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Neurodevelopmental techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921735/three-shades-of-grey-detecting-brain-abnormalities-in-children-with-autism-by-using-source-voxel-and-surface-based-morphometry
#1
Edoardo Pappaianni, Roma Siugzdaite, Sofie Vettori, Paola Venuti, Remo Job, Alessandro Grecucci
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to younger children and to better characterize these abnormalities, we applied three morphometric methods on brain grey matter of children with and without ASD...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906387/a-nearly-full-recovery-from-avm-hemorrhagic-stroke-17-years-after-insult-using-a-new-integrated-neurodevelopmental-approach-a-case-report
#2
Alberto J Friedmann
RATIONAL: With the prevalence of stroke increasing in the USA and the world along with increased survival and longevity due to medical advancements, it has become increasingly necessary to look at the chronic phase of stroke recovery. Previous paradigms of stroke treatment have proven ineffective when looking at 10, 15, or 20 years of survival post insult. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient, being a young man just out of high school, was concerned with his overall morbidity...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901728/gaba-type-a-receptor-trafficking-and-the-architecture-of-synaptic-inhibition
#3
REVIEW
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Tija C Jacob
Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABAA Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894964/macrophages-generate-pericytes-in-the-developing-brain
#4
REVIEW
Pedro H D M Prazeres, Viviani M Almeida, Luiza Lousado, Julia P Andreotti, Ana E Paiva, Gabryella S P Santos, Patrick O Azevedo, Luanny Souto, Gregório G Almeida, Renato Filev, Akiva Mintz, Ricardo Gonçalves, Alexander Birbrair
Pericytes are defined by their anatomical location encircling blood vessels' walls with their long projections. The exact embryonic sources of cerebral pericytes remain poorly understood, especially because of their recently revealed diversity. Yamamoto et al. (Sci Rep 7(1):3855, 2017) using state-of-the-art techniques, including several transgenic mice models, reveal that a subpopulation of brain pericytes are derived from phagocytic macrophages during vascular development. This work highlights a new possible ancestor of brain pericytes...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861337/clinical-neuroimaging-in-the-preterm-infant-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#5
REVIEW
Manuel Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Thalía Harmony, Cristina Carrillo-Prado, John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna Torgerson, Zachary Jacokes
Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). However, motor and/or cognitive disabilities associated with mild-to-moderate white and gray matter injury are frequently present in this population (e.g., non-cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [non-cystic PVL], neuronal-axonal injury and GMH-IVH grade 1-2/4)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852074/mapping-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-one-month-human-brain
#6
D C Dean, E M Planalp, W Wooten, N Adluru, S R Kecskemeti, C Frye, C K Schmidt, N L Schmidt, M A Styner, H H Goldsmith, R J Davidson, A L Alexander
White matter microstructure, essential for efficient and coordinated transmission of neural communications, undergoes pronounced development during the first years of life, while deviations to this neurodevelopmental trajectory likely result in alterations of brain connectivity relevant to behavior. Hence, systematic evaluation of white matter microstructure in the normative brain is critical for a neuroscientific approach to both typical and atypical early behavioral development. However, few studies have examined the infant brain in detail, particularly in infants under 3 months of age...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807762/diagnostic-exome-sequencing-identifies-a-heterozygous-mbd5-frameshift-mutation-in-a-family-with-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy
#7
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Ja Hyun Jang, Joonhong Park
Methyl-CpG-binding domain 5 (MBD5)-associated neurodevelopmental disorder caused by 2q23.1 or MBD5-specific mutation has been recently identified as a genetic disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Phenotypic features of 2q23.1 deletion or disruption of MBD5 gene include severe intellectual disability, seizure, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioural problems. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with intellectual disability and epilepsy without previous clinical diagnosis...
October 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747464/lethal-digenic-mutations-in-the-k-channels-kir4-1-kcnj10-and-slack-kcnt1-associated-with-severe-disabling-seizures-and-neurodevelopmental-delay
#8
Sonia Majed Hasan, Ameera Balobaid, Alessandro Grottesi, Omar Dabbagh, Marta Cenciarini, Rifaat Rawashdeh, Afaf Al-Sagheir, Cecilia Bove, Lara Macchioni, Mauro Pessia, Mohammed Al-Owain, Maria Cristina D'Adamo
A 2-year-old boy presented profound developmental delay, failure to thrive, ataxia, hypotonia and tonic-clonic seizures that caused the death of the patient. Targeted and whole-exome sequencing revealed two heterozygous missense variants: a novel mutation in KCNJ10 gene that encodes for the inwardly-rectifying K(+) channel Kir4.1 and another previously characterized mutation in KCNT1 that encodes for the Na(+)-activated K(+) channel known as Slo2.2 or SLACK. The objectives of this study were to perform the clinical and genetic characterization of the proband and his family and to examine the functional consequence of the Kir4...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709445/twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-study-protocol-for-developing-disseminating-and-implementing-a-core-outcome-set
#9
Asma Khalil, Helen Perry, James Duffy, Keith Reed, Ahmet Baschat, Jan Deprest, Kurt Hecher, Liesbeth Lewi, Enrico Lopriore, Dick Oepkes
BACKGROUND: Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Several treatment interventions have been described for TTTS, including fetoscopic laser surgery, amnioreduction, septostomy, expectant management, and pregnancy termination. Over the last decade, fetoscopic laser surgery has become the primary treatment. The literature to date reports on many different outcomes, making it difficult to compare results or combine data from individual studies, limiting the value of research to guide clinical practice...
July 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665350/histone-lysine-methylation-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Jeong-Hoon Kim, Jang Ho Lee, Im-Soon Lee, Sung Bae Lee, Kyoung Sang Cho
Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#11
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611932/physiotherapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-building-parkinsonnet-in-czechia
#12
Ota Gal, Martin Srp, Romana Konvalinkova, Martina Hoskovcova, Vaclav Capek, Jan Roth, Evzen Ruzicka
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the availability and quality of physiotherapy (PT) for Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND: Despite evidence about the benefits of PT, there is no data regarding its use in Czechia. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 368 PD patients seen in a single movement disorders centre within two years (inclusion criteria: idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stage <5, and residence in Prague) and to 211 physical therapists (PTs) registered in Prague...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609302/association-between-exposure-of-young-children-to-procedures-requiring-general-anesthesia-and-learning-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#13
Danqing Hu, Randall P Flick, Michael J Zaccariello, Robert C Colligan, Slavica K Katusic, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Shonie L Buenvenida, Stephen J Gleich, Robert T Wilder, Juraj Sprung, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Exposure of young animals to general anesthesia causes neurodegeneration and lasting behavioral abnormalities; whether these findings translate to children remains unclear. This study used a population-based birth cohort to test the hypothesis that multiple, but not single, exposures to procedures requiring general anesthesia before age 3 yr are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study cohort was assembled from children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2000 (inclusive)...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#14
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577610/feeding-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Natalie Morris, Rachel M Knight, Teryn Bruni, Laura Sayers, Amy Drayton
Feeding disorders often present in children with complex medical histories as well as those with neurodevelopmental disabilities. If untreated, feeding problems will likely persist and may lead to additional developmental and medical complications. Treatment of pediatric feeding disorders should involve an interdisciplinary team, but the core intervention should include behavioral feeding techniques as they are the only empirically supported therapy for feeding disorders.
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551749/neuroanatomy-and-neuropathology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#16
Christine Ecker, Michael J Schmeisser, Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin the atypical developmental of the brain in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we review the findings of in vivo neuroimaging studies examining the time course of atypical brain development in ASD and relate the different neurodevelopmental stages that are atypical in ASD to the known neurobiological mechanisms that drive the maturation of the typically developing brain...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541957/the-cutting-edge-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-care-expanding-the-boundaries-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Benjamin J Thomas, Aristomenis Thanos, Bozho Todorich, Kimberly A Drenser, Michael T Trese, Antonio Capone
PURPOSE: To discuss the latest advances and controversies in the diagnosis and care of infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity remains a major global issue. Industrialized nations now treat profoundly premature infants with posterior and aggressive disease, and middle-income nations are experiencing ROP epidemics. Remote digital imaging may address the decreasing ratio of ROP providers to premature infants, in addition to improving patient care...
May 24, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518104/neurodevelopmental-reflex-testing-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#18
Antoinette T Nguyen, Edward A Armstrong, Jerome Y Yager
Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504334/advances-in-functional-brain-imaging-technology-and-developmental-neuro-psychology-their-applications-in-the-jungian-analytic-domain
#19
Leon Petchkovsky
Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection...
June 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436200/randomised-controlled-trial-shows-that-co-bedding-twins-may-reduce-birthweight-recovery-delay-parenteral-nutrition-weaning-time-and-hospitalisation
#20
Arnaud Legrand, Anne Frondas, Fabien Aubret, Anne Corre, Cyril Flamant, Laure Simon, Clothilde Desrobert, Jean-Christophe Rozé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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