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Neurodevelopmental techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#1
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856603/cognitive-clusters-in-specific-learning-disorder
#2
Michele Poletti, Elisa Carretta, Laura Bonvicini, Paolo Giorgi-Rossi
The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844287/modeling-of-autism-using-organoid-technology
#3
REVIEW
Hwan Choi, Juhyun Song, Guiyeon Park, Jongpil Kim
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disease caused by multiple mutations during development. However, a suitable disease model to study the molecular pathway of disease onset and progression is not available. Although many studies have used human stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells to investigate the disease pathogenesis, these stem cell techniques are limited in their abilities to study the pathology and mechanism of pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821206/the-neurodevelopmental-implications-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-in-the-fetus
#4
David F A Lloyd, Mary A Rutherford, John M Simpson, Reza Razavi
As survival after cardiac surgery continues to improve, an increasing number of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are reaching school age and beyond, with growing recognition of the wide range of neurodevelopmental challenges many survivors face. Improvements in fetal detection rates, coupled with advances in fetal ultrasound and MRI imaging, are contributing to a growing body of evidence that abnormal brain architecture is in fact present before birth in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients, rather than being solely attributable to postnatal factors...
November 8, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766957/copy-number-variations-in-saudi-family-with-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy
#5
Muhammad I Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Mahmood Rasool, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Fai T Ashgan, Mourad Assidi, Farid Ahmed, Shakeel A Ansari, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohammed M Jan, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. RESULTS: In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID), and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754318/selection-of-suitable-reference-genes-for-analysis-of-salivary-transcriptome-in-non-syndromic-autistic-male-children
#6
Yasin Panahi, Fahimeh Salasar Moghaddam, Zahra Ghasemi, Mandana Hadi Jafari, Reza Shervin Badv, Mohamad Reza Eskandari, Mehrdad Pedram
Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735078/the-effects-of-prenatal-h1n1-infection-at-e16-on-fmrp-glutamate-gaba-and-reelin-signaling-systems-in-developing-murine-cerebellum
#7
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Stephanie B Liesch, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab Karkhane Yousefi, Paul D Thuras
Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696363/cerebral-cortex-electroporation-to-study-projection-neuron-migration
#8
Emilie Pacary, François Guillemot
Brain electroporation is a rapid and powerful approach to study neuronal development. In particular, this technique has become a method of choice for studying the process of radial migration of projection neurons in the embryonic cerebral cortex. This method has considerably helped to describe in detail the different steps of radial migration and to characterize the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Delineating the complexities of neuronal migration is critical to our understanding not only of normal cerebral cortex formation but also of neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from neuronal migration defects...
October 3, 2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673422/fifty-years-of-brain-imaging-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-following-perinatal-asphyxia
#9
Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
In the past brain imaging of term infants with HIE was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages, sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to MRI, and CT makes use of radiation.At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633076/the-effect-of-vestibular-stimulation-on-motor-functions-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#10
Marco Tramontano, Alessandra Medici, Marco Iosa, Alessia Chiariotti, Giulia Fusillo, Leonardo Manzari, Daniela Morelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has been defined as a non-progressive disease of movement and posture development. Physical therapy techniques use different forms of sensory stimulation to improve neuromotor development. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a vestibular stimulation training in improving motor functions in cerebral palsy. POPULATION: Fourteen children with CP were randomly separated into two different groups in a cross-over trial...
August 19, 2016: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627784/free-of-acrylamide-sds-based-tissue-clearing-fastclear-a-novel-protocol-of-tissue-clearing-for-three-dimensional-visualisation-of-human-brain-tissues
#11
Alan King Lun Liu, Hei Ming Lai, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Steve M Gentleman
In recent years, advances in laser microscopy and endogenous fluorescent tagging techniques has led to the development of many tissue clearing strategies, which render tissues optically transparent, allowing large blocks of un-sectioned tissue to be visualised in three-dimensions (3D). CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel) is one of the tissue clearing techniques which works by fixation/hybridisation of brain tissue using hydrogel crosslinks and subsequent detergent-based delipidation to turn the tissue transparent [1]...
September 14, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577737/dys-regulation-of-rna-mediated-gene-expression-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#12
Inês do Carmo G Golçalves, Wiebke A Rehorst, Min Jeong Kye
Recent findings indicate an important role for RNA-mediated gene expression in motor neuron diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder, whereby SMA or "children's Lou Gehrig's disease" is considered a pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder. Despite the differences in genetic causes, both ALS and SMA share common phenotypes; dysfunction/loss of motor neurons that eventually leads to muscle weakness and atrophy...
August 15, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551061/eye-tracking-based-assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-low-resource-settings
#13
Linda Forssman, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Andrew Matchado, Emma Kortekangas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Early development of neurocognitive functions in infants can be compromised by poverty, malnutrition and lack of adequate stimulation. Optimal management of neurodevelopmental problems in infants requires assessment tools that can be used early in life, and are objective and applicable across economic, cultural and educational settings. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The present study examined the feasibility of infrared eye tracking as a novel and highly automated technique for assessing visual-orienting and sequence-learning abilities as well as attention to facial expressions in young (9-month-old) infants...
August 22, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547505/organizational-topology-of-brain-and-its-relationship-to-adhd-in-adolescents-with-d-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#14
Vincent J Schmithorst, Ashok Panigrahy, J William Gaynor, Christopher G Watson, Vince Lee, David C Bellinger, Michael J Rivkin, Jane W Newburger
OBJECTIVE: Little is currently known about the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the organization of large-scale brain networks in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. We investigated whether CHD might impact ADHD symptoms via changes in brain structural network topology in a cohort of adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and referent subjects. We also explored whether these effects might be modified by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, as the APOE ε2 allele has been associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes after repair of d-TGA in infancy...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535666/a-modified-ms-pcr-approach-to-diagnose-patients-with-prader-willi-and-angelman-syndrome
#15
Jéssica Fernandes Dos Santos, Laís R Mota, Pedro Henrique Silva Andrade Rocha, Renata Lúcia L Ferreira de Lima
Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes are clinically distinct neurodevelopmental genetic diseases with multiple phenotypic manifestations. They are one of the most common genetic syndromes caused by non-Mendelian inheritance in the form of genomic imprinting, and can be attributable to the loss of gene expression due to imprinting within the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Clinical diagnosis of PWS and AS is challenging, and the use of molecular and cytomolecular studies is recommended to help in determining the diagnosis of these conditions...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528188/current-status-of-fetal-neurodevelopmental-assessment-four-dimensional-ultrasound-study
#16
Toshiyuki Hata
With the latest advent of four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound, fetal neurobehavioral or neurodevelopmental assessment can be easily and readily performed. Using this technique, typical fetal movements and behavioral patterns have become apparent in all three trimesters of pregnancy. In twin pregnancy, 4-D ultrasound facilitates the precise evaluation of inter-twin contact and intra-pair stimulation. New fetal neurobehavioral assessment tests, such as Kurjak's Antenatal Neurodevelopmental Test and the Fetal Observable Movement System, may reflect the normal and abnormal neurological development of the fetus, and will facilitate more precise assessments of fetal neurobehavior or neurodevelopment, and fetal brain and central nervous system functions...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526141/interrelationship-between-broadband-nirs-measurements-of-cerebral-cytochrome-c-oxidase-and-systemic-changes-indicates-injury-severity-in-neonatal-encephalopathy
#17
Gemma Bale, Subhabrata Mitra, Isabel de Roever, Marcus Chan, Alexander Caicedo-Dorado, Judith Meek, Nicola Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental problems and mortality. There is a clinical need for techniques to provide cotside assessment of the injury extent. This study aims to use non-invasive cerebral broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with systemic physiology to assess the severity of HIE injury. Broadband NIRS is used to measure the changes in haemodynamics, oxygenation and the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO). We used canonical correlation analysis (CCA), a multivariate statistical technique, to measure the relationship between cerebral broadband NIRS measurements and systemic physiology...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525043/genome-wide-array-cgh-and-qpcr-analysis-for-the-identification-of-genome-defects-in-williams-syndrome-patients-in-saudi-arabia
#18
I R Hussein, A Magbooli, E Huwait, A Chaudhary, R Bader, M Gari, F Ashgan, M Alquaiti, A Abuzenadah, M AlQahtani
BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiovascular defects, cognitive deficits and developmental delay. WBS is caused by a segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 7 due to heterozygous deletion of contiguous genes at the long arm of chromosome 7q11.23. We aimed to apply array-CGH technique for the detection of copy number variants in suspected WBS patients and to determine the size of the deleted segment at chromosome 7q11...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524451/neuroimaging-and-other-neurodiagnostic-tests-in-neonatal-encephalopathy
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie L Merhar, Vann Chau
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Long-term neurodevelopmental disability is also frequent in survivors. Conventional MRI defines typical patterns of injury that reflect specific pathophysiologic mechanisms. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques now provide unique perspectives on neonatal brain metabolism, microstructure, and connectivity. The application of these imaging techniques has revealed that brain injury commonly occurs at or near the time of birth and evolves over the first weeks of life...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515430/white-matter-integrity-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-the-role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#20
Nandita Vijayakumar, Cali Bartholomeusz, Thomas Whitford, Daniel F Hermens, Barnaby Nelson, Simon Rice, Sarah Whittle, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Miriam R Schäfer, G Paul Amminger
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is thought to be a neurodevelopmental disorder with pathophysiological processes beginning in the brain prior to the emergence of clinical symptoms. Recent evidence from neuroimaging studies using techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging has identified white matter abnormalities that are suggestive of disrupted brain myelination and neuronal connectivity. Identifying whether such effects exist in individuals at high risk for developing psychosis may help with prevention and early intervention strategies...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
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