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Neurodevelopmental techniques

Saki Hirofuji, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Fumiko Takayama, Michiko Torio, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder associated with psychomotor impairments, autonomic dysfunctions and autism. Patients with Rett syndrome have loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Abnormal biogenic amine signaling and mitochondrial function have been found in patients with Rett syndrome; however, few studies have analyzed the association between these factors. This study investigated the functional relationships between mitochondria and the neuronal differentiation of the MeCP2-deficient stem cells from the exfoliated deciduous teeth of a child with Rett syndrome...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gitendra Uswatte, Edward Taub, Mary H Bowman, Adriana Delgado, Camille Bryson, David M Morris, Staci Mckay, Joydip Barman, Victor W Mark
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of an expanded form of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (eCIMT) that renders CIMT, originally designed for treating mild-to-moderate upper-extremity hemiparesis, suitable for treating severe hemiparesis. METHODS: Twenty-one adults ≥1 year after stroke with severe upper-extremity hemiparesis (with little or no capacity to make movements with the more-affected hand) were randomly assigned to eCIMT (n = 10), a placebo-control procedure (n = 4), or usual care (n = 7)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
David G Amaral, Matthew P Anderson, Olaf Ansorge, Steven Chance, Carolyn Hare, Patrick R Hof, Melissa Miller, Ikue Nagakura, Jane Pickett, Cynthia Schumann, Carol Tamminga
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autism) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects over 1% of the population worldwide. Developing effective preventions and treatments for autism will depend on understanding the genetic perturbations and underlying neuropathology of the disorder. While evidence from magnetic resonance imaging and other noninvasive techniques points to altered development and organization of the autistic brain, these tools lack the resolution for identifying the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disorder...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jill L Silverman, Jacob Ellegood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the invaluable contribution of in-vivo rodent models in dissecting the underlying neurobiology for numerous neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently, models are routinely generated with precision genomics and characterized for research on neurodevelopmental disorders. In order to impact translation, outcome measures that are translationally relevant are essential. This review emphasizes the importance of accurate neurobehavioral and anatomical analyses...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun, Bedia Cakmakoglu, İlyas Kaya, Salih Zoroğlu
Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a complex pathophysiology including genetic, inflammatory and neurodevelopmental components. We aim to investigate the relationship between ASD and gene polymorphisms of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), which may affect inflammatory and neurodevelopmental processes. Methods: 101 children diagnosed with ASD aged 2-18 and their biological parents were included in the study...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Haruhiko Sago, Keisuke Ishii, Rika Sugibayashi, Katsusuke Ozawa, Masahiro Sumie, Seiji Wada
The aim of this study was to review fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP), which ablates placental vascular anastomoses to treat twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). A review of studies reporting on the procedures, outcomes, complications and nonconventional applications of FLP for TTTS was conducted. FLP has been established as the primary treatment for monochorionic twin pregnancy associated with TTTS at 16-26 weeks. FLP is the only therapy that directly addresses the underlying pathophysiology. The recent technique modification of FLP, referred to as the 'Solomon technique', induces selective coagulation to connect the anastomoses ablation sites and has been introduced to reduce residual anastomoses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Silvina L Ferradal, Borjan Gagoski, Camilo Jaimes, Francesca Yi, Clarisa Carruthers, Catherine Vu, Jonathan S Litt, Ryan Larsen, Brad Sutton, P Ellen Grant, Lilla Zöllei
The normal development of thalamocortical connections plays a critical role in shaping brain connectivity in the prenatal and postnatal periods. Recent studies using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in neonates and infants have shown that abnormal thalamocortical connectivity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, all these studies have focused on a single neuroimaging modality, overlooking the dynamic relationship between structure and function at this early stage...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Farshid Sepehrband, Kirsten M Lynch, Ryan P Cabeen, Clio Gonzalez-Zacarias, Lu Zhao, Mike D'Arcy, Carl Kesselman, Megan M Herting, Ivo D Dinov, Arthur W Toga, Kristi A Clark
Exploring neuroanatomical sex differences using a multivariate statistical learning approach can yield insights that cannot be derived with univariate analysis. While gross differences in total brain volume are well-established, uncovering the more subtle, regional sex-related differences in neuroanatomy requires a multivariate approach that can accurately model spatial complexity as well as the interactions between neuroanatomical features. Here, we developed a multivariate statistical learning model using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict sex from MRI-derived regional neuroanatomical features from a single-site study of 967 healthy youth from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC)...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Nan Lin, John Flibotte, Daniel J Licht
Utilization of extraocorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become increasingly widespread as a bridging therapy for neonates with severe, reversible respiratory or cardiac diseases. While significant risks remain, due to advances in medical and surgical management, overall mortality has decreased. However, short and long-term neurological morbidity has remained high. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on multimodal neuromonitoring to track and optimally, minimize or prevent intracranial injury...
February 2, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Hanoof Al-Otaish, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mauricio A Urbina, Afaf El-Ansary
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental pathology characterized by an impairment in social interaction, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Glutamate signaling abnormalities are thought to be considered as major etiological mechanisms leading to ASD. The search for amino-acidic catabolytes related to glutamate in patients with different levels of ASD might help current research to clarify the mechanisms underlying glutamate signaling and its disorders, particularly in relation to ASD...
February 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Anna Gogola, Rafał Gnat, Małgorzata Zaborowska, Dorota Dziub, Michalina Gwóźdź
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the symmetry and pattern of activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Measurements of LAM thickness were performed in four experimental conditions: during traction with the force of 5% body weight (5% traction): 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction with the force of 15% body weight (15% traction): 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Catherine Lebel, Sean Deoni
Throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, our brains undergo remarkable changes. Processes including myelination and synaptogenesis occur rapidly across the first 2-3 years of life, and ongoing brain remodeling continues into young adulthood. Studies have sought to characterize the patterns of structural brain development, and early studies predominately relied upon gross anatomical measures of brain structure, morphology, and organization. MRI offers the ability to characterize and quantify a range of microstructural aspects of brain tissue that may be more closely related to fundamental neurodevelopmental processes...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
İsmihan Selen Onan, Erkut Öztürk, Aylin Demirel Başgöze, Ayse Çicek, Burak Onan
Williams syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, growth deficiency, hypercalcemia, cardiac defects, and a distinctive facial appearance. Cardiovascular abnormalities are present in approximately 80% of Williams syndrome patients. Surgical treatment is generally performed for supravalvular aortic stenosis, aortic coarctation, pulmonary artery stenosis, or ventricular septal defect. In rare cases, diffuse hypoplasia of the aortic arch with a normal left ventricular outflow tract and ascending aorta may be diagnosed in early childhood...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Sezen Köse, Helin Yılmaz, F Tuna Ocakoğlu, N Burcu Özbaran
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sleep problems and their correlations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability without ASD (ID), and typically developing children (TDC). METHODS: This study included 142 children (48 with ASD, 46 with ID, 48 with TDC) aged between 2 and 18 years old. Parents of the children completed the Childhood Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) in order to evaluate sleep disturbances. The sociodemographic and clinical information were noted on a data form for each child...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
Milo R Smith, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Rong Chen, Hirofumi Morishita, Joel T Dudley
High and increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders place enormous personal and economic burdens on society. Given the growing realization that the roots of neurodevelopmental disorders often lie in early childhood, there is an urgent need to identify childhood risk factors. Neurodevelopment is marked by periods of heightened experience-dependent neuroplasticity wherein neural circuitry is optimized by the environment. If these critical periods are disrupted, development of normal brain function can be permanently altered, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
Anne Masi, Edmond J Breen, Gail A Alvares, Nicholas Glozier, Ian B Hickie, Anna Hunt, Jennie Hui, John Beilby, David Ravine, John Wray, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Adam J Guastella
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, pervasive, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with varying trajectories, significant male bias and largely unknown etiology. However, an understanding of the biological mechanisms driving pathophysiology is evolving. Immune system aberrations, as identified through cytokine profiles, are believed to have a role in ASD. Altered cytokine levels may facilitate identification of ASD subtypes as well as provide biological markers of response to effective treatments...
2017: Molecular Autism
John L Waddington, Stanislav Katina, Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Adrian W Bowman
Purpose of Review: In the context of human developmental conditions, we review the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, the status of craniofacial dysmorphology as a clinically accessible index of brain dysmorphogenesis, the ability of genetically modified mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology to inform on the underlying dysmorphogenic process and how geometric morphometric techniques in mutant mice can extend quantitative analysis. Recent Findings: Mutant mice with disruption of neuregulin-1, a gene associated meta-analytically with risk for schizophrenia, constitute proof-of-concept studies of murine facial dysmorphology in a manner analogous to clinical studies in schizophrenia...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
E Mark Mahone, Martha B Denckla
The behavior patterns of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that would ultimately become recognized as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been described for centuries. Nevertheless, in the past 35 years, advances in diagnostic methods, identification of biomarkers, and treatments have advanced at an exponential rate. ADHD is now recognized as the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, with risks extending well into adulthood for both males and females, leading to its identification as a significant public health issue...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Maddalena Mauri, Maria Nobile, Monica Bellina, Alessandro Crippa, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in cognitive and emotional self-control. Optical technique acquisitions, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seem to be very promising during developmental ages, as they are non- invasive techniques and less influenced by body movements than other neuroimaging methods. Recently, these new techniques are being widely used to measure neural correlates underlying neuropsychological deficits in children with ADHD...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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