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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351615/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-computed-tomography-and-computed-tomography-angiography-in-prosthetic-heart-valve-endocarditis-from-guidelines-to-clinical-practice
#1
Laurens E Swart, Asbjørn M Scholtens, Wilco Tanis, Koen Nieman, Ad J J C Bogers, Fred J Verzijlbergen, Gabriel P Krestin, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Ricardo P J Budde
The timely diagnosis of prosthetic heart valve endocarditis remains challenging yet of utmost importance. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) and cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) were recently introduced as additional diagnostic tools in the most recent ESC guidelines on infective endocarditis. However, how to interpret PET/CT findings with regard to what is to be considered abnormal, what the potential confounders may be, as well as which patients benefit most from these additional imaging techniques and how to best perform them in these often-complex patients, remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351515/understanding-key-mechanisms-of-exercise-induced-cardiac-protection-to-mitigate-disease-current-knowledge-and-emerging-concepts
#2
Bianca C Bernardo, Jenny Y Y Ooi, Kate L Weeks, Natalie L Patterson, Julie R McMullen
The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351371/implementation-of-standardized-clinical-processes-for-tpmt-testing-in-a-diverse-multidisciplinary-population-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#3
Kristin W Weitzel, D Max Smith, Amanda R Elsey, Benjamin Q Duong, Benjamin Burkley, Michael Clare-Salzler, Yan Gong, Tara A Higgins, Benjamin Kong, Taimour Langaee, Caitrin W McDonough, Benjamin J Staley, Teresa T Vo, Dyson T Wake, Larisa H Cavallari, Julie A Johnson
Although thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genotyping to guide thiopurine dosing is common in the pediatric cancer population, limited data exist on TPMT testing implementation in diverse, multidisciplinary settings. We established TPMT testing (genotype and enzyme) with clinical decision support, provider/patient education, and pharmacist consultations in a tertiary medical center and collected data over 3 years. During this time, 834 patients underwent 873 TPMT tests (147 (17%) genotype, 726 (83%) enzyme)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351341/labeling-for-big-data-in-radiation-oncology-the-radiation-oncology-structures-ontology
#4
Jean-Emmanuel Bibault, Eric Zapletal, Bastien Rance, Philippe Giraud, Anita Burgun
PURPOSE: Leveraging Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Oncology Information Systems (OIS) has great potential to generate hypotheses for cancer treatment, since they directly provide medical data on a large scale. In order to gather a significant amount of patients with a high level of clinical details, multicenter studies are necessary. A challenge in creating high quality Big Data studies involving several treatment centers is the lack of semantic interoperability between data sources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351145/recent-evidence-on-early-mobilization-in-critical-ill-patients
#5
Kristina Fuest, Stefan J Schaller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the benefits of early mobilization and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies examining early mobilization in critically ill patients followed by a presentation of recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Early mobilization of ICU patients, defined as mobilization within 72 h of ICU admission, is still uncommon. In medical and surgical critically ill patients, mobilization is well tolerated even in intubated patients...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351133/using-clinical-questions-asked-by-primary-care-providers-through-econsults-to-inform-continuing-professional-development
#6
Douglas Archibald, Clare Liddy, Heather A Lochnan, Paul J Hendry, Erin J Keely
INTRODUCTION: Continuing professional development (CPD) offerings should address the educational needs of health care providers. Innovative programs, such as electronic consultations (eConsults), provide unique educational opportunities for practice-based needs assessment. The purpose of this study is to assess whether CPD offerings match the needs of physicians by coding and comparing session content to clinical questions asked through eConsults. METHODS: This study analyzes questions asked by primary care providers between July 2011 and January 2015 using a service that allows specialists to provide consultation over a secure web-based server...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351125/central-inhibition-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-is-analgesic-in-experimental-neuropathic-pain
#7
Louise S C Nicol, Peter Thornton, Jon P Hatcher, Colin P Glover, Carl I Webster, Matthew Burrell, Kessia Hammett, Clare A Jones, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew Billinton, Iain Chessell
With less than 50% of patients responding to the current standard of care and poor efficacy and selectivity of current treatments, neuropathic pain continues to be an area of considerable unmet medical need. Biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide better intrinsic selectivity; however, delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is well described in inflammation-induced pain, and early-phase clinical trials evaluating its antagonism have exemplified its importance as a peripheral pain target...
January 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351121/serum-immunoglobulin-g4-in-discriminating-autoimmune-pancreatitis-from-pancreatic-cancer-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis
#8
Cong Dai, Qin Cao, Min Jiang, Ming-Jun Sun
OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is a clinical challenge. Emerging published data on the accuracy of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) for the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC are inconsistent. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the clinical utility of serum IgG4 in the differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of multiple electronic databases...
January 18, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351004/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dmd-an-updated-review-of-common-available-therapies
#9
Arash Salmaninejad, Saeed Farajzadeh Valilou, Hadi Bayat, Nader Ebadi, Abdolreza Daraei, Meysam Yousefi, Abolfazl Nesaei, Majid Mojarrad
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal progressive pediatric muscle disorder and genetically inherited as an X-linked disease that caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD leads to progressive muscle weakness, degeneration, and wasting; finally, follows with the premature demise in affected individual's due to respiratory and/or cardiac failure typically by age of 30. For decades, scientists tried massively to find an effective therapy method, but there is no absolute cure currently for patients with DMD, nevertheless, recent advanced progressions on the treatment of DMD will be hopeful in the future...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350777/the-pathology-of-lumbosacral-lipomas-macroscopic-and-microscopic-disparity-have-implications-for-embryogenesis-and-mode-of-clinical-deterioration
#10
Victoria Jones, Victoria Wykes, Nicki Cohen, Dominic Thompson, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: Lumbosacral lipomas (LSL) are congenital disorders of the terminal spinal cord region that have the potential to cause significant spinal cord dysfunction in children. They are of unknown embryogenesis with variable clinical presentation and natural history. It is unclear whether the spinal cord dysfunction reflects a primary developmental dysplasia or whether it occurs secondarily to mechanical traction (spinal cord tethering) with growth. Whilst different anatomical subtypes are recognised and classified according to radiological criteria, these subtypes correlate poorly with clinical prognosis...
January 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350747/low-semen-quality-and-experiences-of-masculinity-and-family-building
#11
Randi Sylvest, Jeanette Krogh Fürbringer, Anja Pinborg, Emily Koert, Jeanette Bogstad, Kristine Loessl, Lisbeth Praetorius, Lone Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Infertility is a concern for men and women.There is limited knowledge on how male factor infertility affects the couple in fertility treatment. The aim of this study was to explore how severe male factor infertility affects men's sense of masculinity, the couple's relationship and intentions about family formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interview study at the Fertility Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark...
January 19, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350642/acute-and-overuse-elbow-trauma-radio-orthopaedics-overview
#12
Elisabetta Antonia Nocerino, Davide Cucchi, Paolo Arrigoni, Marco Brioschi, Cristiano Fusi, Eugenio A Genovese, Carmelo Messina, Pietro Randelli, Carlo Masciocchi, Alberto Aliprandi
The correct management of acute, subacute and overuse-related elbow pathologies represents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. While major trauma frequently requires a rapid surgical intervention, subluxation and minor trauma allow taking more time for diagnostics and planning the correct elective treatment after careful clinical and radiological investigation. In these conditions, communication between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist allow to create a detailed radiology report, tailored to the patient's and surgeon's needs and optimal to plan proper management...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350640/scapular-fractures-a-common-diagnostic-pitfall
#13
Daniela Berritto, Antonio Pinto, Anna Russo, Fabrizio Urraro, Antonella Laporta, Maria Paola Belfiore, Roberto Grassi
Scapular fractures are one of the most difficult fractures to diagnose on radiographs. Detection can be challenging because of the obscuration by the overlying structures or incomplete imaging due to difficult patient collaboration. Familiarity with imaging characteristics of these abnormalities will allow radiologists to better diagnose and characterize scapular fractures. Three-dimensional computed tomographic scans are considered the gold standard for scapular diagnoses. Treatment strategies differ depending on the type of scapular fractures, but the site and degree of displacement will determine whether surgical intervention should be considered...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350638/weight-bearing-mri-of-the-knee-a-review-of-advantages-and-limits
#14
Federico Bruno, Antonio Barile, Francesco Arrigoni, Antonella Laporta, Anna Russo, Marina Carotti, Alessandra Splendiani, Ernesto Di Cesare, Carlo Masciocchi
Standard knee imaging with MRI is usually performed with patient in recumbent position under non-weight-bearing conditions. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging systems to scan the knee joint under weight bearing conditions has been proposed as an approach to improve the clinical utility of musculoskeletal MRI. Imaging under loading can be useful to understand the natural motion behavior of the knee joint and to identify conditions that are challenging to diagnose by using standard position. We reviewed the literature on weight-bearing MR imaging of the knee to describe the current state of use of such MRI technologies, evaluating the advantages and the potential limitations of these technologies...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350558/synbiotics-for-improved-human-health-recent-developments-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Janina A Krumbeck, Jens Walter, Robert W Hutkins
Research on combining pro- and prebiotics as synbiotics to enhance human and animal health has accelerated in the past 10 years, including many clinical trials that have assessed a diverse range of synbiotic formulations. In this review, we summarize these studies as well as the commercial applications of synbiotics that are available. In particular, we critically assess the claimed health benefits of synbiotic applications and the ecological and therapeutic factors to consider when designing synbiotics and discuss the implications of these concepts for future research in this fiel Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 9 is March 25, 2018...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350495/the-current-landscape-of-3d-in-vitro-tumor-models-what-cancer-hallmarks-are-accessible-for-drug-discovery
#16
REVIEW
Darren Rodenhizer, Teresa Dean, Elisa D'Arcangelo, Alison P McGuigan
Cancer prognosis remains a lottery dependent on cancer type, disease stage at diagnosis, and personal genetics. While investment in research is at an all-time high, new drugs are more likely to fail in clinical trials today than in the 1970s. In this review, a summary of current survival statistics in North America is provided, followed by an overview of the modern drug discovery process, classes of models used throughout different stages, and challenges associated with drug development efficiency are highlighted...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350435/from-micro-to-macro-structures-in-multiple-sclerosis-what-is-the-added-value-of-diffusion-imaging
#17
Mara Cercignani, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
Diffusion imaging has been instrumental in understanding damage to the central nervous system as a result of its sensitivity to microstructural changes. Clinical applications of diffusion imaging have grown exponentially over the past couple of decades in many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For several reasons, MS has been extensively researched using advanced neuroimaging techniques, which makes it an 'example disease' to illustrate the potential of diffusion imaging for clinical applications...
January 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#18
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350199/cortical-visual-prostheses-from-microstimulation-to-functional-percept
#19
Armin Najarpour Foroushani, Christopher Pack, Mohamad Sawan
Cortical visual prostheses are intended to restore vision by targeted electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. The perception of spots of light, called phosphenes, resulting from microstimulation of the visual pathway, suggests the possibility of creating meaningful percept made of phosphenes. However, to date electrical stimulation of V1 has still not resulted in perception of phosphenated images that goes beyond punctate spots of light. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental progress that has been made in generating phosphenes and modulating their associated perceptual characteristics in human and macaque primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350049/targeted-and-off-target-bystander-and-abscopal-effects-of-radiation-therapy-redox-mechanisms-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#20
Jean-Pierre Pouget, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Jean-Luc Ravanat
Radiation therapy (from external beams to unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources) takes advantage of the detrimental effects of the clustered production of radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Research has mainly focused on the interaction of radiation with water, which is the major constituent of living beings, and with nuclear DNA, which contains the genetic information. This led to the so-called "target" theory according to which cells have to be hit by ionizing particles to elicit an important biological response, including cell death...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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