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Neurodevelopmental techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709445/twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-study-protocol-for-developing-disseminating-and-implementing-a-core-outcome-set
#1
Asma Khalil, Helen Perry, James Duffy, Keith Reed, Ahmet Baschat, Jan Deprest, Kurt Hecher, Liesbeth Lewi, Enrico Lopriore, Dick Oepkes
BACKGROUND: Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Several treatment interventions have been described for TTTS, including fetoscopic laser surgery, amnioreduction, septostomy, expectant management, and pregnancy termination. Over the last decade, fetoscopic laser surgery has become the primary treatment. The literature to date reports on many different outcomes, making it difficult to compare results or combine data from individual studies, limiting the value of research to guide clinical practice...
July 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665350/histone-lysine-methylation-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Jeong-Hoon Kim, Jang Ho Lee, Im-Soon Lee, Sung Bae Lee, Kyoung Sang Cho
Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#3
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611932/physiotherapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-building-parkinsonnet-in-czechia
#4
Ota Gal, Martin Srp, Romana Konvalinkova, Martina Hoskovcova, Vaclav Capek, Jan Roth, Evzen Ruzicka
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the availability and quality of physiotherapy (PT) for Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND: Despite evidence about the benefits of PT, there is no data regarding its use in Czechia. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 368 PD patients seen in a single movement disorders centre within two years (inclusion criteria: idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stage <5, and residence in Prague) and to 211 physical therapists (PTs) registered in Prague...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609302/association-between-exposure-of-young-children-to-procedures-requiring-general-anesthesia-and-learning-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#5
Danqing Hu, Randall P Flick, Michael J Zaccariello, Robert C Colligan, Slavica K Katusic, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Shonie L Buenvenida, Stephen J Gleich, Robert T Wilder, Juraj Sprung, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Exposure of young animals to general anesthesia causes neurodegeneration and lasting behavioral abnormalities; whether these findings translate to children remains unclear. This study used a population-based birth cohort to test the hypothesis that multiple, but not single, exposures to procedures requiring general anesthesia before age 3 yr are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study cohort was assembled from children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2000 (inclusive)...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#6
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577610/feeding-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Natalie Morris, Rachel M Knight, Teryn Bruni, Laura Sayers, Amy Drayton
Feeding disorders often present in children with complex medical histories as well as those with neurodevelopmental disabilities. If untreated, feeding problems will likely persist and may lead to additional developmental and medical complications. Treatment of pediatric feeding disorders should involve an interdisciplinary team, but the core intervention should include behavioral feeding techniques as they are the only empirically supported therapy for feeding disorders.
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551749/neuroanatomy-and-neuropathology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#8
Christine Ecker, Michael J Schmeisser, Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin the atypical developmental of the brain in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we review the findings of in vivo neuroimaging studies examining the time course of atypical brain development in ASD and relate the different neurodevelopmental stages that are atypical in ASD to the known neurobiological mechanisms that drive the maturation of the typically developing brain...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541957/the-cutting-edge-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-care-expanding-the-boundaries-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Benjamin J Thomas, Aristomenis Thanos, Bozho Todorich, Kimberly A Drenser, Michael T Trese, Antonio Capone
PURPOSE: To discuss the latest advances and controversies in the diagnosis and care of infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity remains a major global issue. Industrialized nations now treat profoundly premature infants with posterior and aggressive disease, and middle-income nations are experiencing ROP epidemics. Remote digital imaging may address the decreasing ratio of ROP providers to premature infants, in addition to improving patient care...
May 24, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518104/neurodevelopmental-reflex-testing-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#10
Antoinette T Nguyen, Edward A Armstrong, Jerome Y Yager
Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504334/advances-in-functional-brain-imaging-technology-and-developmental-neuro-psychology-their-applications-in-the-jungian-analytic-domain
#11
Leon Petchkovsky
Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436200/randomised-controlled-trial-shows-that-co-bedding-twins-may-reduce-birthweight-recovery-delay-parenteral-nutrition-weaning-time-and-hospitalisation
#12
Arnaud Legrand, Anne Frondas, Fabien Aubret, Anne Corre, Cyril Flamant, Laure Simon, Clothilde Desrobert, Jean-Christophe Rozé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414862/editorial-perspective-longitudinal-research-in-autism-introducing-the-concept-of-chronogeneity
#13
EDITORIAL
Stelios Georgiades, Somer L Bishop, Thomas Frazier
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD or autism) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. We are now at a critical juncture in autism research where we have the knowledge base and expertise to begin to think about studies that view heterogeneity, not as 'statistical noise' that can be 'accounted for' using data-reduction techniques (such as group trajectories), but rather as 'informative variance' that can help form a more precise and dynamic picture of autism. In this Editorial we coin a new term and introduce the concept of 'chronogeneity' for the study of autism heterogeneity in relation to the dimension of time (chrono)...
May 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412269/towards-an-understanding-of-the-isotype-specific-functions-of-tubulin-in-neurons-technical-advances-in-tubulin-expression-and-purification
#14
Itsushi Minoura
Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments critical for determining the complex morphology of neurons, as well as the basic architecture and organization of mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules in humans are composed of 8 α- and 9 β-tubulin isotypes, each of which is encoded by different members of a multi-gene family. The expression pattern of tubulin isotypes, in addition to isotype-specific post-translational modifications, is thought to be critical for the morphogenesis of axons and dendrites. Recent studies revealed that several neurodevelopmental disorders are caused by mutations of specific tubulin isotypes, suggesting that each tubulin isotype has distinct functions...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383171/psychophysiological-responses-to-emotions-of-others-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-correlates-of-social-functioning
#15
Gemma Zantinge, Sophie van Rijn, Lex Stockmann, Hanna Swaab
Studying cognitive and affective mechanisms of social behavior could lead to identifying early indicators of derailing social behavior in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The present study combined sensitive and objective techniques, such as eyetracking and psychophysiology, to provide insight into early neurodevelopmental mechanisms that are more difficult to uncover when relying on behavioral measures. Social attention towards faces and changes in affective arousal were investigated together in 28 young children with ASD (42-75 months) and 45 nonclinical controls (41-81 months)...
April 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371754/extending-the-distributed-lag-model-framework-to-handle-chemical-mixtures
#16
Ghalib A Bello, Manish Arora, Christine Austin, Megan K Horton, Robert O Wright, Chris Gennings
Distributed Lag Models (DLMs) are used in environmental health studies to analyze the time-delayed effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest. Given the increasing need for analytical tools for evaluation of the effects of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures, this study attempts to extend the classical DLM framework to accommodate and evaluate multiple longitudinally observed exposures. We introduce 2 techniques for quantifying the time-varying mixture effect of multiple exposures on an outcome of interest...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371411/generation-of-integration-free-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-urine-derived-cells-isolated-from-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#17
Young M Lee, Bruna L Zampieri, Jonah J Scott-McKean, Mark W Johnson, Alberto C S Costa
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by trisomy 21 (T21). Over the past two decades, the use of mouse models has led to significant advances in the understanding of mechanisms underlying various phenotypic features and comorbidities secondary to T21 and even informed the design of clinical trials aimed at enhancing the cognitive abilities of persons with DS. In spite of its success, this approach has been plagued by all the typical limitations of rodent modeling of human disorders and diseases. Recently, several laboratories have succeeded in producing T21 human induced pluripotent stem cells (T21-iPSCs) from individuals with DS, which is emerging as a promising complementary tool for the study of DS...
June 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369850/an-mri-study-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-monkeys-developmental-trajectories-and-effects-of-neonatal-hippocampal-and-amygdala-lesions
#18
Christa Payne, Laetitia Cirilli, Jocelyne Bachevalier
This study provides the first characterization of early developmental trajectories of corpus callosum (CC) segments in rhesus macaques using noninvasive MRI techniques and assesses long-term effects of neonatal amygdala or hippocampal lesions on CC morphometry. In Experiment 1, 10 monkeys (5 males) were scanned at 1 week-2 years of age; eight additional infants (4 males) were scanned once at 1-4 weeks of age. The first 8 months showed marked growth across all segments, with sustained, albeit slower, growth through 24 months...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365755/through-thick-and-thin-a-need-to-reconcile-contradictory-results-on-trajectories-in-human-cortical-development
#19
Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Jay Giedd, Anders M Dale, Timothy T Brown
Understanding how brain development normally proceeds is a premise of understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. This has sparked a wealth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unfortunately, they are in marked disagreement on how the cerebral cortex matures. While cortical thickness increases for the first 8-9 years of life have repeatedly been reported, others find continuous cortical thinning from early childhood, at least from age 3 or 4 years. We review these inconsistencies, and discuss possible reasons, including the use of different scanners, recording parameters and analysis tools, and possible effects of variables such as head motion...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359565/deficits-in-neurite-density-underlie-white-matter-structure-abnormalities-in-first-episode-psychosis
#20
Charlotte L Rae, Geoff Davies, Sarah N Garfinkel, Matt C Gabel, Nicholas G Dowell, Mara Cercignani, Anil K Seth, Kathryn E Greenwood, Nick Medford, Hugo D Critchley
BACKGROUND: Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. METHODS: Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density...
February 17, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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