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Civil war medicine

Benjamin Goldberg
The generation of animals was a difficult phenomenon to explain in the seventeenth century, having long been a problem in natural philosophy, theology, and medicine. In this paper, I explore how generation, understood as epigenesis, was directly related to an idea of rational nature. I examine epigenesis-the idea that the embryo was constructed part-by-part, over time-in the work of two seemingly dissimilar English philosophers: William Harvey, an eclectic Aristotelian, and Margaret Cavendish, a radical materialist...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Bob Simpson
This article outlines the development of IVF in Sri Lanka from the first successful births in the late 1990s and over the subsequent 15 years. It is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out at various points during this period. The piece focuses on the challenges entailed in achieving regulation of the new reproductive technologies against a backdrop of: (i) a bitter civil war; (ii) a complex mosaic of different religious traditions (specifically, Buddhism, Catholicism, Hinduism and Islam); and (iii) a shift towards neo-liberal marketization, particularly in relation to specialist and hi-tech medical interventions...
June 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Nebiye Yentür Doni, Mustafa Aksoy, Zeynep Şimşek, Gülcan Gürses, Neşe Gül Hilali, Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek, Behire Özek, Gökhan Yıldırımkaya
Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
İbrahim Ömer Barlas, Orhan Sezgin, Collet Dandara, Gözde Türköz, Emre Yengel, Zinhle Cindi, Handan Ankaralı, Semra Şardaş
Pharmacogenomics harnesses the utility of a patient's genome (n = 1) in decisions on which therapeutic drugs and in what amounts should be administered. Often, patients with shared ancestry present with comparable genetic profiles that predict drug response. However, populations are not static, thus, often, population mobility through migration, especially enmasse as is seen for refugees, changes the pharmacogenetic profiles of resultant populations and therefore observed responses to commonly used therapeutic drugs...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Frank W Stahnisch
A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
François Boller, Daniel Birnbaum
With few exceptions, neurology was nonexistent in the United States until the Civil War years. From 1861 to 1865, the United States saw a bitter armed conflict between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederate States or Confederacy), and during those years, neurology was born in the United States. In 1861, Silas Weir Mitchell, together with George Morehouse and William Keen, opened and operated the first neurological hospital in Philadelphia, with the backing of the Surgeon General William Hammond...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Robert F Reilly
This review describes medical and surgical care during the American Civil War. This era is often referred to in a negative way as the Middle Ages of medicine in the United States. Many misconceptions exist regarding the quality of care during the war. It is commonly believed that surgery was often done without anesthesia, that many unnecessary amputations were done, and that care was not state of the art for the times. None of these assertions is true. Physicians were practicing in an era before the germ theory of disease was established, before sterile technique and antisepsis were known, with very few effective medications, and often operating 48 to 72 hours with no sleep...
April 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Mark Derby, David Jorge
Catalan surgeon Moisès Broggi entered medical practice in 1931 as Spain was modernizing rapidly. Five years later, however, an attempted military coup sparked a nationwide civil war. Broggi offered his services to the embattled Republic and joined the Medical Service of the International Brigades. He served alongside colleagues from many countries, helping to develop advances in military medicine and especially trauma surgery. Broggi chose to remain working in Barcelona as Franco's Nationalist forces entered the city, in spite of the risk of reprisal he faced as a former officer of the International Brigades...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Sedat Hakimoglu, Murat Karcıoglu, Kasım Tuzcu, Isıl Davarcı, Onur Koyuncu, İsmail Dikey, Selim Turhanoglu, Ali Sarı, Mehmet Acıpayam, Celalettin Karatepe
BACKGROUND: Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given...
November 2015: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Sedat Hakimoglu, Murat Karcıoglu, Kasım Tuzcu, Isıl Davarcı, Onur Koyuncu, İsmail Dikey, Selim Turhanoglu, Ali Sarı, Mehmet Acıpayam, Celalettin Karatepe
BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given...
November 2015: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
David A Butler, Thomas P Baker
The Department of Defense's Joint Pathology Center (JPC) is the world's largest collection of human pathology specimens, comprising some 7.4 million accessions. The biorepository, which began during the Civil War as a collection of materials obtained from medical and surgical procedures performed by Army physicians, houses specimens and associated data obtained for diagnostic purposes. It also holds several collections of specimens from military personnel who shared a common, service-related exposure or medical condition...
October 2015: Military Medicine
Martina Siwek
The collection, storage, and distribution of biological materials for research and improving health have been employed for more than a century. Biorepositories have been used to maintain and reallocate these specimens. Historically, the Department of Defense (DoD) has been maintaining biorepositories and using the materials stored to expand our understanding of diseases and for developing medical countermeasures since the Civil War. Other U.S. Government and nongovernmental organizations are also engaged in curating human and other samples for future studies, as are organizations in other countries...
October 2015: Military Medicine
Si Jack Chong, Lei Jiang, Wei-En Chow
The emphasis of naval operations has shifted from conventional naval warfare since World War II to Operations Other than War such as Peace Support Operations and Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief. Maritime forces are increasingly deployed in distant areas of operations such as the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden for longer durations, in a possibly higher threat environment against nonconventional threats such as in counter piracy operations. There is therefore a need to balance the challenges of providing adequate forward naval surgical support with limitations in medical manpower, logistics as well as the need for a suitable surgical platform for these deployments...
August 2015: Military Medicine
Rahime Inci, Perihan Ozturk, Mehmet Kamil Mulayim, Kemal Ozyurt, Emine Tugba Alatas, Mehmet Fatih Inci
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria...
2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jeffrey S Reznick, Kenneth M Koyle
A century and a half ago, the American Civil War (1861–1865) triggered technological and practical advances in medicine, including improvements in surgical tools and techniques, the development of artificial limbs, and new systems of evacuation and hospital care. Yet the war's most important and..
June 18, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Julia M Rosenbloom, Robert B Schonberger
The fact that doctors have a long tradition of writing medical history to interpret and direct their profession is well established. But readers (particularly modern physician readers) can also understand physician-authored histories as offering commentary and analysis of the world beyond medicine. In this essay, we offer a reading (perhaps a modern one) of J. Marion Sims's 1877 article, 'The Discovery of Anaesthesia' which exemplifies the stance of looking both inward and outward from the medical field. We begin by discussing Sims, including the complicated legacy he left as a physician...
December 2015: Medical Humanities
Selma Korkmaz, Orhan Özgöztaşı, Nuriye Kayıran
OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a curable clinical condition characterized by atrophic scars caused by the Leishmania species of protozoan parasites. In the period following the beginning of the Syrian Civil War, there has been a dramatic increase in number of CL cases in Gaziantep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of CL patients admitted to Gaziantep University of Medicine Faculty Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment center in Gaziantep...
March 2015: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Bruce Evan Koch
To meet the need for qualified anesthetists, American surgeons recruited nurses to practice anesthesia during the Civil War and in the latter half of the 19th century. The success of this decision led them to collaborate with nurses more formally at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. During the 1890s, Alice Magaw refined the safe administration of ether. Florence Henderson continued her work improving the safety of ether administration during the first decade of the 20th century. Safe anesthesia enabled the Mayo surgeons to turn the St...
March 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Luis-Alfonso Arráez-Aybar, Pedro Navia-Álvarez, Talia Fuentes-Redondo, José-L Bueno-López
The year 2014 marked the 350th anniversary of the publication in London of Cerebri anatome, a ground-breaking work of neuroscience heavily influenced by the political and cultural context of Baroque Europe and mid-17th century England. This article aims to review the work of the English physician and anatomist Thomas Willis, specifically with regard to the contents of his Cerebri anatome. Willis's academic and professional career was influenced by the turbulent period of the English Civil War during which he studied medicine...
March 2015: Journal of Anatomy
A A Budko, G A Gribovskaia, D A Zhuravlev
Cooperation issues between military-medical service and civil healthcare in the field of delivery of medical aid to patients in the rear of country are considered in the artic. The rear is a final stage of the care by echelon and the main medical reserve force for front and army areas. Wide hospital network in the rear consisted mainly of evacuation hospitals of the People's Commissariat of the USSR healthcare. Cooperation between military-medical service and civil healthcare facilities was required. Sometimes necessary cooperation failed and made mutual helming of evacuation hospitals difficult...
May 2014: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
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