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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492234/molecular-basis-for-blue-light-dependent-phosphorylation-of-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#1
Qing Liu, Qin Wang, Weixian Deng, Xu Wang, Mingxin Piao, Dawei Cai, Yaxing Li, William D Barshop, Xiaolan Yu, Tingting Zhou, Bin Liu, Yoshito Oka, James Wohlschlegel, Zecheng Zuo, Chentao Lin
Plant cryptochromes undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation to regulate their activity and abundance, but the protein kinases that phosphorylate plant cryptochromes have remained unclear. Here we show that photoexcited Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is phosphorylated in vivo on as many as 24 different residues, including 7 major phosphoserines. We demonstrate that four closely related Photoregulatory Protein Kinases (previously referred to as MUT9-like kinases) interact with and phosphorylate photoexcited CRY2...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486525/hypothesis-driven-single-cell-dual-oscillator-mathematical-model-of-circadian-rhythms
#2
Shiju S, K Sriram
Molecular mechanisms responsible for 24 h circadian oscillations, entrainment to external cues, encoding of day length and the time-of-day effects have been well studied experimentally. However, it is still debated from the molecular network point of view whether each cell in suprachiasmatic nuclei harbors two molecular oscillators, where one tracks dawn and the other tracks dusk activities. A single cell dual morning and evening oscillator was proposed by Daan et al., based on the molecular network that has two sets of similar non-redundant per1/cry1 and per2/cry2 circadian genes and each can independently maintain their endogenous oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467358/expression-of-root-genes-in-arabidopsis-seedlings-grown-by-standard-and-improved-growing-methods
#3
Yanli Qu, Shuai Liu, Wenlong Bao, Xian Xue, Zhengwen Ma, Ken Yokawa, František Baluška, Yinglang Wan
Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in the laboratory using the traditional plant-growing culture system (TPG) were covered to maintain them in darkness. This new method is based on a dark chamber and is named the improved plant-growing method (IPG). We measured the light conditions in dark chambers, and found that the highest light intensity was dramatically reduced deeper in the dark chamber. In the bottom and side parts of dark chambers, roots were almost completely shaded. Using the high-throughput RNA sequencing method on the whole RNA extraction from roots, we compared the global gene expression levels in roots of seedlings from these two conditions and identified 141 differently expressed genes (DEGs) between them...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431041/bidirectional-approaches-for-optogenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-mammalian-cells-using-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#4
Gopal P Pathak, Jessica I Spiltoir, Camilla Höglund, Lauren R Polstein, Sari Heine-Koskinen, Charles A Gersbach, Jari Rossi, Chandra L Tucker
Optogenetic tools allow regulation of cellular processes with light, which can be delivered with spatiotemporal resolution. In previous work, we used cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and CIB1, Arabidopsis proteins that interact upon light illumination, to regulate transcription with light in yeast. While adopting this approach to regulate transcription in mammalian cells, we observed light-dependent redistribution and clearing of CRY2-tethered proteins within the nucleus. The nuclear clearing phenotype was dependent on the presence of a dimerization domain contained within the CRY2-fused transcriptional activators...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406460/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-the-entomocidal-potential-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-from-algeria
#5
Zahia Djenane, Farida Nateche, Meriam Amziane, Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Fairouz El-Aichar, Hassiba Khorf, Juan Ferré
This work represents the first initiative to analyze the distribution of B. thuringiensis in Algeria and to evaluate the biological potential of the isolates. A total of 157 isolates were recovered, with at least one isolate in 94.4% of the samples. The highest Bt index was found in samples from rhizospheric soil (0.48) and from the Mediterranean area (0.44). Most isolates showed antifungal activity (98.5%), in contrast to the few that had antibacterial activity (29.9%). A high genetic diversity was made evident by the finding of many different crystal shapes and various combinations of shapes within a single isolate (in 58...
April 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405468/cryptochrome-genes-form-an-oscillatory-loop-independent-of-the-per-tim-loop-in-the-circadian-clockwork-of-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#6
Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura, Kenji Tomioka
BACKGROUND: Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circadian clock, which consists of cyclically expressed clock genes and their product proteins. cryptochrome (cry) genes are thought to be involved in the clock mechanism, and their functions have been examined extensively in holometabolous insects, but in hemimetabolous insects their role is less well understood...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402850/fad-regulates-cryptochrome-protein-stability-and-circadian-clock-in-mice
#7
Arisa Hirano, Daniel Braas, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk), an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396831/cryptochrome-2-extensively-regulates-transcription-of-the-chloroplast-genome-in-tomato
#8
Paolo Facella, Fabrizio Carbone, Antonio Placido, Gaetano Perrotta
Light plays a key role in the regulation of many physiological processes required for plant and chloroplast development. Plant cryptochromes (crys) play an important role in monitoring, capturing, and transmitting the light stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CRY2 overexpression on transcription of tomato chloroplast genome by a tiling array, containing about 90 000 overlapping probes (5-nucleotide resolution). We profiled transcription in leaves of wild-type and CRY2-overexpressing plants grown in a diurnal cycle, to generate a comprehensive map of chloroplast transcription and to monitor potential specific modulations of the chloroplast transcriptome induced by the overexpression of CRY2...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392392/combining-transcriptomics-and-pbpk-modeling-indicates-a-primary-role-of-hypoxia-and-altered-circadian-signaling-in-dichloromethane-carcinogenicity-in-mouse-lung-and-liver
#9
Melvin E Andersen, Michael B Black, Jerry L Campbell, Salil N Pendse, Harvey J Clewell Iii, Lynn H Pottenger, James S Bus, Darol E Dodd, Daniel C Kemp, Patrick D McMullen
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a lung and liver carcinogen in mice at inhalation exposures≥2000ppm. The modes of action (MOA) of these responses have been attributed to formation of genotoxic, reactive metabolite(s). Here, we examined gene expression in lung and liver from female B6C3F1 mice exposed to 0, 100, 500, 2000, 3000 and 4000ppm DCM for 90days. We also simulated dose measures - rates of DCM oxidation to carbon monoxide (CO) in lung and liver and expected blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) time courses with a PBPK model inclusive of both conjugation and oxidation pathways...
April 6, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380384/clock-regulation-of-metabolites-reveals-coupling-between-transcription-and-metabolism
#10
Saikumari Y Krishnaiah, Gang Wu, Brian J Altman, Jacqueline Growe, Seth D Rhoades, Faith Coldren, Anand Venkataraman, Anthony O Olarerin-George, Lauren J Francey, Sarmistha Mukherjee, Saiveda Girish, Christopher P Selby, Sibel Cal, Ubeydullah Er, Bahareh Sianati, Arjun Sengupta, Ron C Anafi, I Halil Kavakli, Aziz Sancar, Joseph A Baur, Chi V Dang, John B Hogenesch, Aalim M Weljie
The intricate connection between the circadian clock and metabolism remains poorly understood. We used high temporal resolution metabolite profiling to explore clock regulation of mouse liver and cell-autonomous metabolism. In liver, ∼50% of metabolites were circadian, with enrichment of nucleotide, amino acid, and methylation pathways. In U2 OS cells, 28% were circadian, including amino acids and NAD biosynthesis metabolites. Eighteen metabolites oscillated in both systems and a subset of these in primary hepatocytes...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363189/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-photoreceptor-genes-in-kiwifruit-leaves-under-natural-daylength-conditions-and-their-relationship-with-other-genes-that-regulate-photoperiodic-flowering
#11
Yolanda Ferradás, Óscar Martínez, Manuel Rey, M Victoria González
Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A. Chev) A. Chev.) is a dioecious vine highly dependent on pollination, which is limited by a lack of synchrony of flowering time between male and female plants. In many plant species, the regulation of the timing of flowering depends largely on seasonal cues such as photoperiod, which is detected by photoreceptors. In this report, we determined the full sequences of the PHYB (AcPHYB) and PHYA (AcPHYA) genes and a partial sequence of the CRY2 (AcCRY2) gene in kiwifruit...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350992/expression-of-circadian-core-clock-genes-in-fibroblasts-of-human-gingiva-and-periodontal-ligament-is-modulated-by-l-mimosine-and-hypoxia-in-monolayer-and-spheroid-cultures
#12
Klara Janjić, Christoph Kurzmann, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
OBJECTIVE: The circadian clock is involved in a plethora of physiological processes including bone formation and tooth development. While expression of circadian core clock genes was observed in various tissues, their role in the periodontium is unclear. We hypothesized that periodontal cells express circadian core clock genes and that their levels are modulated by hypoxia mimetic agents and hypoxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fibroblasts of human gingiva (GF) and periodontal ligament (PDLF) in monolayer and spheroid cultures were treated with the hypoxia mimetic agent L-Mimosine (L-MIM) or hypoxia...
July 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335761/the-effects-of-jiao-tai-wan-on-sleep-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-resistant-rats-with-chronic-partial-sleep-deprivation
#13
Xin Zou, Wenya Huang, Fuer Lu, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shuyong Zhao, Jiming Jia, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Nan Wang, Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay...
March 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326728/-effect-of-clock-gene-per1-knockdown-on-clock-gene-networks-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Zhao Qin, Ao Yiran, Yang Kai, Su Xiaoli, Lü Xiaoqiang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of clock gene PER1 on the expression levels of other clock genes in clock gene networks in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. METHODS: We used RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to effectively knock down PER1 in SCC15 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the degree of proliferation and apoptosis of the cells after PER1 knockdown, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, PER3, DEC1, DEC2, CRY1, CRY2, TIM, CKIE, RORA, NPAS2, and REV-ERBA...
February 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324022/postnatal-ontogeny-of-the-circadian-expression-of-the-adrenal-clock-genes-and-corticosterone-rhythm-in-male-rats
#15
Silvia Liliana Ruiz Roa, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, Clarissa Silva Martins, Sonir Rauber Antonini, Margaret de Castro, Ayrton Custódio Moreira
The postnatal synchronization of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in mammals remains unknown. We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Rorα/Rev-Erbα) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its relationship with the emergence of plasma corticosterone rhythm using Cosinor analysis. Plasma corticosterone circadian rhythm was detected from postnatal day (P) P1, with morning acrophase, between zeitgeber time (ZT) ZT0 and ZT2...
January 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317486/abnormal-clock-gene-expression-and-locomotor-activity-rhythms-in-two-month-old-female-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#16
Olaide Oyegbami, Hilary M Collins, Marie C Pardon, Fran Jp Ebling, David M Heery, Paula M Moran
In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is also characterized by agitation and disruptions in activity and sleep. These symptoms typically occur in the evening or at night and have been referred to as 'sundowning'. These symptoms are especially difficult for carers and there are no specific drug treatments. There is increasing evidence that these symptoms reflect an underlying pathology of circadian rhythm generation and transmission. We investigated whether a transgenic mouse model relevant to AD (APPswe/PS1dE9) exhibits circadian alterations in locomotor activity and expression of clock genes involved in the regulation of the circadian cycle...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296937/effects-of-circadian-clock-genes-and-health-related-behavior-on-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-taiwanese-population-evidence-from-association-and-interaction-analysis
#17
Eugene Lin, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Yu-Li Liu, Albert C Yang, Chung-Feng Kao, Shih-Jen Tsai
Increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with the circadian clock genes. In this study, we assessed whether 29 circadian clock-related genes (including ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHE40, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, GSK3B, HCRTR2, KLF10, NFIL3, NPAS2, NR1D1, NR1D2, PER1, PER2, PER3, REV1, RORA, RORB, RORC, SENP3, SERPINE1, TIMELESS, TIPIN, VIP, and VIPR2) are associated with MetS and its individual components independently and/or through complex interactions in a Taiwanese population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293892/light-regulated-protein-kinases-based-on-the-cry2-cib1-system
#18
Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Maximilian Hörner, Wilfried Weber, Gerald Radziwill
Optogenetic approaches enable the control of biological processes in a time- and space-resolved manner. These light-based methods are noninvasive and by using light as sole activator minimize side effects in contrast to chemical inducers. Here, we provide a protocol for the targeted control of the activity of protein kinases in mammalian cells based on the photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) of Arabidopsis thaliana and its interaction partner CIB1. Blue light (450 nm)-induced binding of CRY2 to CIB1 allows the recruitment of a chimeric cytosolic protein kinase AKT1 to the plasma membrane accompanied with stimulation of its kinase activity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276525/regulation-of-molecular-clock-oscillations-and-phagocytic-activity-via-muscarinic-ca-2-signaling-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#19
Rina Ikarashi, Honami Akechi, Yuzuki Kanda, Alsawaf Ahmad, Kouhei Takeuchi, Eri Morioka, Takashi Sugiyama, Takashi Ebisawa, Masaaki Ikeda, Masayuki Ikeda
Vertebrate eyes are known to contain circadian clocks, however, the intracellular mechanisms regulating the retinal clockwork remain largely unknown. To address this, we generated a cell line (hRPE-YC) from human retinal pigmental epithelium, which stably co-expressed reporters for molecular clock oscillations (Bmal1-luciferase) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (YC3.6). The hRPE-YC cells demonstrated circadian rhythms in Bmal1 transcription. Also, these cells represented circadian rhythms in Ca(2+)-spiking frequencies, which were canceled by dominant-negative Bmal1 transfections...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272509/optogenetic-control-of-the-dab1-signaling-pathway
#20
Liang Wang, Jonathan A Cooper
The Reelin-Dab1 signaling pathway regulates development of the mammalian brain, including neuron migrations in various brain regions, as well as learning and memory in adults. Extracellular Reelin binds to cell surface receptors and activates phosphorylation of the intracellular Dab1 protein. Dab1 is required for most effects of Reelin, but Dab1-independent pathways may contribute. Here we developed a single-component, photoactivatable Dab1 (opto-Dab1) by using the blue light-sensitive dimerization/oligomerization property of A...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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