Read by QxMD icon Read

Airway inflammation

Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Israr Bin M Ibrahim, Ramana M Pidaparti, Kevin R Ward
Ventilation-induced lung injury is a common problem faced by patients with respiratory problems who require mechanical ventilation (MV). This injury may lead to a greater chance of developing or exacerbating the acute respiratory distress syndrome which further complicates the therapeutic use of MV. The chain of events begins with the MV initiating an immune response that leads to inflammation induced tissue material alteration (stiffening) and eventually the loss of lung resistance. It is clear from this sequence of events that the phenomenon of ventilation induced injury is multi-scale by nature and, hence, requires holistic analysis involving simulations and informatics...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Marta Stolarczyk, Bob J Scholte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) share molecular mechanisms that cause the pathological symptoms they have in common. Here, we review evidence suggesting that hyperactivity of the EGFR/ADAM17 axis plays a role in the development of chronic lung disease in both CF and COPD. The ubiquitous transmembrane protease A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) forms a functional unit with the EGF receptor (EGFR), in a feedback loop interaction labeled the ADAM17/EGFR axis. In airway epithelial cells, ADAM17 sheds multiple soluble signaling proteins by proteolysis, including EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG), and proinflammatory mediators such as the interleukin 6 coreceptor (IL-6R)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Gehan Hassan AboEl-Magd, Maaly Mohamed Mabrouk
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in the diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and in monitoring treatment response, analyzing the relationship between suPAR and fibrinogen in AECOPD. AECOPD leads to increased airway inflammation, contributing to an exaggerated release of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We recruited 45 patients with AECOPD and 20 healthy control subjects. Medical histories were taken, and all subjects underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests, and blood gas analysis...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Simon R Lea, Sophie L Reynolds, Manminder Kaur, Karen D Simpson, Simon R Hall, Edith M Hessel, Dave Singh
Background: COPD is a progressive inflammatory airway disease characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages in the lungs. Bacterial colonization of the lungs is a common feature in COPD and can promote inflammation through continual and repeated Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. We have studied the response of COPD alveolar macrophages to repetitive stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. We investigated the effect of sequential stimulation with different ligands to determine whether this results in tolerance or amplification of the immune response...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Zhilin Zeng, Miao Li, Jinkun Chen, Qinghai Li, Qin Ning, Jianping Zhao, Yongjian Xu, Jungang Xie, Jun Yu
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cells activation and production of inflammatory mediators. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) plays an important role in diverse immunological disorders by regulating immune cell functions, such as differentiation and mediator secretion. However, the role of MBD2 in COPD remains unknown. Methods: MBD2 protein expression in lung tissues of patients with COPD and cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Bingqing Xie, Bharathi Laxman, Somaye Hashemifar, Randi Stern, T Conrad Gilliam, Natalia Maltsev, Steven R White
Basal airway epithelial cells (AEC) constitute stem/progenitor cells within the central airways and respond to mucosal injury in an ordered sequence of spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to needed cell types. However, dynamic gene transcription in the early events after mucosal injury has not been studied in AEC. We examined gene expression using microarrays following mechanical injury (MI) in primary human AEC grown in submersion culture to generate basal cells and in the air-liquid interface to generate differentiated AEC (dAEC) that include goblet and ciliated cells...
2018: PloS One
Marie Pariollaud, Julie Gibbs, Thomas Hopwood, Sheila Brown, Nicola Begley, Ryan Vonslow, Toryn Poolman, Baoqiang Guo, Ben Saer, D Heulyn Jones, James P Tellam, Stefano Bresciani, Nicholas Co Tomkinson, Justyna Wojno-Picon, Anthony Wj Cooper, Dion A Daniels, Ryan P Trump, Daniel Grant, William Zuercher, Timothy M Willson, Andrew S MacDonald, Brian Bolognese, Patricia L Podolin, Yolanda Sanchez, Andrew Si Loudon, David W Ray
Recent studies reveal that airway epithelial cells are critical pulmonary circadian pacemaker cells, mediating rhythmic inflammatory responses. Using mouse models, we now identify the rhythmic circadian repressor REV-ERB as essential to the mechanism coupling the pulmonary clock to innate immunity, involving both myeloid, and bronchial epithelial cells in temporal gating and determining amplitude of response to inhaled endotoxin. Dual mutation of REV-ERBα and its paralog REV-ERBβ in bronchial epithelia further augmented inflammatory responses and chemokine activation, but also initiated a basal inflammatory state, revealing a critical homeostatic role for REV-ERB proteins in the suppression of the endogenous pro-inflammatory mechanism in un-challenged cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Oliva Ortiz-Alvarez
Croup is one of the most common causes of upper airway obstruction in young children. It is characterized by sudden onset of barky cough, hoarse voice, inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress caused by upper airway inflammation secondary to a viral infection. Published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of croup advise using steroids as the mainstay treatment for all children who present to emergency department (ED) with croup symptoms. Dexamethasone, given orally as a single dose at 0.6 mg/kg, is highly efficacious in treating croup symptoms...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Hong-Yi Li, Jing-Xia Meng, Zhen Liu, Xiao-Wen Liu, Yu-Guang Huang, Jing Zhao
Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent widely used in clinical practice, is the preferred anesthetic for asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5 h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected...
March 12, 2018: Inflammation
Masakatsu Yamashita, Makoto Kuwahara
Although Bach2 (broad complex-tramtrack-bric a brac and Cap'n'collar homology 2) plays an important role in regulating Th2 cell differentiation and type-2 immune responses, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our current studies demonstrate that Bach2 associates with Batf (basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like) family transcription factors and binds to the regulatory regions of the Th2 cytokine gene loci. The Bach2-Batf complex antagonizes the recruitment of the interferon regulatory factor 4 (Irf4)-containing Batf complex to activator protein 1 (AP-1) motifs in the Th2 cytokine gene locus and suppresses Th2 cytokine production and/or Th2 cell differentiation...
February 24, 2018: International Immunology
João Cavaleiro Rufo, Inês Paciência, Diana Silva, Carla Martins, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Patrícia Padrão, Pedro Moreira, Luís Delgado, André Moreira
BACKGROUND: Endurance swimming exercises coupled to disinfection by-products exposure has been associated with increased airways dysfunction and neurogenic inflammation in elite swimmers. However, the impact of swimming pool exposure at a recreational level on autonomic activity has never been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how swimming pool attendance is influencing lung and autonomic function in school-aged children. METHODS: A total of 858 children enrolled a cross sectional survey...
2018: PloS One
Lloyd Einsiedel, Hai Pham, Kim Wilson, Rebecca Walley, Jocelyn Turpin, Charles Bangham, Antoine Gessain, Richard J Woodman
BACKGROUND: The Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1c subtype (HTLV-1c) is highly endemic to central Australia where the most frequent complication of HTLV-1 infection in Indigenous Australians is bronchiectasis. We carried out a prospective study to quantify the prognosis of HTLV-1c infection and chronic lung disease and the risk of death according to the HTLV-1c proviral load (pVL). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 840 Indigenous adults (discharge diagnosis of bronchiectasis, 154) were recruited to a hospital-based prospective cohort...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Irem Serifoglu, Balam Er Dedekarginoglu, Ebru Hatice Ayvazoglu Soy, Gaye Ulubay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Hemoptysis is a symptom that can be caused by airway disease, pulmonary parenchymal disease, or pulmonary vascular disease, or it can be idiopathic. Infection is the most common cause of hemoptysis, accounting for 60% to 70% of cases. Hemoptysis is also an initial symptom of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome, although it may be absent at presentation in one-third of patients. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is characterized by disruption of the alveolar-capillary basement membranes because of either injury or inflammation of the arterioles, venules, or capillaries, resulting in bleeding in alveolar spaces...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Lucy Chambers, Joanne Finch, Karen Edwards, Antoine Jeanjean, Roland Leigh, Sherif Gonem
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalisations and healthcare utilisation, but the effects on day-to-day asthma control are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a prospective single-centre panel study to test the hypothesis that personal air pollution exposure is associated with asthma symptoms, lung function and airway inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were provided with a personal air pollution monitor (Cairclip NO2 /O3 ) which was kept on or around their person throughout the 12-week follow-up period...
March 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael C Peters, Sheena Kerr, Eleanor M Dunican, Prescott G Woodruff, Merritt L Fajt, Bruce D Levy, Elliot Israel, Brenda R Phillips, David T Mauger, Suzy A Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Mats W Johansson, Nizar N Jarjour, Andrea M Coverstone, Mario Castro, Annette T Hastie, Eugene R Bleecker, Sally E Wenzel, John V Fahy
BACKGROUND: Airway type 2 inflammation is usually corticosteroid sensitive, but the role of type 2 inflammation as a mechanism of asthma in patients on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine if airway type 2 inflammation persists in patients treated with ICS and to evaluate the clinical features of patients with steroid resistant airway type-2 inflammation. METHODS: We used qPCR to generate a composite metric of type-2 cytokine gene expression (type 2 Gene Mean, "T2GM") in induced sputum cells from healthy controls, severe asthma patients on ICS (n=174), and non-severe asthma patients on ICS (n=85)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
L de Bari, M Favia, A Bobba, R Lassandro, L Guerra, A Atlante
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated to impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel also causing decreased glutathione (GSH) secretion, defective airway bacterial clearance and inflammation. Here we checked the main ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging enzymes as potential additional factors involved in CF pathogenesis. We found that CFBE41o-cells, expressing F508del CFTR, have increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and expression level, mainly responsible of the increased ROS production, and decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, not dependent on GR protein level decrease...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Clare A Stokes, Alison M Condliffe
Defining features of chronic airway diseases include abnormal and persistent inflammatory processes, impaired airway epithelial integrity and function, and increased susceptibility to recurrent respiratory infections. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases, which contribute to multiple physiological and pathological processes within the airway, with abnormal PI3K signalling contributing to the pathogenesis of several respiratory diseases. Consequently, the potential benefit of targeting PI3K isoforms has received considerable attention, being viewed as a viable therapeutic option in inflammatory and infectious lung disorders...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"