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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093309/paracoccidioides-spp-catalases-and-their-role-in-antioxidant-defense-against-host-defense-responses
#1
Diana Tamayo, José F Muñoz, Agostinho J Almeida, Juan D Puerta, Ángela Restrepo, Christina A Cuomo, Juan G McEwen, Orville Hernández
Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species...
January 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074055/effects-of-two-6-quinolinyl-chalcones-on-the-integrity-of-plasma-membrane-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#2
Nívea P de Sá, Patrícia S Cisalpino, Luciana C Tavares, Leandro Espíndola, Beatriz M Borelli, Paulo Js Barbeira, Gabriele de Matos Cardoso Perdigão, Elaine M Souza-Fagundes, Carlos A Rosa, Moacir G Pizzolatti, Susana Johann
Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, yet few therapeutic options exist. Our aim was to search for new compounds with high efficacy, low toxicity, shorter treatment time and affordable cost. We studied two synthetic 6-quinolinyl chalcones, 3b and 3e, to determine their effects on VERO cells, antifungal activity, survival curve, interaction with other drugs and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. In this study, we verified that the compounds were not toxic, exhibited superior in vitro activity compared with that shown by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and after 5 days of treatment, decreased the fungal cell viability by approximately 70%...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053145/study-of-differential-expression-of-mirnas-in-lung-tissue-of-mice-submitted-to-experimental-infection-by-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#3
Denise Turini Gonzales Marioto, Ana Carolina Navarro Dos Santos Ferraro, Fábio Goulart de Andrade, Marília Barros Oliveira, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Silvana Petrofeza, Emerson José Venancio
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single stranded RNA sequences involved in post-transcriptional regulation of different biological and physiological processes. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and it is a major cause of mortality due to systemic mycoses in Brazil. To date, there have been few reports on the role of miRNAs in the immune response against fungi, especially PCM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differential expression of miRNAs related to the inflammatory response associated with pulmonary infection by P...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039947/acute-pulmonary-involvement-by-paracoccidiodomycosis-disease-immediately-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Marcelo V Radisic, Laura Linares, Javier Afeltra, Natalia Pujato, Roxana G Vitale, Martin Bravo, Ana C Dotta, Domingo H Casadei
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Human disease has been observed in a limited geographic and ecological niche, and it is attributed to exposure to the fungus in soil. Most primary infections are subclinical, as the infection is contained by the host mainly through cell-mediated immune response. However, as the fungus has the ability to survive in a dormant state for long periods, an impairment of the immune response may lead to reactivation and clinical disease...
December 31, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995367/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induces-cytokine-secretion-in-epithelial-cells-in-a-protease-activated-receptor-dependent-par-manner
#5
Priscila de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Saara Maria Batista Dos Santos, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli de Barros, Paloma Korehisa Maza, Rosana Puccia, Erika Suzuki
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549...
December 19, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995053/chronic-paracoccidioidomycosis-with-adrenal-involvement-mimicking-tuberculosis-a-case-report-from-austria
#6
Gernot Wagner, Deddo Moertl, Axel Eckhardt, Ulrich Sagel, Friedrich Wrba, Karl Dam, Birgit Willinger
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and endemic in certain areas of Central and South America. We report a case of a 62-year-old-man with a complex history of tuberculosis and imaging findings of a cerebral lesion and bilateral adrenal enlargement. Biopsy of adrenal gland revealed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This case highlights the importance of travel history for diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis in non-endemic areas and emphasizes the clinical and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992577/tolerogenic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-control-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-infection-by-inducting-regulatory-t-cells-in-an-ido-dependent-manner
#7
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Daniella Helena Medeiros, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Antônio Condino-Neto, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), considered critical for immunity against viruses, were recently associated with defense mechanisms against fungal infections. However, the immunomodulatory function of pDCs in pulmonary paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM), an endemic fungal infection of Latin America, has been poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of pDCs in the pathogenesis of PCM caused by the infection of 129Sv mice with 1 x 106 P. brasiliensis-yeasts. In vitro experiments showed that P. brasiliensis infection induces the maturation of pDCs and elevated synthesis of TNF-α and IFN-β...
December 19, 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895278/paracoccidioidomycosis-in-brazilian-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Fabrício Arantes Almeida, Fernando Freitas Neves, Delio Jose Mora, Tarcisio Albertin Dos Reis, Diego Moelas Sotini, Barbara De Melo Ribeiro, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Gabriel Nogueira Nascentes, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is endemic to Latin America, where 10 million people may be infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/Paracoccidioides lutzii and 1,600,000 individuals live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An epidemiological overlapping of these infections occurred early in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era with nearly 180 published cases. This study presents epidemiological, clinical, and outcome profiles for 31 PCM/HIV-infected patients diagnosed in a teaching hospital in Brazil, and includes an update of previously reported cases...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#9
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869614/cutaneous-granulomas-in-dolphins-caused-by-novel-uncultivated-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#10
Raquel Vilela, Gregory D Bossart, Judy A St Leger, Leslie M Dalton, John S Reif, Adam M Schaefer, Peter J McCarthy, Patricia A Fair, Leonel Mendoza
Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775058/extracellular-vesicles-from-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induced-m1-polarization-in-vitro
#11
Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall, Fausto Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757778/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-associated-dermatitis-and-lymphadenitis-in-a-dog
#12
Selwyn Arlington Headley, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Rafaela Macagnan, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Katherine Moura Leite, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. This study presents the clinical, cytological, mycological, serological, and molecular findings associated with P. brasiliensis in a dog from Southern Brazil. Fine needle biopsies were collected from the skin and several lymph nodes of a 5-year-old female Labrador dog that had enlargement of most superficial lymph nodes...
October 18, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744308/ast-to-alt-ratio-is-elevated-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-as-compared-to-localized-pulmonary-disease-and-other-endemic-mycoses
#13
Andrej Spec, Christopher R Barrios, Usama Ahmad, Laurie A Proia
Severe pulmonary or disseminated histoplasmosis often necessitates presumptive antifungal treatment while awaiting definitive diagnosis. Histoplasma antigen assays have improved sensitivity but results may lag up to 7 days. In order to increase diagnostic certainty, "soft clues" may be looked for in laboratory and radiologic data, such as elevated alkaline phosphatase or ferritin levels and findings of mediastinal adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. To determine if elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is specific to histoplasmosis or a non-specific marker for disseminated fungal infection or sepsis in general, we retrospectively examined records of all patients diagnosed with an endemic fungal infection (EFI) at Rush University Medical Center from January of 1997 to October of 2012, and a cohort of septic patients with elevated liver enzymes...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736987/severe-changes-in-thymic-microenvironment-in-a-chronic-experimental-model-of-paracoccidioidomycosis
#14
Thiago Alves da Costa, Rosária Di Gangi, Rodolfo Thomé, Marina Barreto Felisbino, Amanda Pires Bonfanti, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Alexandrina Sartori, Eva Burger, Liana Verinaud
T cell maturation takes place within the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ that is commonly targeted during infections. Previous studies showed that acute infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), promotes thymic atrophy that is associated with the presence of yeast cells in the organ. However, as human PCM is a chronic infection, it is imperative to investigate the consequences of Pb infection over the thymic structure and function in chronic infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704050/genome-diversity-recombination-and-virulence-across-the-major-lineages-of-paracoccidioides
#15
José F Muñoz, Rhys A Farrer, Christopher A Desjardins, Juan E Gallo, Sean Sykes, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Elizabeth Misas, Emily A Whiston, Eduardo Bagagli, Celia M A Soares, Marcus de M Teixeira, John W Taylor, Oliver K Clay, Juan G McEwen, Christina A Cuomo
The Paracoccidioides genus includes two species of thermally dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a neglected health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. To examine the genome evolution and the diversity of Paracoccidioides spp., we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 31 isolates representing the phylogenetic, geographic, and ecological breadth of the genus. These samples included clinical, environmental and laboratory reference strains of the S1, PS2, PS3, and PS4 lineages of P...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690127/depletion-of-neutrophils-promotes-the-resolution-of-pulmonary-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice-infected-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#16
Juan David Puerta-Arias, Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Julián Camilo Arango, Ángel González
Chronic stages of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are characterized by granulomatous lesions which promote the development of pulmonary fibrosis leading to the loss of respiratory function in 50% of patients; in addition, it has been observed that neutrophils predominate during these chronic stages of P. brasiliensis infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of the neutrophil during the chronic stages of experimental pulmonary PCM and during the fibrosis development and tissue repair using a monoclonal specific to this phagocytic cell...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647238/characterizing-the-nuclear-proteome-of-paracoccidioides-spp
#17
Lucas Nojosa Oliveira, Luciana Casaletti, Sônia Nair Báo, Clayton Luiz Borges, Patrícia de Sousa Lima, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646561/antifungal-therapeutics-for-dimorphic-fungal-pathogens
#18
Kristie D Goughenour, Chad A Rappleye
Dimorphic fungi cause several endemic mycoses which range from subclinical respiratory infections to life-threatening systemic disease. Pathogenic-phase cells of Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides and Coccidioides escape elimination by the innate immune response with control ultimately requiring activation of cell-mediated immunity. Clinical management of disease relies primarily on antifungal compounds; however, dimorphic fungal pathogens create a number of challenges for antifungal drug therapy. In addition to the drug toxicity issues known for current antifungals, barriers to efficient drug treatment of dimorphic fungal infections include natural resistance to the echinocandins, residence of fungal cells within immune cells, the requirement for systemic delivery of drugs, prolonged treatment times, potential for latent infections, and lack of optimized standardized methodology for in vitro testing of drug susceptibilities...
September 19, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642235/depletion-of-neutrophils-exacerbates-the-early-inflammatory-immune-response-in-lungs-of-mice-infected-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#19
Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Juan David Puerta-Arias, Damaris Lopera, Martha Eugenia Urán-Jiménez, Ángel González
Neutrophils predominate during the acute phase of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Herein, we determined the role of the neutrophil during the early stages of experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for neutrophils. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 1.5 × 10(6) or 2 × 10(6) P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The mAb was administered 24 h before infection, followed by doses every 48 h until mice were sacrificed. Survival time was evaluated and mice were sacrificed at 48 h and 96 h after inoculation to assess cellularity, fungal load, cytokine/chemokine levels, and histopathological analysis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639241/therapeutic-effect-of-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-administration-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-infected-mice
#20
Taise Natali Landgraf, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Gabriela Peron, Ademilson Panunto-Castelo
The lack of antifungals with low toxicity and short-term therapy for patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) led us to evaluate adjuvants in immunotherapeutic intervention. We have previously shown complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to be therapeutic on experimental PCM. Owing to CFA toxicity, here we tested adjuvants approved for clinical use or in preclinical phase in experimental mouse PCM. Of all, only monophosporyl lipid A (MPLA) demonstrates a beneficial effect, by reducing the fungal burden and increasing the concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α, which are immunoprotective in PCM...
September 17, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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