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Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Xu Yu, Yuan Wan, Yizhu Chen, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design...
December 5, 2016: Small
Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Jun Araya, Hiromichi Hara, Shunsuke Minagawa, Naoki Takasaka, Saburo Ito, Kenji Kobayashi, Katsutoshi Nakayama
Aging is associated with impairments in homeostasis. Although aging and senescence are not equivalent, the number of senescent cells increases with aging. Cellular senescence plays important roles in tissue repair or remodeling, as well as embryonic development. Autophagy is a process of lysosomal self-degradation that maintains a homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins. Autophagy diminishes with aging; additionally, accelerated aging can be attributed to reduced autophagy...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Assila Belounis, Carine Nyalendo, Roxane Le Gall, Tina V Imbriglio, Mohamed Mahma, Pierre Teira, Mona Beaunoyer, Sonia Cournoyer, Elie Haddad, Gilles Vassal, Hervé Sartelet
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a frequent pediatric tumor characterized by a poor prognosis where a majority of tumors progress despite intensive multimodality treatments. Autophagy, a self-degradative process in cells, could be induced by chemotherapy and be associated with chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether: 1) autophagy is present in NB, 2) chemotherapy modified its levels, and 3) its inhibition decreased chemoresistance. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings were performed on samples from 184 NB patients in order to verify the expression of LC3B, a specific marker for autophagy, and Beclin 1, a positive regulator of autophagy...
November 15, 2016: BMC Cancer
Jae Sung Lim, Hyeon Sik Kim, Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen, Kyung A Cho
Autophagy is a self-degradation process that is important for balancing energy sources at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. Recently, it was report that autophagy is controlled by recognizing conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the molecular mechanism of TLRs in autophagy is not well understood. In this study, we found that serum starvation-dependent autophagy was associated with TLR9 activation in the absence of CpG-ODN, which is a specific TLR9 ligand...
October 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laëtitia Le Texier, Katie E Lineburg, Benjamin Cao, Cameron McDonald-Hyman, Lucie Leveque-El Mouttie, Jemma Nicholls, Michelle Melino, Blessy C Nalkurthi, Kylie A Alexander, Bianca Teal, Stephen J Blake, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Christian R Engwerda, Rachel D Kuns, Steven W Lane, Michele Teng, Charis Teh, Daniel Gray, Andrew D Clouston, Susan K Nilsson, Bruce R Blazar, Geoffrey R Hill, Kelli P A MacDonald
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Quantitative and/or qualitative defects in Tregs result in diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, malignancy, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We recently reported increased expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg) in association with enhanced survival of Tregs after SCT. Autophagy is a self-degradative process for cytosolic components that promotes cell homeostasis and survival...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Ciro Indolfi, Salvatore De Rosa, Antonio Colombo
The introduction of percutaneous treatment of coronary artery stenosis with balloon angioplasty was the first revolution in interventional cardiology; the advent of metallic coronary stents (bare and drug-eluting) marked the second and third revolutions. However, the latest generation of drug-eluting stents is limited by several factors. Permanent vessel caging impairs arterial physiology, and the incidence of very late stent thrombosis - although lower with the second generation than with the first generation of drug-eluting stents - remains a major concern...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
E E Mowers, M N Sharifi, K F Macleod
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that has a key role in cellular stress responses and survival. Recent work has begun to explore the function of autophagy in cancer metastasis, which is of particular interest given the dearth of effective therapeutic options for metastatic disease. Autophagy is induced upon progression of various human cancers to metastasis and together with data from genetically engineered mice and experimental metastasis models, a role for autophagy at nearly every phase of the metastatic cascade has been identified...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Artur Gieldon, Dorota Zurawa-Janicka, Miroslaw Jarzab, Tomasz Wenta, Przemyslaw Golik, Grzegorz Dubin, Barbara Lipinska, Jerzy Ciarkowski
HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2...
2016: PloS One
Abir Ganguly, Craig C Manahan, Deniz Top, Estella F Yee, Changfan Lin, Michael W Young, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiangtao Hu, Qianhong Gao, Lu Xu, Mingxing Zhang, Zhe Xing, Xiaojing Guo, Kuo Zhang, Guozhong Wu
Anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide coatings were produced on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric by radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MAPS) and subsequent cohydrolysis of the graft chains (PMAPS) with tetrabutyl titanate, followed by boiling water treatment for 180 min. The resulting material was coded as UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 and characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetry, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, among others...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qingfeng Zhai, Xiaowei Zhang, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
Herein, a multifunctional nanoarchitecture has been developed by integrating well-crystalline molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) nanotubes and an electrochemical indicator - thionin (TH). The Mo2C nanotubes were synthesized through the self-degradable template method and high-temperature calcination, and their structure and morphology were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Due to the high electrocatalytic properties, excellent conductivity and highly active surface area of Mo2C nanotubes, the Mo2C-based material was used as a nanocarrier to load TH molecules for the development of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for α-fetoprotein (AFP) detection...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Min-Ji Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Ji-Hwan Ryu
The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by a variety of external or host-derived stimuli and its activation initiates inflammatory response through caspase-1 activation resulting in inflammatory cytokine IL-1β maturation and secretion. The NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a kind of innate immune response most likely mediated by myeloid cells acting as a host defense mechanism. However, if the activation is not properly regulated, excessive inflammation induced by overactivated NLRP3 inflammasome can be detrimental to the host, causing tissue damage and organ dysfunction, eventually causing several diseases...
July 20, 2016: BMB Reports
Manjula Pandiri, Mohammad S Hossain, Frank W Foss, Krishnan Rajeshwar, Yaron Paz
Synthetic flavin molecules were anchored on Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effect of their presence on the photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 was studied. Under UV light, an increase in the degradation rate of ethanol was observed. This increase was accompanied by stabilization of the anchored flavin against self-degradation. The unprecedented stabilization effect was found also in the absence of a reducing agent such as ethanol. In contrast, under the less energetic visible light, fast degradation of the anchored flavin was observed...
July 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Linyan Yang, Christina Schmalz, Jin Zhou, Christian Zwiener, Victor W-C Chang, Liya Ge, Man Pun Wan
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Yusaku Miyamae, Yukina Nishito, Naomi Nakai, Yoko Nagumo, Takeo Usui, Seiji Masuda, Taiho Kambe, Masaya Nagao
Macroautophagy, or autophagy, is a cellular response in which unnecessary cytoplasmic components, including lipids and organelles, are self-degraded. Recent studies closely related autophagy to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a process critical in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. During HSC activation, cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are degraded as autophagic cargo, and then cells express fibrogenic genes. Thus, inhibition of autophagy in HSCs is a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating liver fibrosis...
August 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nidhi Vashistha, Sonya E Neal, Amanjot Singh, Sarah M Carroll, Randolph Y Hampton
The HRD (HMG-CoA reductase degradation) pathway is a conserved route of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), by which misfolded ER proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded. ERAD substrates are ubiquitinated by the action of the Hrd1 RING-H2 E3 ligase. Hrd1 is always present in a stoichiometric complex with the ER membrane protein Hrd3, which is also required for HRD-dependent degradation. Despite its conserved presence, unequivocal study of Hrd3 function has been precluded by its central role in Hrd1 stability...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Viktor Billes, Tibor Kovács, Bernadette Hotzi, Anna Manzéger, Kinga Tagscherer, Marcell Komlós, Anna Tarnóci, Zsolt Pádár, Attila Erdős, Annamaria Bjelik, Adam Legradi, Károly Gulya, Balázs Gulyás, Tibor Vellai
BACKGROUND: Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated self-degradation process of eukaryotic cells, serves as a main route for the elimination of cellular damage [1-3]. Such damages include aggregated, oxidized or misfolded proteins whose accumulation can cause various neurodegenerative pathologies, including Huntington's disease (HD). OBJECTIVE: Here we examined whether enhanced autophagic activity can alleviate neurophatological features in a Drosophila model of HD (the transgenic animals express a human mutant Huntingtin protein with a long polyglutamine repeat, 128Q)...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Honglei Shi, Xiaochang C Wang, Qian Li, Shanqing Jiang
Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chao Wang, Yanqi Ye, Gabrielle M Hochu, Hasan Sadeghifar, Zhen Gu
Despite recent advances in melanoma treatment through the use of anti-PD-1 (aPD1) immunotherapy, the efficacy of this method remains to be improved. Here we report an innovative self-degradable microneedle (MN) patch for the sustained delivery of aPD1 in a physiologically controllable manner. The microneedle is composed of biocompatible hyaluronic acid integrated with pH-sensitive dextran nanoparticles (NPs) that encapsulate aPD1 and glucose oxidase (GOx), which converts blood glucose to gluconic acid. The generation of acidic environment promotes the self-dissociation of NPs and subsequently results in the substantial release of aPD1...
April 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Christine M Mikell, Denise M Martz
This study examined men's perceptions of women engaging in "Fat Talk," a style of conversation that expresses discontent towards one's physical appearance, especially focusing on and criticizing body fat, shape, and weight. Male undergraduates were shown a vignette illustrating a courting scenario wherein the target female's body size was manipulated to be "sexy" and: (a) "lean," (b) "average," or (c) "larger." And to another woman, the men overheard the target female either: (a) self-degrade herself (fat talk) or (b) self-accept herself...
April 2016: Eating Behaviors
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