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Airway inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926774/concurrent-administration-effect-of-antibiotic-and-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-the-immunotoxicity-of-bacterial-endotoxins
#1
Azza M El Amir, Dalia G Tanious, Hanaa A Mansour
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a gram-negative bacterium that causes a variety of diseases in compromised hosts. Bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the major outer surface membrane components that are present in almost all gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity and inflammation of the airway. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of combined administration of Gentamicin (GENT) as an antibiotic and Dexamethasone (DEXA) as an anti-inflammatory drug on some immunological and histological parameters...
September 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925950/targeting-host-cell-surface-nucleolin-for-rsv-therapy-challenges-and-opportunities
#2
Peter Mastrangelo, Michael J Norris, Wenming Duan, Edward G Barrett, Theo J Moraes, Richard G Hegele
Nucleolin (NCL) has been reported as a cellular receptor for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We studied the effects of re-purposing AS1411, an anti-cancer compound that binds cell surface NCL, as a possible novel strategy for RSV therapy in vitro and in vivo. AS1411 was administered to RSV-infected cultures of non-polarized (HEp-2) and polarized (MDCK) epithelial cells and to virus-infected mice and cotton rats. Results of in vitro experiments showed that AS1411, used in micromolar concentrations, was associated with decreases in the number of virus-positive cells...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923684/ikk%C3%AE-activation-in-the-fetal-lung-mesenchyme-alters-lung-vascular-development-but-not-airway-morphogenesis
#3
Alyssa M McCoy, Jennifer L Herington, Ashley N Stouch, Anamika B Mukherjee, Omar Lakhdari, Timothy S Blackwell, Lawrence S Prince
In the immature lung, inflammation and injury disrupt epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for normal development. Innate immune signaling and NF-κB activation disrupt the normal expression of multiple mesenchymal genes playing key roles in airway branching and alveolar formation. To test the role of the NF-κB pathway specifically in lung mesenchyme, we utilized the mesenchymal Twist2-Cre to drive expression of a constitutively active IKKβ mutant (IKKβca) in developing mice. Embryonic Twist2-IKKβca mice were generated in expected numbers and appeared grossly normal...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921511/bone-marrow-ilc2s-a-local-source-of-il-5-in-il-33-driven-eosinophilia
#5
Kristina Johansson, Carina Malmhäll, Patricia Ramos-Ramírez, Madeleine Rådinger
T helper type 2 (TH 2) cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and eosinophil progenitors have previously been described to produce IL-5 in the airways upon allergen provocation or by direct administration of IL-33. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is known to be associated with IL-5-dependent eosinophil development in the bone marrow, however, the source of IL-5 remains unclear. TH cells, ILC2s and CD34(+) progenitors have been proposed to be involved in this process, therefore, we investigated whether these cells are taking part in eosinophilopoiesis by producing IL-5 locally in the bone marrow in IL-33-driven inflammation...
September 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919369/effect-of-airway-remodeling-and-hyperresponsiveness-on-complexity-of-breathing-pattern-in-rat
#6
Mehdi Eslami-Behroozi, Mohammad Javan, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The complexity of respiratory dynamics is decreased, in association with disease severity, in patients with asthma. However, the pathophysiological basis of decreased complexity of breathing pattern in asthma is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated bronchoconstriction (using methacholine) on breathing pattern in rats with or without allergen-induced sensitization. Entropy analysis of respiratory variability showed decreased irregularity (less complexity) of respiratory rhythm in this rat model of asthma...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919220/peucedanum-japonicum-extract-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-inhibiting-th2-cell-activation-and-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators
#7
Jin Mi Chun, A-Reum Lee, Hyo Seon Kim, A Yeong Lee, Gyo Jeong Gu, Byeong Cheol Moon, Bo-In Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb is traditionally used to treat coughs, colds, headache and inflammatory diseases in Korea and Japan. Its effects on allergic lung inflammation have not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of Peucedanum japonicum extract (PJE) using a murine model of asthma and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice underwent two rounds of sensitization with ovalbumin 1 week apart followed by four intranasal ovalbumin challenges on days 13-16...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#8
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
September 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917991/enhanced-expression-of-pd-l1-and-ifn-%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-is-associated-with-bcg-induced-th2-inhibition
#9
A C C Gouveia, F G Braga, M Mota, F M C Silva, A S S Brugiolo, E E Oliveira, M C Ayupe, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Accumulating evidence indicates that the exposure to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents the development of allergy and the airway dendritic cells (DCs) may be involved in this protective effect. However, studies to better characterize the specific interactions between BCG and DCs and their role in this mycobacteria-mediated Th2 cell suppression are still ongoing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neonatal BCG vaccination in the innate immune response in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation...
September 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916704/delayed-neutrophil-apoptosis-enhances-net-formation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Robert D Gray, Gareth Hardisty, Kate H Regan, Maeve Smith, Calum T Robb, Rodger Duffin, Annie Mackellar, Jennifer M Felton, Lily Paemka, Brian N McCullagh, Christopher D Lucas, David A Dorward, Edward F McKone, Gordon Cooke, Seamas C Donnelly, Pradeep K Singh, David A Stoltz, Christopher Haslett, Paul B McCray, Moira K B Whyte, Adriano G Rossi, Donald J Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is defined by large numbers of neutrophils and associated damaging products in the airway. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis is described in CF although it is unclear whether this is a primary neutrophil defect or a response to chronic inflammation. Increased levels of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been measured in CF and we aimed to investigate the causal relationship between these phenomena and their potential to serve as a driver of inflammation...
September 15, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915873/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-ambient-air-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidities-including-childhood-asthma-in-adolescents-from-the-western-cape-province-study-protocol
#11
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915064/the-immunopathologic-effects-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-cards-toxin-a-primate-model
#12
Diego J Maselli, Jorge L Medina, Edward G Brooks, Jacqueline J Coalson, Thirumalai R Kannan, Vicki T Winter, Molly Principe, Marianna P Cagle, Joel B Baseman, Peter H Dube, Jay I Peters
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has been linked to poor asthma outcomes. M. pneumoniae produces an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin that has a major role in inflammation and airway dysfunction. The objective was to evaluate the immunopathological effects in primates exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. Thirteen baboons were exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. At day 7 and 14, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected and analyzed for cell count, percent of each type of cell, CARDS toxin by PCR, CARDS toxin by antigen capture, eosinophilic cationic protein, and cytokine profiles...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913987/clinical-characteristics-of-exacerbation-prone-adult-asthmatics-identified-by-cluster-analysis
#13
Mi Ae Kim, Seung Woo Shin, Jong Sook Park, Soo Taek Uh, Hun Soo Chang, Da Jeong Bae, You Sook Cho, Hae Sim Park, Ho Joo Yoon, Byoung Whui Choi, Yong Hoon Kim, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913336/anti-interleukin-5-il-5-and-il-5ra-biological-drugs-efficacy-safety-and-future-perspectives-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Gilda Varricchi, Francesca Puggioni, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
The definition of asthma has changed considerably in recent years, to the extent that asthma is no longer considered a single disease but a heterogeneous disorder that includes several phenotypes and, possibly, endotypes. A more detailed analysis of the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of asthma shows interleukin 5 (IL-5) to be a crucial cytokine in several asthma phenotypes. In fact, IL-5 exerts selective action on eosinophils, which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms and control...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912783/sex-differences-in-asthma-a-key-role-of-androgen-signaling-in-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Eve Blanquart, Jean-Charles Guéry
Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#16
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911970/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-airways
#17
Xiang Li, Charalambos Michaeloudes, Yuelin Zhang, Coen H Wiegman, Ian M Adcock, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to inflammation and remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect against lung damage in animal models of COPD. It is unknown whether these effects occur through attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction in airway cells. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) on oxidative stress-induce mitochondrial dysfunction in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro and in mouse lungs in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910970/antibody-therapy-for-the-management-of-severe-asthma-with-eosinophilic-inflammation
#18
Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase, Maho Suzukawa, Shin Ohta
One of the characteristic features of asthma is chronic airway inflammation typically with eosinophil infiltration. Most asthmatics can be treated successfully with conventional treatment appropriate for their severity, but in some severe cases, asthma cannot be well controlled even with thorough treatment and this condition is known as 'refractory asthma'. To overcome severe refractory asthma, a new therapeutic strategy with biologics has been developed based on the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of airway inflammation in asthma, induced by the condition of high Th2-type responses and activation of eosinophils as well as allergic reactions...
July 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910960/-effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-airway-inflammation-in-allergic-asthma-mice-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#19
N N Ren, H J Chen, Q L Chen, J Eileen, Y G An, Yiguang Lin
Objectives: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthma mouse model and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Twenty-four BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four equal groups: normal control group, OVA-induced asthmatic model group, hUC-MSCs treated group (50 μl of hUC-MSCs was transplanted into the trachea of asthmatic mice ) and hUC-MSCs control group (50 μl of hUC-MSCs was transplanted into the trachea of control mice)...
September 12, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910134/eosinophilic-and-non-eosinophilic-asthma
#20
Tara F Carr, Amir A Zeki, Monica Kraft
Asthma can be subdivided into eosinophilic or non-eosinophilic phenotypes based on the inflammatory cellular patterns seen in sputum, blood, and airway tissue compartments. However, this level of stratification does not always produce robust clinical phenotypes as there is considerable overlap across these phenotypes when viewed from the perspective of "eosinophilia". Multiple proposed subphenotypes of asthma have instead been described within both the eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic groups. An endotype is the mechanism driving a subphenotype including those associated with eosinophilia such as early-onset allergic asthma, with and without obesity, aspirin sensitive asthma and late-onset eosinophilic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis, and exercise-induced asthma...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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