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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683290/cry1-2-selectively-repress-ppar%C3%AE-and-limit-exercise-capacity
#1
Sabine D Jordan, Anna Kriebs, Megan Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Weiwei Fan, Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan Afetian, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Anastasia Kralli, Ronald M Evans, Katja A Lamia
Cellular metabolite balance and mitochondrial function are under circadian control, but the pathways connecting the molecular clock to these functions are unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) enables preferential utilization of lipids as fuel during exercise and is a major driver of exercise endurance. We show here that the circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 function as co-repressors for PPARδ. Cry1(-/-);Cry2(-/-) myotubes and muscles exhibit elevated expression of PPARδ target genes, particularly in the context of exercise...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674930/trojan-horse-strategy-for-non-invasive-interference-of-clock-gene-in-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#2
Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Anjara Marcel, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Damien Tran
RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene...
July 3, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674733/micrornas-modulate-core-clock-gene-expression-in-pancreatic-islets-during-early-postnatal-life-in-rats
#3
Cécile Jacovetti, Adriana Rodriguez-Trejo, Claudiane Guay, Jonathan Sobel, Sonia Gattesco, Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Charna Dibner, Romano Regazzi
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence continues to emerge detailing a fine-tuning of the regulation of metabolic processes and energy homeostasis by cell-autonomous circadian clocks. Pancreatic beta cell functional maturation occurs after birth and implies transcriptional changes triggered by a shift in the nutritional supply that occurs at weaning, enabling the adaptation of insulin secretion. So far, the developmental timing and exact mechanisms involved in the initiation of the circadian clock in the growing pancreatic islets have never been addressed...
July 4, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654043/light-mediated-reversible-modulation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-during-cell-differentiation-and-xenopus-embryonic-development
#4
Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Aurora J Turgeon, John S Khamo, Payel Mondal, Savanna R Sharum, Wenyan Mei, Jing Yang, Kai Zhang
Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650669/visceral-adiposity-and-expression-of-clock-genes-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-a-pilot-study
#5
Sue Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Hyun-Ki Park, John A Linton, Ji-Won Lee, Hyangkyu Lee
Increasing evidence suggests a close interrelationship between disrupted circadian rhythms and obesity and metabolic disturbances. In particular, abdominal obesity, which contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease, is associated with disrupted clock gene expression. However, little is known about the relationship between clock gene expression and accurate computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of visceral adiposity. Therefore, we examined the relationship between expression of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in 75 healthy overweight or obese individuals...
June 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649558/characterization-of-lepidopteran-specific-cry1-and-cry2-gene-harbouring-native-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-toxic-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#6
Showkat Ahmad Lone, Abdul Malik, Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides are feasible alternatives to chemical pesticides. Here, we present the distribution of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 genes in native B. thuringiensis. Forty four out of 86 colonies were found to harbour crystals by phase contrast microscopy exhibiting a Bt index of 0.51. PCR analysis resulted in the amplification of cry1 in 24 and cry2 in 14 isolates. Twelve of the isolates showed presence of both cry1 and cry2, while 18 isolates did not show presence of either of the genes...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646204/optogenetic-protein-clustering-through-fluorescent-protein-tagging-and-extension-of-cry2
#7
Hyerim Park, Na Yeon Kim, Sangkyu Lee, Nury Kim, Jihoon Kim, Won Do Heo
Protein homo-oligomerization is an important molecular mechanism in many biological processes. Therefore, the ability to control protein homo-oligomerization allows the manipulation and interrogation of numerous cellular events. To achieve this, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently utilized for blue light-dependent spatiotemporal control of protein homo-oligomerization. However, limited knowledge on molecular characteristics of CRY2 obscures its widespread applications. Here, we identify important determinants for efficient cryptochrome 2 clustering and introduce a new CRY2 module, named ''CRY2clust'', to induce rapid and efficient homo-oligomerization of target proteins by employing diverse fluorescent proteins and an extremely short peptide...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633330/the-asparagine-rich-protein-nrp-interacts-with-the-verticillium-effector-pevd1-and-regulates-the-subcellular-localization-of-cryptochrome-2
#8
Ruimin Zhou, Tong Zhu, Lei Han, Mengjie Liu, Mengyuan Xu, Yanli Liu, Dandan Han, Dewen Qiu, Qingqiu Gong, Xinqi Liu
The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants including cotton, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. Among the effector proteins secreted by V. dahliae, the 16 kDa PevD1 induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco. Here we report the high-resolution structure of PevD1 with folds resembling a C2 domain-like structure with a calcium ion bound to the C-terminal acidic pocket. A yeast two-hybrid screen, designed to probe for molecular functions of PevD1, identified Arabidopsis asparagine-rich protein (NRP) as the interacting partner of PevD1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588500/temporal-expression-patterns-of-clock-genes-and-aquaporin-5-anoctamin-1-in-rat-submandibular-gland-cells
#9
Ryouichi Satou, Masaki Sato, Maki Kimura, Yoichi Ishizuka, Masakazu Tazaki, Naoki Sugihara, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
Circadian rhythms are essential for health and regulate various physiological functions. These rhythms are regulated by a negative-feedback loop involving clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral tissues. The rate of secretion of salivary substances, ions, and water follows a circadian rhythm, however, the relationship between the molecular mechanism of salivary secretion and peripheral circadian rhythm is not yet clear. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A) and Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) play an important role in the transport of ions and water in the submandibular glands (SGs)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579430/cry2-is-suppressed-by-foxm1-mediated-promoter-hypermethylation-in-breast-cancer
#10
Lingling Liu, Hong Shen, Yang Wang
Loss of CRY2 confers aggressive phenotypes to breast cancer. However, the mechanism of its downregulation and its prognostic value in breast cancer are still not clear. Our data mining in TCGA breast cancer cohort (TCGA-BRCA) showed that the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had the highest CRY2 expression, while the basal-like subtype had the lowest CRY2 expression. The ER+ group had significantly higher CRY2 expression than the ER- group. Demethylation treatment using 5-AZA-dC significantly restored CRY2 expression in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells...
June 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576334/diversity-and-distribution-of-lepidopteran-specific-toxin-genes-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-from-argentina
#11
Diego H Sauka, Graciela B Benintende
A total of 268 Bacillus thuringiensis strains obtained from different sources of Argentina were analyzed to determine the diversity and distribution of the cry1, cry2, cry8, cry9 and vip3A genes encoding for lepidopteran-specific insecticidal proteins. Twin strains were excluded. Ten different profiles were detected among the 80 selected B. thuringiensis strains. Two of these profiles (cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and vip3Aa (35/80), and cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and vip3Aa (25/80)) pooled 75% of the strains...
May 30, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492234/molecular-basis-for-blue-light-dependent-phosphorylation-of-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#12
Qing Liu, Qin Wang, Weixian Deng, Xu Wang, Mingxin Piao, Dawei Cai, Yaxing Li, William D Barshop, Xiaolan Yu, Tingting Zhou, Bin Liu, Yoshito Oka, James Wohlschlegel, Zecheng Zuo, Chentao Lin
Plant cryptochromes undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation to regulate their activity and abundance, but the protein kinases that phosphorylate plant cryptochromes have remained unclear. Here we show that photoexcited Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is phosphorylated in vivo on as many as 24 different residues, including 7 major phosphoserines. We demonstrate that four closely related Photoregulatory Protein Kinases (previously referred to as MUT9-like kinases) interact with and phosphorylate photoexcited CRY2...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486525/hypothesis-driven-single-cell-dual-oscillator-mathematical-model-of-circadian-rhythms
#13
Shiju S, K Sriram
Molecular mechanisms responsible for 24 h circadian oscillations, entrainment to external cues, encoding of day length and the time-of-day effects have been well studied experimentally. However, it is still debated from the molecular network point of view whether each cell in suprachiasmatic nuclei harbors two molecular oscillators, where one tracks dawn and the other tracks dusk activities. A single cell dual morning and evening oscillator was proposed by Daan et al., based on the molecular network that has two sets of similar non-redundant per1/cry1 and per2/cry2 circadian genes and each can independently maintain their endogenous oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467358/expression-of-root-genes-in-arabidopsis-seedlings-grown-by-standard-and-improved-growing-methods
#14
Yanli Qu, Shuai Liu, Wenlong Bao, Xian Xue, Zhengwen Ma, Ken Yokawa, František Baluška, Yinglang Wan
Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in the laboratory using the traditional plant-growing culture system (TPG) were covered to maintain them in darkness. This new method is based on a dark chamber and is named the improved plant-growing method (IPG). We measured the light conditions in dark chambers, and found that the highest light intensity was dramatically reduced deeper in the dark chamber. In the bottom and side parts of dark chambers, roots were almost completely shaded. Using the high-throughput RNA sequencing method on the whole RNA extraction from roots, we compared the global gene expression levels in roots of seedlings from these two conditions and identified 141 differently expressed genes (DEGs) between them...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431041/bidirectional-approaches-for-optogenetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-mammalian-cells-using-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#15
Gopal P Pathak, Jessica I Spiltoir, Camilla Höglund, Lauren R Polstein, Sari Heine-Koskinen, Charles A Gersbach, Jari Rossi, Chandra L Tucker
Optogenetic tools allow regulation of cellular processes with light, which can be delivered with spatiotemporal resolution. In previous work, we used cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and CIB1, Arabidopsis proteins that interact upon light illumination, to regulate transcription with light in yeast. While adopting this approach to regulate transcription in mammalian cells, we observed light-dependent redistribution and clearing of CRY2-tethered proteins within the nucleus. The nuclear clearing phenotype was dependent on the presence of a dimerization domain contained within the CRY2-fused transcriptional activators...
April 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406460/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-the-entomocidal-potential-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-from-algeria
#16
Zahia Djenane, Farida Nateche, Meriam Amziane, Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Fairouz El-Aichar, Hassiba Khorf, Juan Ferré
This work represents the first initiative to analyze the distribution of B. thuringiensis in Algeria and to evaluate the biological potential of the isolates. A total of 157 isolates were recovered, with at least one isolate in 94.4% of the samples. The highest Bt index was found in samples from rhizospheric soil (0.48) and from the Mediterranean area (0.44). Most isolates showed antifungal activity (98.5%), in contrast to the few that had antibacterial activity (29.9%). A high genetic diversity was made evident by the finding of many different crystal shapes and various combinations of shapes within a single isolate (in 58...
April 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405468/cryptochrome-genes-form-an-oscillatory-loop-independent-of-the-per-tim-loop-in-the-circadian-clockwork-of-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#17
Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura, Kenji Tomioka
BACKGROUND: Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circadian clock, which consists of cyclically expressed clock genes and their product proteins. cryptochrome (cry) genes are thought to be involved in the clock mechanism, and their functions have been examined extensively in holometabolous insects, but in hemimetabolous insects their role is less well understood...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402850/fad-regulates-cryptochrome-protein-stability-and-circadian-clock-in-mice
#18
Arisa Hirano, Daniel Braas, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk), an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396831/cryptochrome-2-extensively-regulates-transcription-of-the-chloroplast-genome-in-tomato
#19
Paolo Facella, Fabrizio Carbone, Antonio Placido, Gaetano Perrotta
Light plays a key role in the regulation of many physiological processes required for plant and chloroplast development. Plant cryptochromes (crys) play an important role in monitoring, capturing, and transmitting the light stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CRY2 overexpression on transcription of tomato chloroplast genome by a tiling array, containing about 90 000 overlapping probes (5-nucleotide resolution). We profiled transcription in leaves of wild-type and CRY2-overexpressing plants grown in a diurnal cycle, to generate a comprehensive map of chloroplast transcription and to monitor potential specific modulations of the chloroplast transcriptome induced by the overexpression of CRY2...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392392/combining-transcriptomics-and-pbpk-modeling-indicates-a-primary-role-of-hypoxia-and-altered-circadian-signaling-in-dichloromethane-carcinogenicity-in-mouse-lung-and-liver
#20
Melvin E Andersen, Michael B Black, Jerry L Campbell, Salil N Pendse, Harvey J Clewell Iii, Lynn H Pottenger, James S Bus, Darol E Dodd, Daniel C Kemp, Patrick D McMullen
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a lung and liver carcinogen in mice at inhalation exposures≥2000ppm. The modes of action (MOA) of these responses have been attributed to formation of genotoxic, reactive metabolite(s). Here, we examined gene expression in lung and liver from female B6C3F1 mice exposed to 0, 100, 500, 2000, 3000 and 4000ppm DCM for 90days. We also simulated dose measures - rates of DCM oxidation to carbon monoxide (CO) in lung and liver and expected blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) time courses with a PBPK model inclusive of both conjugation and oxidation pathways...
April 6, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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