapping of these infections occurred early in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era with nearly 180 published cases. This study presents epidemiological, clinical, and outcome profiles for 31 PCM patients with HIV infection diagnosed in a teaching hospital in Brazil, and includes an update of previously reported cases...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#15
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869614/cutaneous-granulomas-in-dolphins-caused-by-novel-uncultivated-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#16
Raquel Vilela, Gregory D Bossart, Judy A St Leger, Leslie M Dalton, John S Reif, Adam M Schaefer, Peter J McCarthy, Patricia A Fair, Leonel Mendoza
Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775058/extracellular-vesicles-from-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induced-m1-polarization-in-vitro
#17
Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall, Fausto Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757778/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-associated-dermatitis-and-lymphadenitis-in-a-dog
#18
Selwyn Arlington Headley, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Rafaela Macagnan, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Katherine Moura Leite, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. This study presents the clinical, cytological, mycological, serological, and molecular findings associated with P. brasiliensis in a dog from Southern Brazil. Fine needle biopsies were collected from the skin and several lymph nodes of a 5-year-old female Labrador dog that had enlargement of most superficial lymph nodes...
October 18, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744308/ast-to-alt-ratio-is-elevated-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-as-compared-to-localized-pulmonary-disease-and-other-endemic-mycoses
#19
Andrej Spec, Christopher R Barrios, Usama Ahmad, Laurie A Proia
Severe pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis often necessitates presumptive antifungal treatment while awaiting definitive diagnosis. Histoplasma antigen assays have improved sensitivity but results may lag up to 7 days. In order to increase diagnostic certainty, "soft clues" may be looked for in laboratory and radiologic data, such as elevated alkaline phosphatase or ferritin levels and findings of mediastinal adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. To determine if elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is specific to histoplasmosis or a non-specific marker for disseminated fungal infection or sepsis in general, we retrospectively examined records of all patients diagnosed with an endemic fungal infection (EFI) at Rush University Medical Center from January of 1997 to October of 2012, and a cohort of septic patients with elevated liver enzymes...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736987/severe-changes-in-thymic-microenvironment-in-a-chronic-experimental-model-of-paracoccidioidomycosis
#20
Thiago Alves da Costa, Rosária Di Gangi, Rodolfo Thomé, Marina Barreto Felisbino, Amanda Pires Bonfanti, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Alexandrina Sartori, Eva Burger, Liana Verinaud
T cell maturation takes place within the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ that is commonly targeted during infections. Previous studies showed that acute infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), promotes thymic atrophy that is associated with the presence of yeast cells in the organ. However, as human PCM is a chronic infection, it is imperative to investigate the consequences of Pb infection over the thymic structure and function in chronic infection...
2016: PloS One
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