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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536601/geneticizing-ethnicity-and-diet-anti-doping-science-and-its-social-impact-in-the-age-of-post-genomics
#1
Jaehwan Hyun
While gene doping and other technological means of sport enhancement have become a topic of ethical debate, a major outcome from genomic research in sports is often linked to the regulation of doping. In particular, researchers within the field of anti-doping science, a regulatory science that aims to develop scientific solutions for regulating doped athletes, have conducted genomic research on anabolic-androgenic steroids. Genomic knowledge on anabolic-androgenic steroids, a knowledge base that has been produced to improve doping regulation, has caused the 'geneticization' of cultural objects such as ethnic identities and dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525992/water-and-beverage-consumption-patterns-among-4-to-13-year-old-children-in-the-united-kingdom
#2
Florent Vieux, Matthieu Maillot, Florence Constant, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND: The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. METHODS: Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4-13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008-2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#3
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468271/validation-of-a-general-and-sport-nutrition-knowledge-questionnaire-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-gesnk
#4
Patrizia Calella, Vittorio Maria Iacullo, Giuliana Valerio
Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416353/eating-disorders-and-weight-control-behaviors-change-over-a-collegiate-sport-season
#5
Alexandra Thompson, Trent Petrie, Carlin Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether the prevalence of eating disorder classifications (i.e., clinical eating disorder, subclinical eating disorder, and asymptomatic) and pathogenic weight control behaviors (e.g., bingeing, vomiting) change over a five-month sport season. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Female collegiate gymnasts and swimmers (N=325) completed the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses as well as six items from the Bulimia Test-Revised at Time 1 (two weeks into the beginning of their athletic season) and Time 2 (final two weeks of the athletic season); data collections were separated by five months...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378849/prediagnostic-enterolactone-concentrations-and-mortality-among-danish-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer
#6
A K Eriksen, C Kyrø, N Nørskov, A K Bolvig, J Christensen, A Tjønneland, K Overvad, R Landberg, A Olsen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the role of diet in relation to prostate cancer progression is sparse. Foods rich in lignans have shown beneficial effects on prostate cancer progression in both animal studies and small human intervention studies, including beneficial effects on prostate-specific antigen levels and tumour growth. The lignan metabolite, enterolactone, has further shown to slow prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The aim was to investigate the association between prediagnostic enterolactone concentrations and mortality among men with prostate cancer...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374726/-the-association-between-physical-inactivity-and-other-behavioural-risk-factors-of-the-development-of-chronic-non-communicative-diseases-among-the-students
#7
A P Anishchenko, A N Arkhangel'skaya, D A Pustovalov, E V Rogoznaya, A L Urakov, K G Gurevich
AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between the physical inactivity and other behavioural risk factors of the development of chronic non- communicable diseases among the young persons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 216 1-2 grade students at the mean age of 18.8±1.3 years including 136 women and 80 men educated at A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, were recruited for the examination...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368321/sport-nutrition-knowledge-behaviors-and-beliefs-of-high-school-soccer-players
#8
Melinda M Manore, Megan M Patton-Lopez, Yu Meng, Siew Sun Wong
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01). Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0...
April 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365828/health-integrity-and-doping-in-sports-for-children-and-young-adults-a-resolution-of-the-european-academy-of-paediatrics
#9
Francis P Crawley, Peter Hoyer, Artur Mazur, Liesbeth Siderius, Stefan Grosek, Tom Stiris, David Neubauer
The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is dedicated to promoting healthy lifestyles for children from birth into young adulthood. Physical exercise and leisure are essential to the development of healthy bodies, strong minds, and social skills. All children, without regard to their physical or mental capacities, should be provided with the time, the leadership, the facilities, and the equipment needed to exercise through sports while enjoying playing, even competing, in an environment appropriate to their capacities and aspirations...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344459/applied-sports-nutrition-support-dietary-intake-and-body-composition-changes-of-a-female-athlete-completing-26-marathons-in-26-days-a-case-study
#10
Chris J McManus, Kelly A Murray, David A Parry
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337856/contribution-of-snacks-to-dietary-intakes-of-young-children-in-the-united-states
#11
Lenka H Shriver, Barbara J Marriage, Tama D Bloch, Colleen K Spees, Samantha A Ramsay, Rosanna P Watowicz, Christopher A Taylor
Nutritional quality of children's diets is a public health priority in the fight against childhood obesity and chronic diseases. The main purpose of this study was to determine contribution of snacks to energy and nutrient intakes and to identify leading snack food sources of energy, total fat, and added sugars amongst young children in the United States. Using the 2005-2012 NHANES data, dietary intakes of 2- to 5-year-old children were analysed from a parent-reported 24-hour dietary recall (n = 3,429). Snacking occasions were aggregated to determine the proportion of total food/beverage intake obtained from snacks, estimate energy, and nutrient intakes, and identify the leading snack food sources of energy, added sugars, and total fat...
March 23, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314423/dental-and-orofacial-injuries
#12
REVIEW
Paul Piccininni, Anthony Clough, Ray Padilla, Gabriella Piccininni
Oral and facial injuries are very common in sport, and can be very expensive to treat. Many of these injuries are preventable with proper pre-competition assessment and suitable well-designed protection. Prompt sideline identification and management of orofacial injuries and appropriate follow-up are crucial to successful outcomes. There have been significant recent advances in both trauma management and mouth guard design and fabrication techniques. Athletes have a unique set of challenges-including collisions, finances, travel and training, dehydration, sport beverages, and high carbohydrate diets-that may compromise their oral health...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283044/fun-influence-and-competence-a-mixed-methods-study-of-prerequisites-for-high-school-students-participation-in-physical-education
#13
Eirik Abildsnes, Gudrun Rohde, Sveinung Berntsen, Tonje H Stea
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents do not reach the recommended levels of physical activity (PA), and students attending vocational studies are less committed to take part in physical education (PE) than other students. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to examine differences in physical activity, diet, smoking habits, sleep and screen time among Norwegian vocational high school students who selected either a PE model focusing on PA skills, technique and improvement of physical performance ("Sports enjoyment") or more on health, play and having fun when participating in PE lessons ("Motion enjoyment"), and 2) to explore the students' experiences with PE programs...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277304/low-adherence-to-dietary-recommendations-in-adult-childhood-cancer-survivors
#14
Fabiën Belle, Laura Wengenroth, Annette Weiss, Grit Sommer, Maja Beck Popovic, Marc Ansari, Murielle Bochud, Claudia Kuehni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poor diet may increase the risk that childhood cancer survivors (CCS) will suffer from chronic disease. We compared adherence to national dietary recommendations between CCS, their siblings and the Swiss population, identified determinants of adherence, and assessed the association of adherence with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles. METHODS: As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to all Swiss resident CCS aged <21 years at diagnosis, who survived ≥5 years and were 16-45 years old at the time of the survey...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267247/validity-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-the-danish-cohort-diet-cancer-and-health-next-generations
#15
Lene Lerche, Anja Olsen, Kristina Elin Nielsen Petersen, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Lars Ove Dragsted, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Anne Tjønneland, Jytte Halkjaer
Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264077/association-of-a-community-campaign-for-better-beverage-choices-with-beverage-purchases-from-supermarkets
#16
Marlene B Schwartz, Glenn E Schneider, Yoon-Young Choi, Xun Li, Jennifer Harris, Tatiana Andreyeva, Maia Hyary, Nicolette Highsmith Vernick, Lawrence J Appel
Importance: Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. Objective: To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. Design, Setting, and Partipicants: This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208847/effect-of-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-on-cardio-respiratory-efficiency-in-normal-overweight-and-obese-female-undergraduate-students
#17
Nazrin Samsudeen, Archana Rajagopalan
INTRODUCTION: The influence of obesity on cardio-respiratory efficiency in the various phases of menstrual cycle is not well understood until now. As majority of Indian women have a favourable attitude towards participation in sports it is significant to understand the variation in exercise performance during different phases of menstrual cycle to have an optimum performance. AIM: To evaluate the endurance capacity and cardio-respiratory responses in normal, obese and overweight female undergraduate students during different phases of menstrual cycle...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176000/multifactorial-logistic-regression-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-the-incidence-of-erosive-tooth-wear-among-adults-at-different-ages-in-tokyo
#18
Yuichi Kitasako, Y Sasaki, T Takagaki, A Sadr, J Tagami
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with the incidence of erosive tooth wear (ETW) among adults at different ages in Tokyo using multifactorial logistic regression analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of a total of 1108 subjects aged 15 to 89 years in Tokyo, Japan. Two examiners evaluated ETW in a full-mouth recording. The subjects were asked to complete a self-administered daily diet, habit, and health condition questionnaire...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149429/physiological-nutritional-and-performance-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes
#19
Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas Fs Santos, João Vdc Esteves, Valeria Lg Panissa, Ursula F Julio, Emerson Franchini
This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121323/ingestion-of-soy-whey-blended-protein-augments-sports-performance-and-ameliorates-exercise-induced-fatigue-in-a-rat-exercise-model
#20
Guangxu Ren, Suqing Yi, Hongru Zhang, Jing Wang
This study sought to determine the effects of soy-whey blended protein supplementation on sports performance and related biochemical parameters after long-term training. After a week of adaptation, eighteen 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the standard chow diet plus whey protein (Whey) group, the standard chow diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the standard chow diet only (control) group. Each group included 6 rats for the seven-week experiment. Before the experiment, the baseline values of body weight, grasping force and time to exhaustion due to the loaded-swimming test were recorded for each group...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
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