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Confederate states

Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Junwen Chen, Jordan E McLean, Eva Kemps
This study investigated the effects of combined audience feedback with video feedback plus cognitive preparation, and cognitive review (enabling deeper processing of feedback) on state anxiety and self-perceptions including perception of performance and perceived probability of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals during a speech performance. One hundred and forty socially anxious students were randomly assigned to four conditions: Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Audience Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+AF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback only (CP+VF), and Control...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Holly Powell Kennedy, Jo Anne Myers-Ciecko, Katherine Camacho Carr, Ginger Breedlove, Tanya Bailey, Marinah V Farrell, Mary Lawlor, Ida Darragh
INTRODUCTION: Midwifery is defined and regulated across all 50 United States. However, states' regulations vary markedly, creating confusion for policy makers and consumers, and can limit services to women. In 2011, the International Confederation of Midwives released Global Standards for Midwifery Education, Regulation, and Association, providing guidance for international midwifery for the first time. US organizations representing midwifery education, regulation, and professional associations (US MERA) agreed to work together on common goals...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Danielle E Deros, Sarah J Racz, Melanie F Lipton, Tara M Augenstein, Jeremy N Karp, Lauren M Keeley, Noor Qasmieh, Brigitte I Grewe, Amelia Aldao, Andres De Los Reyes
Adolescent social anxiety (SA) assessments often include adolescent and parent reports, and low reporting correspondence results in uncertainties in clinical decision-making. Adolescents display SA within non-home contexts such as peer interactions. Yet, current methods for collecting peer reports raise confidentiality concerns, though adolescent SA assessments nonetheless would benefit from context-specific reports relevant to adolescent SA (i.e., interactions with unfamiliar peers). In a sample of 89 adolescents (30 Evaluation-Seeking; 59 Community Control), we collected SA reports from adolescents and their parents, and SA reports from unfamiliar peer confederates who interacted with adolescents during 20-minute mock social interactions...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
Javier C Angulo, Carlos Figueroa, Reynaldo Gómez, Francisco Martins, Juan Guillermo Corrales, Fernando Secin, Gerardo López-Secchi, Antonio León, Marcelo Torrico, Leonardo O Reis, Mauricio Plata, Mariano Sotomayor, Jorge Gutiérrez-Aceves
OBJECTIVE: Achieving residents' medical training of quality is a constant concern in the Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third Urological Society worldwide. We aim to analyze the diversity of state training programs, with the intention to identify opportunities for global improvement within them and also to analyse the professional reality in different countries. METHODS: Data from 2nd and 3rd Foro Educativo CAU regarding postgraduate training and labour implications are reviewed...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Adanna Chukwuma, Chinyere Mbachu, Jessica Cohen, Thomas Bossert, Margaret McConnell
BACKGROUND: While 79% of Nigerian mothers who deliver in facilities receive postnatal care within 48 h of delivery, this is only true for 16% of mothers who deliver outside facilities. Most maternal deaths can be prevented with access to timely and competent health care. Thus, the World Health Organization, International Confederation of Midwives, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend that unskilled birth attendants be involved in advocacy for skilled care use among mothers...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Danielle J DelPriore, Randi Proffitt Leyva, Bruce J Ellis, Sarah E Hill
Previous research demonstrates reliable associations between low paternal investment and daughters' precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we aim to redress this empirical gap by testing the effects of paternal disengagement on women's perceptions of male mating intent. In 4 experiments, women who described their fathers' absence (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: mating intent in the described actions of a hypothetical dating partner (Study 1), sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3), and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ana Paula Gonçalves Donate, Lucas Murrins Marques, Olivia Morgan Lapenta, Manish Kumar Asthana, David Amodio, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
Ostracism is characterized by a social pain provoked by being excluded and ignored. In order to address the effects of social ostracism in virtual non-physical interactions, we developed a more realistic paradigm as an alternative to Cyberball and assessed its effects on participant's expression of basic social needs, emotional experience and painful feeling. The chat room consisted of controlled social dialogue interactions between participants and two other (confederate) chat room partners. Exclusion was manipulated by varying the number of messages a participant received (15% and 33% in exclusion and inclusion, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
Martin S Shapiro, Rhanda Rylant, Amanda de Lima, Andrea Vidaurri, Herman van de Werfhorst
High income and wealth inequality corresponds with high rates of various health and social problems. One possible factor that could be contributing to this correlation is stress experienced by those being treated unfairly in an unequal society. The present experiment attempted to simulate aspects of income inequality in a lab setting while recording several measures of stress. Participants (n=96) were assigned to one of four groups and played a memory game against a confederate opponent to earn "money" to spend in a lab market...
August 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Azalea Reyes-Aguilar, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Erick H Pasaye, Fernando A Barrios
Mentalizing is a fundamental aspect of social cognition that includes understanding the mental states of others. This process involves the participation of a well-defined set of brain regions. However, it is still unknown how different contextual situations, such as previous cooperative or non-cooperative interactions, can modulate the brain activity related to the inference of others' mental states. Hence, this study investigated whether a previous social interaction can modulate the neural mechanisms involved in a way to response to inferred mental states of cooperators and non-cooperators in positive vs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alexander P Demos, Daniel J Carter, Marcelo M Wanderley, Caroline Palmer
We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
J C Angulo, H Dávila, R Vela
OBJECTIVE: Quality graduate medical training is a concern of Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third largest urological society worldwide. It is important to analyse the diversity in the state training programmes and the feasibility and implications of conducting a common CAU programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to the directors of national societies who are members of the CAU concerning the graduate urological training in their institutions...
June 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Melissa L Sands
The distribution of wealth in the United States and countries around the world is highly skewed. How does visible economic inequality affect well-off individuals' support for redistribution? Using a placebo-controlled field experiment, I randomize the presence of poverty-stricken people in public spaces frequented by the affluent. Passersby were asked to sign a petition calling for greater redistribution through a "millionaire's tax." Results from 2,591 solicitations show that in a real-world-setting exposure to inequality decreases affluent individuals' willingness to redistribute...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joseph Soon-Yau Ng, Ida Ismail-Pratt
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a confederation of 10 sovereign states occupying approximately 1.7 million square miles of Southeast Asia with an estimated population of just under 630 million. Southeast Asia continues to have one of the world's highest rates of cervical cancer-related death. Organised training in cervical cancer screening is essential but lacking in low to middle income countries (LMICs). Systematic training of local doctors is an essential part of an effective screening program and an effective strategy to reduce cervical cancer-related mortality...
February 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Steffen Hagemann, Simone Scherger
Based on interviews with German and British experts from major political parties, government departments, employer confederations, trade unions and special interest organisations, we investigate the chains of arguments that these experts advance in favour of or against increases in state pension age. In this way, we add to the explanation why very similar reforms could be enforced in the very different pension systems of Germany and the UK. The chains of arguments deployed are surprisingly similar between the two countries: Whereas the proponents of reform stress its necessity in the context of pension spending and see older people as being able to work longer, opponents and sceptics of the increase doubt most older people's ability to work longer and thus the feasibility of the reform...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
C Raymond Bingham, Bruce G Simons-Morton, Anuj K Pradhan, Kaigang Li, Farideh Almani, Emily B Falk, Jean T Shope, Lisa Buckley, Marie Claude Ouimet, Paul S Albert
OBJECTIVE: Serious crashes are more likely when teenage drivers have teenage passengers. One likely source of this increased risk is social influences on driving performance. This driving simulator study experimentally tested the effects of peer influence (i.e., risk-accepting compared to risk-averse peer norms reinforced by pressure) on the driving risk behavior (i.e., risky driving behavior and inattention to hazards) of male teenagers. It was hypothesized that peer presence would result in greater driving risk behavior (i...
August 2016: Transportation Research. Part F, Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Franka Cadée, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze, A L M Lagro-Janssen, Raymond De Vries
BACKGROUND: Inequities in health have garnered international attention and are now addressed in Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3), which seeks to 'promote well-being for all'. To attain this goal globally requires innovative approaches, one of which is twinning. According to the International Confederation of Midwives, twinning focusses on empowering professionals, who can subsequently be change-agents for their communities. However, twinning in healthcare is relatively new and because the definition and understanding of twinning lacks clarity, rigorous monitoring and evaluation are rare...
October 26, 2016: Globalization and Health
Zeena Harakeh, Carolus H C J van Nijnatten
BACKGROUND: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. METHODS: Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence)...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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