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Zhong-Hao Zhang, Qiu-Yan Wu, Rui Zheng, Chen Chen, Yao Chen, Qiong Liu, Peter R Hoffmann, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
: Tau pathology was recently identified as a key driver of disease progression and an attractive therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenomethionine (Se-Met), a major bioactive form of selenium (Se) in organisms with significant antioxidant capacity, reduced the levels of total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau and ameliorated cognitive deficits in younger triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Whether Se-Met has a similar effect on tau pathology and the specific mechanism of action in older 3xTg-AD mice remains unknown...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chao Wang, Ming-da Wang, Peng Cheng, Hai Huang, Wei Dong, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng-Peng Li, Chuan Lin, Ze-Ya Pan, Meng-Chao Wu, Wei-Ping Zhou
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx contributes to the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the concomitant expression of HBx and OV6 was closely associated with the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. HBx was required for the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Antonio Gallo, Melanie Lampe, Thomas Günther, Wolfram Brune
: KS-Bcl-2 is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral Bcl-2 homolog (vBcl-2), which has apoptosis and autophagy inhibiting activity when expressed in transfected cells. However, little is known about its function during viral infection. As KS-Bcl-2 is expressed during the lytic replication cycle, we used constitutively lytic and inducible-lytic KSHV mutants to investigate the role of KS-Bcl-2 during the lytic cycle. We show that KSHV cannot complete the lytic replication cycle and produce infectious progeny in the absence of KS-Bcl-2, indicating that the protein is essential for KSHV replication...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Yuichi Oogai, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid...
December 28, 2016: Genes
Kensei Fujiwara, Yasutaka Kuwahara, Yuki Sumida, Hiromi Yamashita
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in hollow silica spheres (TiO2@HSSs) show a shielding-effect that can insulate photocatalytically active TiO2 NPs from the surrounding environment and thus prohibit the self-degradation of organic support materials under ultraviolet (UV)-light irradiation. In this study, photocatalytically active papers were fabricated by combining TiO2@HSS and cellulose fibers, and their photocatalytic activities and durability under UV-light irradiation were examined. The yolk-shell nanostructured TiO2@HSS, which has an ample void space between inner TiO2 NPs and an outer silica shell, was synthesized using a facile single-step method utilizing an oil-in-water microemulsion as an organic template...
December 30, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiang Gao, Liang Huang, Bo Wang, Dingfeng Xu, Junwen Zhong, Zhimi Hu, Lina Zhang, Jun Zhou
Developing eco-friendly and low-cost electronics is an effective strategy to address the electronic waste issue. In this study, transparent cellulose nanopaper (T-paper) and polylactic acid (PLA) electret were used to construct a biodegradable and transparent paper-based electret nanogenerator. The nanogenerator could be assembled with paper products to form a self-powered smart packaging system without impairing the appearance, due to the high transparency and desirable output performance. Furthermore, the self-degradation property in the natural soil of the nanogenerator is demonstrated, indicating that the nanogenerator is recycled and will not pollute the environment...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Xu Yu, Yuan Wan, Yizhu Chen, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design...
February 2017: Small
Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Jun Araya, Hiromichi Hara, Shunsuke Minagawa, Naoki Takasaka, Saburo Ito, Kenji Kobayashi, Katsutoshi Nakayama
Aging is associated with impairments in homeostasis. Although aging and senescence are not equivalent, the number of senescent cells increases with aging. Cellular senescence plays important roles in tissue repair or remodeling, as well as embryonic development. Autophagy is a process of lysosomal self-degradation that maintains a homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins. Autophagy diminishes with aging; additionally, accelerated aging can be attributed to reduced autophagy...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Assila Belounis, Carine Nyalendo, Roxane Le Gall, Tina V Imbriglio, Mohamed Mahma, Pierre Teira, Mona Beaunoyer, Sonia Cournoyer, Elie Haddad, Gilles Vassal, Hervé Sartelet
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a frequent pediatric tumor characterized by a poor prognosis where a majority of tumors progress despite intensive multimodality treatments. Autophagy, a self-degradative process in cells, could be induced by chemotherapy and be associated with chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether: 1) autophagy is present in NB, 2) chemotherapy modified its levels, and 3) its inhibition decreased chemoresistance. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings were performed on samples from 184 NB patients in order to verify the expression of LC3B, a specific marker for autophagy, and Beclin 1, a positive regulator of autophagy...
November 15, 2016: BMC Cancer
Jae Sung Lim, Hyeon Sik Kim, Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen, Kyung A Cho
Autophagy is a self-degradation process that is important for balancing energy sources at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. Recently, it was report that autophagy is controlled by recognizing conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the molecular mechanism of TLRs in autophagy is not well understood. In this study, we found that serum starvation-dependent autophagy was associated with TLR9 activation in the absence of CpG-ODN, which is a specific TLR9 ligand...
October 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laëtitia Le Texier, Katie E Lineburg, Benjamin Cao, Cameron McDonald-Hyman, Lucie Leveque-El Mouttie, Jemma Nicholls, Michelle Melino, Blessy C Nalkurthi, Kylie A Alexander, Bianca Teal, Stephen J Blake, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Christian R Engwerda, Rachel D Kuns, Steven W Lane, Michele Teng, Charis Teh, Daniel Gray, Andrew D Clouston, Susan K Nilsson, Bruce R Blazar, Geoffrey R Hill, Kelli P A MacDonald
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Quantitative and/or qualitative defects in Tregs result in diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, malignancy, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We recently reported increased expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg) in association with enhanced survival of Tregs after SCT. Autophagy is a self-degradative process for cytosolic components that promotes cell homeostasis and survival...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Ciro Indolfi, Salvatore De Rosa, Antonio Colombo
The introduction of percutaneous treatment of coronary artery stenosis with balloon angioplasty was the first revolution in interventional cardiology; the advent of metallic coronary stents (bare and drug-eluting) marked the second and third revolutions. However, the latest generation of drug-eluting stents is limited by several factors. Permanent vessel caging impairs arterial physiology, and the incidence of very late stent thrombosis - although lower with the second generation than with the first generation of drug-eluting stents - remains a major concern...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
E E Mowers, M N Sharifi, K F Macleod
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that has a key role in cellular stress responses and survival. Recent work has begun to explore the function of autophagy in cancer metastasis, which is of particular interest given the dearth of effective therapeutic options for metastatic disease. Autophagy is induced upon progression of various human cancers to metastasis and together with data from genetically engineered mice and experimental metastasis models, a role for autophagy at nearly every phase of the metastatic cascade has been identified...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Artur Gieldon, Dorota Zurawa-Janicka, Miroslaw Jarzab, Tomasz Wenta, Przemyslaw Golik, Grzegorz Dubin, Barbara Lipinska, Jerzy Ciarkowski
HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2...
2016: PloS One
Abir Ganguly, Craig C Manahan, Deniz Top, Estella F Yee, Changfan Lin, Michael W Young, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiangtao Hu, Qianhong Gao, Lu Xu, Mingxing Zhang, Zhe Xing, Xiaojing Guo, Kuo Zhang, Guozhong Wu
Anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide coatings were produced on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric by radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MAPS) and subsequent cohydrolysis of the graft chains (PMAPS) with tetrabutyl titanate, followed by boiling water treatment for 180 min. The resulting material was coded as UHMWPE-g-PMAPS/TiO2 and characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetry, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, among others...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qingfeng Zhai, Xiaowei Zhang, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
Herein, a multifunctional nanoarchitecture has been developed by integrating well-crystalline molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) nanotubes and an electrochemical indicator - thionin (TH). The Mo2C nanotubes were synthesized through the self-degradable template method and high-temperature calcination, and their structure and morphology were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Due to the high electrocatalytic properties, excellent conductivity and highly active surface area of Mo2C nanotubes, the Mo2C-based material was used as a nanocarrier to load TH molecules for the development of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for α-fetoprotein (AFP) detection...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Min-Ji Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Ji-Hwan Ryu
The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by a variety of external or host-derived stimuli and its activation initiates an inflammatory response through caspase-1 activation, resulting in inflammatory cytokine IL-1β maturation and secretion. The NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a kind of innate immune response, most likely mediated by myeloid cells acting as a host defense mechanism. However, if this activation is not properly regulated, excessive inflammation induced by overactivated NLRP3 inflammasome can be detrimental to the host, causing tissue damage and organ dysfunction, eventually causing several diseases...
October 2016: BMB Reports
Manjula Pandiri, Mohammad S Hossain, Frank W Foss, Krishnan Rajeshwar, Yaron Paz
Synthetic flavin molecules were anchored on Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effect of their presence on the photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 was studied. Under UV light, an increase in the degradation rate of ethanol was observed. This increase was accompanied by stabilization of the anchored flavin against self-degradation. The unprecedented stabilization effect was found also in the absence of a reducing agent such as ethanol. In contrast, under the less energetic visible light, fast degradation of the anchored flavin was observed...
July 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Linyan Yang, Christina Schmalz, Jin Zhou, Christian Zwiener, Victor W-C Chang, Liya Ge, Man Pun Wan
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
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