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Neurodevelopmental techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#1
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079770/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-after-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#2
Jacques Balayla, Odile Sheehy, William D Fraser, Jean R Séguin, Jacquetta Trasler, Patricia Monnier, Andrea A MacLeod, Marie-Noëlle Simard, Gina Muckle, Anick Bérard
OBJECTIVE: To compare children's cognitive, motor, and language development at 2 years of age after assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) relative to natural conception. METHODS: The 3D-Study (2010-2012) is a prospective cohort study, which sought to improve the understanding among perinatal events, obstetric outcomes, and child development. A total of 2,366 pregnant women were recruited, of whom 278 conceived with ART: ovarian stimulation, intrauterine sperm insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or in vitro maturation...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060690/-peritoneal-dialysis-in-the-first-two-years-of-life-experience-of-a-nephrology-and-renal-transplantation-pediatric-unit
#3
Sofia Deuchande, Tânia Mano, Cristina Novais, Rute Machado, Rosário Stone, Margarida Almeida
INTRODUCTION: Peritoneal dialysis is the dialytic method of choice in chronic end-stage renal disease in children. This study main purpose was to characterize the long-term survival of a pediatric population who began peritoneal dialysis within the first two years of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study was performed in a portuguese nephrology and renal transplantation pediatric unit, between January 1991 and August 2014. End-stage renal disease etiology, mortality, comorbidities and complications of peritoneal dialysis and end-stage renal disease, growth and psychomotor development were evaluated...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052185/early-administration-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-preventing-chronic-lung-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#4
REVIEW
Vibhuti S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Michael Dunn
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989374/functional-quality-of-life-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Megan L Ringle, Gil Wernovsky
Throughout the past few decades, advances in cardiology, neonatal intensive care, and surgical techniques have resulted in a growing cohort of thriving school-aged children with previously lethal complex congenital heart diseases. While survival has increased, there remains significant morbidity following repair including neurodevelopmental sequelae. Compared to children with a structurally normal heart, these infants and children have a higher frequency of abnormalities in tone, feeding, and delayed developmental milestones, as well as challenges with speech and learning disabilities, while a higher proportion of adolescents suffer from problems with processing speed, executive function, and a unique set of medical hardships related to exercise intolerance and obesity, medication burden, and mental health comorbidities...
December 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981420/imaging-genetics-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-related-neurodevelopmental-domains-state-of-the-art
#6
REVIEW
Natàlia Vilor-Tejedor, Alejandro Cáceres, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Juan R González
Joint analysis of genetic and neuroimaging data, known as Imaging Genetics (IG), offers an opportunity to deepen our knowledge of the biological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental domains. There has been exponential growth in the literature on IG studies, which challenges the standardization of analysis methods in this field. In this review we give a complete up-to-date account of IG studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related neurodevelopmental domains, which serves as a reference catalog for researchers working on this neurological disorder...
December 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974128/-research-advances-in-susceptible-genes-for-developmental-dyslexia-in-children
#7
Rui Kong, Ran-Ran Song
Developmental dyslexia in children is one of the neurodevelopmental disorders and is affected by various susceptible genes. In recent years, researchers have found some susceptible genes for dyslexia via chromosome analysis, genome-wide association studies, association analysis, gene function research, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological techniques. This article reviews the research advances in susceptible genes for developmental dyslexia, and with the study on susceptible genes for dyslexia, it lays a foundation for in-depth studies on the "gene-brain-behavior" level and provides scientific clues for exploring etiology and pathogenesis of dyslexia...
December 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936148/screening-for-dyslexia-using-eye-tracking-during-reading
#8
Mattias Nilsson Benfatto, Gustaf Öqvist Seimyr, Jan Ygge, Tony Pansell, Agneta Rydberg, Christer Jacobson
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928515/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Maheen F Siddiqui, Clare Elwell, Mark H Johnson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are classified as neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by diminished social communication and interaction. Recently, evidence has accrued that a significant proportion of individuals with autism have concomitant diseases such as mitochondrial disease and abnormalities of energy generation. This has therefore led to the hypothesis that autism may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. We review such studies reporting decreased activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes and reduced gene expression of mitochondrial genes, in particular genes of respiratory chain complexes, in individuals with autism...
September 27, 2016: Autism-open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#10
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856603/cognitive-clusters-in-specific-learning-disorder
#11
Michele Poletti, Elisa Carretta, Laura Bonvicini, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi
The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844287/modeling-of-autism-using-organoid-technology
#12
REVIEW
Hwan Choi, Juhyun Song, Guiyeon Park, Jongpil Kim
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disease caused by multiple mutations during development. However, a suitable disease model to study the molecular pathway of disease onset and progression is not available. Although many studies have used human stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells to investigate the disease pathogenesis, these stem cell techniques are limited in their abilities to study the pathology and mechanism of pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821206/the-neurodevelopmental-implications-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-in-the-fetus
#13
David F A Lloyd, Mary A Rutherford, John M Simpson, Reza Razavi
As survival after cardiac surgery continues to improve, an increasing number of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are reaching school age and beyond, with growing recognition of the wide range of neurodevelopmental challenges many survivors face. Improvements in fetal detection rates, coupled with advances in fetal ultrasound and MRI imaging, are contributing to a growing body of evidence that abnormal brain architecture is in fact present before birth in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients, rather than being solely attributable to postnatal factors...
November 8, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766957/copy-number-variations-in-saudi-family-with-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy
#14
Muhammad I Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Mahmood Rasool, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Fai T Ashgan, Mourad Assidi, Farid Ahmed, Shakeel A Ansari, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohammed M Jan, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. RESULTS: In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID), and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754318/selection-of-suitable-reference-genes-for-analysis-of-salivary-transcriptome-in-non-syndromic-autistic-male-children
#15
Yasin Panahi, Fahimeh Salasar Moghaddam, Zahra Ghasemi, Mandana Hadi Jafari, Reza Shervin Badv, Mohamad Reza Eskandari, Mehrdad Pedram
Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735078/the-effects-of-prenatal-h1n1-infection-at-e16-on-fmrp-glutamate-gaba-and-reelin-signaling-systems-in-developing-murine-cerebellum
#16
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Stephanie B Liesch, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab Karkhane Yousefi, Paul D Thuras
Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696363/cerebral-cortex-electroporation-to-study-projection-neuron-migration
#17
Emilie Pacary, François Guillemot
Brain electroporation is a rapid and powerful approach to study neuronal development. In particular, this technique has become a method of choice for studying the process of radial migration of projection neurons in the embryonic cerebral cortex. This method has considerably helped to describe in detail the different steps of radial migration and to characterize the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding not only of normal cerebral cortex formation but also of neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects...
October 3, 2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673422/fifty-years-of-brain-imaging-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-following-perinatal-asphyxia
#18
REVIEW
Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
In the past brain imaging of term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages sensitivity and specificity is limited compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT makes use of radiation. At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633076/the-effect-of-vestibular-stimulation-on-motor-functions-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
Marco Tramontano, Alessandra Medici, Marco Iosa, Alessia Chiariotti, Giulia Fusillo, Leonardo Manzari, Daniela Morelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has been defined as a non-progressive disease of movement and posture development. Physical therapy techniques use different forms of sensory stimulation to improve neuromotor development. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a vestibular stimulation training in improving motor functions in cerebral palsy. POPULATION: Fourteen children with CP were randomly separated into two different groups in a cross-over trial...
August 19, 2016: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627784/free-of-acrylamide-sds-based-tissue-clearing-fastclear-a-novel-protocol-of-tissue-clearing-for-three-dimensional-visualisation-of-human-brain-tissues
#20
Alan King Lun Liu, Hei Ming Lai, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Steve M Gentleman
In recent years, advances in laser microscopy and endogenous fluorescent tagging techniques has led to the development of many tissue clearing strategies, which render tissues optically transparent, allowing large blocks of un-sectioned tissue to be visualised in three-dimensions (3D). CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel) is one of the tissue clearing techniques which works by fixation/hybridisation of brain tissue using hydrogel crosslinks and subsequent detergent-based delipidation to turn the tissue transparent [1]...
September 14, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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