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Confederate states

Zeena Harakeh, Carolus H C J van Nijnatten
BACKGROUND: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. METHODS: Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence)...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Carolina Figueiredo Freitas, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Kimberley Irene Shoaf, Raulino Sabino da Silva, Elaine Silva Miranda
Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature...
August 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Victor M Sabourin, Ryan Holland, Christine Mau, Chirag D Gandhi, Charles J Prestigiacomo
The Civil War era was an age-defining period in the history of the United States of America, the effects of which are still seen in the nation today. In this era, the issue of head injury pervaded society. From the president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, to the officers and soldiers of the Union and Confederate armies, and to the population at large, head injury and its ramifications gripped the nation. This article focuses on 3 individuals: Major General John Sedgwick, First Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing, and Harriet Tubman, as examples of the impact that head injury had during this era...
July 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Joanna Calderon, Guadalupe X Ayala, John P Elder, George E Belch, Iana A Castro, Nadir Weibel, Julie Pickrel
The objective of this study was to observe parent-child interactions in tiendas, limited assortment food stores catering to Latinos in the United States, and to examine the extent to which child involvement influenced these interactions and their purchase outcomes. Two confederates, one posing as a tienda employee and one posing as a customer, observed the entire shopping trip of 100 Latino parent-child (mean age = 8 years) dyads and coded the following: number and type of parent- and child-initiated request interactions, types of purchase influence attempts used by children and how parents responded, and whether the product was purchased...
May 9, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
François Boller, Daniel Birnbaum
With few exceptions, neurology was nonexistent in the United States until the Civil War years. From 1861 to 1865, the United States saw a bitter armed conflict between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederate States or Confederacy), and during those years, neurology was born in the United States. In 1861, Silas Weir Mitchell, together with George Morehouse and William Keen, opened and operated the first neurological hospital in Philadelphia, with the backing of the Surgeon General William Hammond...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Ashley N Howell, Justin W Weeks
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial factors, such as gender role norms, may impact how social anxiety disorder (SAD) is experienced and expressed in different social contexts for women. However to date, these factors have not been examined via experimental methodology. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental controlled study. METHODS: The current study included 48 highly socially anxious (HSA) women (70.9% meeting criteria for SAD) and examined the relationships among psychosocial factors (i...
April 8, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Bosco C Rowland, Jessica K Hall, Peter J Kremer, Peter G Miller, John W Toumbourou
Access to the supply of alcohol is an important factor influencing adolescent alcohol consumption. Although alcohol sales outlets are prohibited from selling alcohol to underage youth, there has been limited research investigating compliance. The present study sought to estimate the extent to which adolescents that appeared underage were successfully able to purchase alcohol from packaged liquor outlets in Australia; and to identify store and sales characteristics associated with illegal purchasing. In 2012, purchase surveys were conducted (n= 310) at packaged liquor outlets in 28 urban and rural communities across three states of Australia: Western Australia, Queensland and Victoria...
March 22, 2016: Health Promotion International
Joset A Etzel, Nikola Valchev, Valeria Gazzola, Christian Keysers
Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors...
2016: PloS One
Amber Martinson, Julia Craner, Sandra Sigmon
BACKGROUND: Sexual trauma can lead to longstanding effects on individuals' intimacy functioning. The current study aimed to assess hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., cortisol reactivity) prior to (-5min), during (+15, +30, +45min), and following (+60min) an experimental manipulation of emotional closeness in a sample of women survivors of sexual trauma with varying levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology versus controls. METHODS: Participants included 50 women, which were divided into 2 groups on the basis of a structured clinical interview: 26 women with a history of sexual trauma with and without PTSD (sexual trauma group), and 24 women without a history of sexual trauma or PTSD (controls)...
March 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ashley N Howell, Devin A Zibulsky, Akanksha Srivastav, Justin W Weeks
There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked...
2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Melissa Cheyney, Christine Olsen, Marit Bovbjerg, Courtney Everson, Ida Darragh, Brynne Potter
INTRODUCTION: No data describing certified professional midwives (CPMs) currently exist in the literature, although CPMs attend the majority of home births in the United States. This study addresses this gap by assessing the demographics, education levels, routes to certification, and practice characteristics of currently practicing CPMs. METHODS: Data were collected from a survey of CPMs conducted by the North American Registry of Midwives (NARM) between July and October 2011...
September 2015: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Margaret W Beal, Mara E Batzli, Alex Hoyt
INTRODUCTION: Certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) across the United States are educated in the same core competencies, yet scope of practice varies with state regulation. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funded studies published in 1994 and 2004 on the professional practice environment of CNMs, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants, and developed the Certified Nurse-Midwife Professional Practice Index (CNMPPI), a 100-point scoring system of state regulation focusing on 3 domains: legal status, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority...
September 2015: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Tina Iachini, Gennaro Ruggiero, Francesco Ruotolo, Armando Schiano di Cola, Vincenzo Paolo Senese
Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to personality and anxiety factors even though such a comparison would help to clarify to what extent they share similar mechanisms and characteristics. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether personality dimensions and anxiety levels are associated with reaching and comfort distances...
September 2015: Cognitive Processing
Morten Rasmussen, Martin Sikora, Anders Albrechtsen, Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, G David Poznik, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia S Ponce de León, Morten E Allentoft, Ida Moltke, Hákon Jónsson, Cristina Valdiosera, Ripan S Malhi, Ludovic Orlando, Carlos D Bustamante, Thomas W Stafford, David J Meltzer, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on an initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)...
July 23, 2015: Nature
Junwen Chen, Rebecca Mak, Satoko Fujita
Although video feedback (VF) is shown to improve appraisals of social performance in socially anxious individuals, its impact on state anxiety during a social situation is mixed. The current study investigated the effect of combined video feedback and audience feedback (AF) on self-perceptions of performance and bodily sensations as well as state anxiety pertaining to a speech task. Forty-one socially anxious students were randomly allocated to combined video feedback with audience feedback (VF + AF), video feedback only (VF), audience feedback only (AF), or a control condition...
September 2015: Behavior Modification
Christian Seegelke
A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Otmar Deflorin
Switzerland is a confederation consisting of 26 states, the so-called 'cantons'. In the field of food control, the Swiss federal state is in charge of issuing the regulations (Food law and associated texts), whereas enforcement is assigned to the cantons. The offices in charge of food control are the cantonal laboratories headed by a 'Cantonal chemist'. These offices pursue three main goals: to protect consumer health, to protect the consumer against frauds and to ensure food handling under good hygiene conditions...
October 2014: Chimia
Rachele Tardi, Janet Njelesani
PURPOSE: The article considers the extent to which disability has been recognized and included in two main documents produced to date as part of the United Nations Post-2015 Development agenda process. This is the process that is defining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will succeed the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after the latter reach their target date in 2015. The two documents examined in the article are the Outcome Document (July 2014) of the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the Report (August 2014) of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing (ICESDF)...
2015: Disability and Rehabilitation
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