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Qin Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Xu Wang, Qing Liu, Lianfeng Gu, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light receptors that mediate light regulation of plant growth and development. Land plants possess various numbers of cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which serve overlapping and partially redundant functions in different plant species. Cryptochromes exist as physiologically inactive monomers in darkness; photoexcited cryptochromes undergo homodimerization to increase their affinity to the CRY-signaling proteins, such as CIBs (CRY2-interacting bHLH), PIFs (Phytochrome-Interacting Factors), AUX/IAA (Auxin/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID), and the COP1-SPAs (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 1-Suppressors of Phytochrome A) complexes...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yueming Yu, Yinghua Li, Lei Zhou, Gong Yang, Minghai Wang, Yang Hong
BACKGROUND Circadian disruption is a potential cancer risk factor in humans. However, the role of the clock gene, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), in osteosarcoma (OS) is still not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS To evaluate the potential role of CRY2 in HOS osteosarcoma cells, CRY2-silenced cell lines were established. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of CRY2 knockdown on HOS cells by CCK-8, colony formation, migration assay, and flow cytometry, in vitro. RESULTS CRY2 knockdown promoted HOS OS cell proliferation and migration...
June 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Martina Tetti, Isabella Castellano, Francesca Venziano, Corrado Magnino, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero, Silvia Monticone
Mice lacking the core-clock components, cryptochrome-1 (CRY1) and cryptochrome-2 (CRY2) display a phenotype of hyperaldosteronism, due to the upregulation of type VI 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( Hsd3b6 ), the murine counterpart to the human type I 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase ( HSD3B1 ) gene. In the present study, we evaluated the role of CRY1 and CRY2 genes, and their potential interplay with HSD3B isoforms in adrenal pathophysiology in man. Forty-six sporadic aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and 20 paired adrenal samples were included, with the human adrenocortical cells HAC15 used as the in vitro model...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chiara Agliassa, Ravishankar Narayana, John M Christie, Massimo E Maffei
The geomagnetic field (GMF) is an environmental element whose instability affects plant growth and development. Despite known plant responses to GMF direction and intensity, the mechanism of magnetoreception in plants is still not known. Magnetic field variations affect many light-dependent plant processes, suggesting that the magnetoreception could require light. The objective of this work was to comprehensively investigate the influence of GMF on Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) photoreceptor signaling. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings and photoreceptor-deficient mutants (cry1cry2, phot1, phyA and phyAphyB) were exposed to near null magnetic field (NNMF, ≤40 nT) and GMF (~43 μT) under darkness and different light wavelengths...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sheng Wang, Ling Li, Pengbo Xu, Hongli Lian, Wenxiu Wang, Feng Xu, Zhilei Mao, Ting Zhang, Hongquan Yang
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light photoreceptors that mediate various light responses in plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, there are two homologous CRYs, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. It is known that CRY2 interacts with CIB1, a bHLH transcriptional factor, to regulate transcription and floral induction. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified CIB1 as a CRY1-interacting protein. Moreover, we demonstrated that CRY1 physically interacted with the close homolog of CIB1, HBI1, which is known to act downstream of brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin acid (GA) signaling pathways to promote hypocotyl elongation, in a blue light-dependent manner...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ibrahim Abdul Kareem Al-Sarraf, Violet Kasabri, Amal Akour, Randa Naffa
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which increases the chances for future cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes. The underlying causes of MetS include overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and genetic factors. Our intension here was to focus in this study on the importance of the chronobiology, represented by melatonin (MT) and cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), in developing MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, we aimed to compare MT and CRY2 plasma levels and correlate both biomarkers with adiposity, atherogenicity and hematological indices in MetS and T2DM cohorts...
May 29, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Raida Zribi Zghal, Kais Ghedira, Jihen Elleuch, Marwa Kharrat, Slim Tounsi
BLB406 is a novel isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis with a larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae. It displays original plasmidic and crystal protein patterns. The present work reported molecular and bioinformatic analyses for the genome sequence of BLB406 using MiSeq Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. The reads were assembled by Velvet tool. Using RAST program and PGAAP the genome of BLB406 strain was shown to contain 6297 genes corresponding to 5924 protein coding sequences. The BLB406 genome investigation with BtToxin_scanner program shows that this strain has an original and different combination of toxins compared to the published ones: five cry genes (cry11, cry22, cry2, cry60, cry64) and two distinct vegetative insecticidal vip4 genes...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ivana Škrlec, Jakov Milic, Marija Heffer, Borut Peterlin, Jasenka Wagner
Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study on 200 patients hospitalized due to MI and 200 healthy controls, investigating the association between MI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four circadian genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, and PER2). The variants of all four genes were chosen based on their previously reported association with cardiovascular risk factors, which have a major influence on the occurrence of myocardial infarction...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Youngjoo Oh, Variluska Fragoso, Francesco Guzzonato, Sang-Gyu Kim, Chung-Mo Park, Ian T Baldwin
While photoreceptors are expressed throughout all plant organs, most studies have focused on their function in aerial parts with laboratory-grown plants. Photoreceptor function in naturally dark-grown roots of plants in their native habitats are lacking. We characterized patterns of photoreceptor expression in field- and glasshouse-grown Nicotiana attenuata plants, silenced the expression of PhyB1/B2/A/Cry2 whose root transcripts levels were greater/equal to those of shoots, and by micrografting combined empty vector transformed shoots onto photoreceptor-silenced roots, creating chimeric plants with "blind" roots but "sighted" shoots...
May 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Rianne van der Spek, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Andries Kalsbeek
White adipose tissue (WAT) is present in different depots throughout the body. Although all depots are exposed to systemic humoral signals, they are not functionally identical. Studies in clock gene knockout animals and in shift workers suggest that daily rhythmicity may play an important role in lipid metabolism. Differences in rhythmicity between fat depots might explain differences in depot function; therefore, we measured mRNA expression of clock genes and metabolic genes on a 3-h interval over a 24-h period in the subcutaneous inguinal depot and in the intra-abdominal perirenal, epididymal, and mesenteric depots of male Wistar rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Frederico Sander Mansur Machado, Zhi Zhang, Yan Su, Paul de Goede, Remi Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Andries Kalsbeek
Background: Daily cyclic changes in environmental conditions are key signals for anticipatory and adaptive adjustments of most living species, including mammals. Lower ambient temperature stimulates the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. Given that the molecular components of the endogenous biological clock interact with thermal and metabolic mechanisms directly involved in the defense of body temperature, the present study evaluated the differential homeostatic responses to a cold stimulus at distinct time-windows of the light/dark-cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ardahan Eski, İsmail Demir, Mustafa Güllü, Zihni Demirbağ
In order to find an effective and environmentally friendly biocontrol agent against Spodoptera exigua, we isolated and identified a total of 15 different bacterial species belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. According to the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic properties, bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus (Se1), Lysinibacillus macroides (Se2), Pseudomonas geniculata (Se3), Paenibacillus tylopili (Se4), Staphylococcus succinus (Se5), Acinetobacter soli (Se6), Chryseobacterium indologenes (Se7), Bacillus toyonensis (Se8), Serratia marcescens (Se9), Paenibacillus amylolyticus (Se10), Paenibacillus xylanexedens (Se11), Enterobacter ludwigii (Se12), Bacillus thuringiensis (Se13), Bacillus thuringiensis (Se14) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (Se15)...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Craig C Brelsford, Luis O Morales, Jakub Nezval, Titta K Kotilainen, Saara M Hartikainen, Pedro J Aphalo, T Matthew Robson
We studied how plants acclimated to growing conditions that included combinations of blue light and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, and whether their growing environment affected their photosynthetic capacity during and after a brief period of acute high light (as might happen during an under-canopy sunfleck). Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta wild-type were compared with mutants lacking functional blue-light-and-UV photoreceptors: phototropin 1PHOT1, cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) and UV RESISTANT LOCUS 8 (uvr8)...
April 28, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Mariana Schroeder, Mira Jakovcevski, Tamar Polacheck, Yonat Drori, Alessia Luoni, Simone Röh, Jonas Zaugg, Shifra Ben-Dor, Christiane Albrecht, Alon Chen
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a devastating eating disorder characterized by self-starvation that mainly affects women. Its etiology is unknown, which impedes successful treatment options leading to a limited chance of full recovery. Here, we show that gestation is a vulnerable window that can influence the predisposition to AN. By screening placental microRNA expression of naive and prenatally stressed (PNS) fetuses and assessing vulnerability to activity-based anorexia (ABA), we identify miR-340 as a sexually dimorphic regulator involved in prenatal programming of ABA...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Yuki Takeuchi, Ryo Kabutomori, Chihiro Yamauchi, Hitomi Miyagi, Akihiro Takemura, Keiko Okano, Toshiyuki Okano
Goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, inhabits tropical and subtropical waters and synchronizes its spawning around the first quarter moon likely using an hourglass-like lunar timer. In previous studies, we have found that clock genes (Cryptochrome3 and Period1) could play the role of state variable in the diencephalon when determining the lunar phase for spawning. Here, we identified three Cry, two Per, two Clock, and two Bmal genes in S. guttatus and investigated their expression patterns in the diencephalon and pituitary gland...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patrick O'Brien, Rhys Hewett, Christopher Corpe
Distributed along the length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are nutrient sensing cells that release numerous signalling peptides influencing GI function, nutrient homeostasis and energy balance. Recent studies have shown a diurnal rhythm in GI nutrient sensing, but the mechanisms responsible for rhythmicity are poorly understood. In this report we studied murine GI sugar sensor gene and protein expression levels in the morning (7am) and evening (7pm). Sweet taste receptor (tas1r2/tas1r3/gnat3/ gnat1) sugar transporter (slc5a1, slc2a2, slc2a5) and putative sugar sensor (slc5a4a and slc5a4b) gene expression levels were highest in tongue, proximal and distal small intestine, respectively...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Amanda R Liberman, Lumbardh Halitjaha, Ahmet Ay, Krista K Ingram
Anxiety and other mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD), affect nearly one-fifth of the global population and disproportionately affect young adults. Individuals affected by mood disorders are frequently plagued by sleep and circadian problems, and recent genetic studies provide ample support for the association of circadian and sleep syndromes with depression and anxiety. Mathematical modeling has been crucial in understanding some of the essential features of the mammalian circadian clock and is now a vital tool for dissecting how circadian genes regulate the molecular mechanisms that influence mood...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Long Mei, Yanyan Fan, Xiaohua Lv, David K Welsh, Cheng Zhan, Eric Erquan Zhang
Endogenous circadian clocks control 24-h physiological and behavioral rhythms in mammals. Here, we report a real-time in vivo fluorescence recording system that enables long-term monitoring of circadian rhythms in the brains of freely moving mice. With a designed reporter of circadian clock gene expression, we tracked robust Cry1 transcription reporter rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of WT, Cry1 -/- , and Cry2 -/- mice in LD (12 h light, 12 h dark) and DD (constant darkness) conditions and verified that signals remained stable for over 6 mo...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Atticus Pinzon-Rodriguez, Staffan Bensch, Rachel Muheim
The light-dependent magnetic compass of birds provides orientation information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina, and be mediated by a light-induced, biochemical radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as putative receptor molecules. At the same time, cryptochromes are known for their role in the negative feedback loop in the circadian clock. We measured gene expression of Cry1, Cry2 and Cry4 in the retina, muscle and brain of zebra finches over the circadian day to assess whether they showed any circadian rhythmicity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Anna Angelousi, Eva Kassi, Narjes Nasiri-Ansari, Martin O Weickert, Harpal Randeva, Gregory Kaltsas
BACKGROUND: Various endocrine signals oscillate over the 24-hour period and so does the responsiveness of target tissues. These daily oscillations do not occur solely in response to external stimuli but are also under the control of an intrinsic circadian clock. DESIGN: We searched the PubMed database to identify studies describing the associations of clock genes with endocrine diseases. RESULTS: Various human single nucleotide polymorphisms of brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) and Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) genes exhibited significant associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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