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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024806/dimerization-and-oxidation-of-tryptophan-in-uv-a-photolysis-sensitized-by-kynurenic-acid
#1
Ekaterina D Sormacheva, Peter S Sherin, Yuri P Tsentalovich
Photoinduced generation of radicals in the eye lens may play an important role in the modification of proteins leading to their coloration, aggregation, and insolubilization. The radicals can be formed via the reactions of photoexcited endogenous chromophores of the human lens with lens proteins, in particular with tryptophan residues. In the present work we studied the reactions induced by UV-A (315-400nm) light between kynurenic acid (KNA), an effective photosensitizer present in the human lens, and N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NTrpH) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
October 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018234/homo-protacs-bivalent-small-molecule-dimerizers-of-the-vhl-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-to-induce-self-degradation
#2
Chiara Maniaci, Scott J Hughes, Andrea Testa, Wenzhang Chen, Douglas J Lamont, Sonia Rocha, Dario R Alessi, Roberto Romeo, Alessio Ciulli
E3 ubiquitin ligases are key enzymes within the ubiquitin proteasome system which catalyze the ubiquitination of proteins, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. E3 ligases are gaining importance as targets to small molecules, both for direct inhibition and to be hijacked to induce the degradation of non-native neo-substrates using bivalent compounds known as PROTACs (for 'proteolysis-targeting chimeras'). We describe Homo-PROTACs as an approach to dimerize an E3 ligase to trigger its suicide-type chemical knockdown inside cells...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946098/high-yield-secretory-production-of-stable-active-trypsin-through-engineering-of-the-n-terminal-peptide-and-self-degradation-sites-in-pichia-pastoris
#3
Yunfeng Zhang, Hao Huang, Xinhui Yao, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Zhen Kang
Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT) possesses enzymatic properties similar to mammalian trypsins and has great potential applications in the leather processing, bioethanol, detergent and pharmaceutical industry. Here, a new strategy was reported for improving its stable, active secretory production through engineering of its propeptide and self-degradation sites. By rationally introducing hydrophobic mutations into the N-terminus of SGT Exmt (R145I), replacing the propeptide with FPVDDDDK and engineering the α-factor signal peptide, trypsin production (amidase activity) was improved to 177...
August 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882757/ion-channel-functional-protein-kinase-trpm7-regulates-mg-ions-to-promote-the-osteoinduction-of-human-osteoblast-via-pi3k-pathway-in-vitro-simulation-of-the-bone-repairing-effect-of-mg-based-alloy-implant
#4
Xiuzhi Zhang, Haiyue Zu, Dewei Zhao, Ke Yang, Simiao Tian, Xiaoming Yu, Faqiang Lu, Baoyi Liu, Xiaobing Yu, Benjie Wang, Wei Wang, Shibo Huang, Yongxuan Wang, Zihua Wang, Zhaodong Zhang
Mg-based alloys, as the potential orthopaedic implant, can self-degrade to avoid second operation for its remove, and enable to promote bone repair; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of Mg ions on osteogenesis, chemotaxis and anti-alkaline stress in hFOB1.19 human osteoblast cells to simulate bone-repairing effect of a biodegradable Mg-based alloy implant in vitro, and explored the regulatory role of the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway in the process of Mg ion-induced bone repair by knockdown of TRPM7 and antagonizing PI3K activity...
November 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#5
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
October 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777374/high-mobility-group-a1-protein-modulates-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#6
Andrea Conte, Simona Paladino, Gaia Bianco, Dominga Fasano, Raffaele Gerlini, Mara Tornincasa, Maurizio Renna, Alfredo Fusco, Donatella Tramontano, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni
High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural chromatin protein whose overexpression is a feature of malignant neoplasias with a causal role in cancer initiation and progression. HMGA1 promotes tumor growth by several mechanisms, including increase of cell proliferation and survival, impairment of DNA repair and induction of chromosome instability. Autophagy is a self-degradative process that, by providing energy sources and removing damaged organelles and misfolded proteins, allows cell survival under stress conditions...
November 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646911/autophagy-and-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Ying-Jie Li, Yu-He Lei, Nan Yao, Chen-Ran Wang, Nan Hu, Wen-Cai Ye, Dong-Mei Zhang, Zhe-Sheng Chen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs frequently after long-term chemotherapy, resulting in refractory cancer and tumor recurrence. Therefore, combatting MDR is an important issue. Autophagy, a self-degradative system, universally arises during the treatment of sensitive and MDR cancer. Autophagy can be a double-edged sword for MDR tumors: it participates in the development of MDR and protects cancer cells from chemotherapeutics but can also kill MDR cancer cells in which apoptosis pathways are inactive. Autophagy induced by anticancer drugs could also activate apoptosis signaling pathways in MDR cells, facilitating MDR reversal...
June 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625127/the-hippocampal-autophagic-machinery-is-depressed-in-the-absence-of-the-circadian-clock-protein-per1-that-may-lead-to-vulnerability-during-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Abdalhaq Rami, Julia Fekadu, Oliver Rawashdeh
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is an intracellular bulk self-degrading process in which cytoplasmic contents of abnormal proteins and excess or damaged organelles are sequestered into autophagosomes, and degraded upon fusion with lysosomes. Although autophagy is generally considered to be pro-survival, it also functions in cell death processes. We recently reported on the hippocampal, higher vulnerability to cerebral ischemia in mice lacking the circadian clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1), a phenomenon we found to be linked to a PER1-dependent modulation of the expression patterns of apoptotic/autophagic markers...
2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545464/c10orf10-depp-mediated-ros-accumulation-is-a-critical-modulator-of-foxo3-induced-autophagy
#9
S Salcher, M Hermann, U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, M J Ausserlechner, P Obexer
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and develops from undifferentiated progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. In neuronal tumor cells DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents activate the transcription factor FOXO3 which regulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death as well as a longevity program associated with therapy resistance. We demonstrated before that C10ORF10/DEPP, a transcriptional target of FOXO3, localizes to peroxisomes and mitochondria and impairs cellular ROS detoxification...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409123/autophagy-and-the-cell-cycle-a-complex-landscape
#10
REVIEW
Søs Grønbæk Mathiassen, Daniela De Zio, Francesco Cecconi
Autophagy is a self-degradation pathway, in which cytoplasmic material is sequestered in double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Under basal conditions, autophagy plays a homeostatic function. However, in response to various stresses, the pathway can be further induced to mediate cytoprotection. Defective autophagy has been linked to a number of human pathologies, including neoplastic transformation, even though autophagy can also sustain the growth of tumor cells in certain contexts...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382869/the-role-of-autophagy-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-an-update
#11
Yuanjian Fang, Sheng Chen, Cesar Reis, Jianmin Zhang
Autophagy is an extensive self-degradation process for the disposition of cytosolic aggregated or misfolded proteins and defective organelles. Due to different cytosolic components, autophagy pathway executes the functions of pro-survival and pro-death to maintain cellular homeostasis. The pathway plays essential roles in several neurological disorders. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating subtype of hemorrhagic stroke with high risk of neurological deficit and high mortality. Early brain injury (EBI) plays a role in the poor clinical course and outcome after SAH...
April 6, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261054/the-autophagy-machinery-a-new-player-in-chemotactic-cell-migration
#12
REVIEW
Pierre-Michaël Coly, Pierrick Gandolfo, Hélène Castel, Fabrice Morin
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that plays a key role in diverse cellular processes such as stress response or differentiation. A growing body of work highlights the direct involvement of autophagy in cell migration and cancer metastasis. Specifically, autophagy has been shown to be involved in modulating cell adhesion dynamics as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. After providing a general overview of the mechanisms controlling autophagosome biogenesis and cell migration, we discuss how chemotactic G protein-coupled receptors, through the repression of autophagy, may orchestrate membrane trafficking and compartmentation of specific proteins at the cell front in order to support the critical steps of directional migration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237114/monitoring-autophagic-responses-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
M E Papandreou, N Tavernarakis
Autophagy, from the Greek auto (self) and phagy (eating), is a self-degradative process critical for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Its rapidly responsive, highly dynamic nature renders this process essential for adapting to and offsetting acute/harsh conditions such as starvation, organelle dysfunction, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Autophagy involves an intricate network of interacting factors with multiple levels of control. Importantly, dysregulation of autophagy has been linked to numerous debilitating pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions in humans...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137967/selenomethionine-mitigates-cognitive-decline-by-targeting-both-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-autophagic-clearance-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#14
Zhong-Hao Zhang, Qiu-Yan Wu, Rui Zheng, Chen Chen, Yao Chen, Qiong Liu, Peter R Hoffmann, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
Tau pathology was recently identified as a key driver of disease progression and an attractive therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenomethionine (Se-Met), a major bioactive form of selenium (Se) in organisms with significant antioxidant capacity, reduced the levels of total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau and ameliorated cognitive deficits in younger triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Whether Se-Met has a similar effect on tau pathology and the specific mechanism of action in older 3xTg-AD mice remains unknown...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102846/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-promotes-the-stem-like-properties-of-ov6-cancer-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Chao Wang, Ming-da Wang, Peng Cheng, Hai Huang, Wei Dong, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng-Peng Li, Chuan Lin, Ze-Ya Pan, Meng-Chao Wu, Wei-Ping Zhou
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx contributes to the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the concomitant expression of HBx and OV6 was closely associated with the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. HBx was required for the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053098/the-viral-bcl-2-homologs-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-and-rhesus-rhadinovirus-share-an-essential-role-for-viral-replication
#16
Antonio Gallo, Melanie Lampe, Thomas Günther, Wolfram Brune
KS-Bcl-2 is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral Bcl-2 (vBcl-2) homolog which has apoptosis- and autophagy-inhibiting activity when expressed in transfected cells. However, little is known about its function during viral infection. As KS-Bcl-2 is expressed during the lytic replication cycle, we used constitutively lytic and inducibly lytic KSHV mutants to investigate the role of KS-Bcl-2 during the lytic cycle. We show that KSHV cannot complete the lytic replication cycle and produce infectious progeny in the absence of KS-Bcl-2, indicating that the protein is essential for KSHV replication...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036052/sugar-allocation-to-metabolic-pathways-is-tightly-regulated-and-affects-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-mutans
#17
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Yuichi Oogai, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid...
December 28, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004939/fabrication-of-photocatalytic-paper-using-tio2-nanoparticles-confined-in-hollow-silica-capsules
#18
Kensei Fujiwara, Yasutaka Kuwahara, Yuki Sumida, Hiromi Yamashita
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in hollow silica spheres (TiO2@HSSs) show a shielding-effect that can insulate photocatalytically active TiO2 NPs from the surrounding environment and thus prohibit the self-degradation of organic support materials under ultraviolet (UV)-light irradiation. In this study, photocatalytically active papers were fabricated by combining TiO2@HSS and cellulose fibers, and their photocatalytic activities and durability under UV-light irradiation were examined. The yolk-shell nanostructured TiO2@HSS, which has an ample void space between inner TiO2 NPs and an outer silica shell, was synthesized using a facile single-step method utilizing an oil-in-water microemulsion as an organic template...
January 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966850/natural-materials-assembled-biodegradable-and-transparent-paper-based-electret-nanogenerator
#19
Xiang Gao, Liang Huang, Bo Wang, Dingfeng Xu, Junwen Zhong, Zhimi Hu, Lina Zhang, Jun Zhou
Developing eco-friendly and low-cost electronics is an effective strategy to address the electronic waste issue. In this study, transparent cellulose nanopaper (T-paper) and polylactic acid (PLA) electret were used to construct a biodegradable and transparent paper-based electret nanogenerator. The nanogenerator could be assembled with paper products to form a self-powered smart packaging system without impairing the appearance, due to the high transparency and desirable output performance. Furthermore, the self-degradation property in the natural soil of the nanogenerator is demonstrated, indicating that the nanogenerator is recycled and will not pollute the environment...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918640/label-free-virus-capture-and-release-by-a-microfluidic-device-integrated-with-porous-silicon-nanowire-forest
#20
Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Xu Yu, Yuan Wan, Yizhu Chen, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design...
February 2017: Small
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