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Paleoanthropology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322158/archaeological-evidence-for-pott-s-disease-on-historical-populations-tomb-05-at-the-roman-circus-maqbara-as-an-example-of-social-solidarity-toledo-spain
#1
Arturo Ruiz-Taboada, Isabel Molero Rodrigo
World societies can often be characterized by their attitude towards elderly and illness. It is well known that most cultures were concerned about those who were not able to produce and take care of themselves. This brings to the development of social processes that involve such individuals within the community, resulting in groups who stick together, and at last, ensuring the survival of the group. The contextualization of many of those social processes might be studied through Physical Anthropology and Paleopathology...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188235/precise-dating-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-murcia-spain-supports-late-neandertal-persistence-in-iberia
#2
João Zilhão, Daniela Anesin, Thierry Aubry, Ernestina Badal, Dan Cabanes, Martin Kehl, Nicole Klasen, Armando Lucena, Ignacio Martín-Lerma, Susana Martínez, Henrique Matias, Davide Susini, Peter Steier, Eva Maria Wild, Diego E Angelucci, Valentín Villaverde, Josefina Zapata
The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain). At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168074/paleoanthropology-s-uses-of-the-bipedal-criterion
#3
Mathilde Lequin
Bipedalism is one of the criteria that paleoanthropologists use in order to interpret the fossil record and to determine if a specimen belongs to the human lineage. In the context of such interpretations, bipedalism is considered to be a unique characteristic of this lineage that also marks its origin. This conception has largely remained unchallenged over the last decades, in spite of fossil discoveries that led to the emergence of bipedalism in the human lineage being shifted back by several millions of years...
November 22, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163225/human-locomotion-in-hypogravity-from-basic-research-to-clinical-applications
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury P Ivanenko, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Valentina La Scaleia, Barbara La Scaleia, Patrick A Willems, Myrka Zago
We have considerable knowledge about the mechanisms underlying compensation of Earth gravity during locomotion, a knowledge obtained from physiological, biomechanical, modeling, developmental, comparative, and paleoanthropological studies. By contrast, we know much less about locomotion and movement in general under sustained hypogravity. This lack of information poses a serious problem for human space exploration. In a near future humans will walk again on the Moon and for the first time on Mars. It would be important to predict how they will move around, since we know that locomotion and mobility in general may be jeopardized in hypogravity, especially when landing after a prolonged weightlessness of the space flight...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054162/a-chronological-framework-connecting-the-early-upper-palaeolithic-across-the-central-asian-piedmont
#5
Kathryn E Fitzsimmons, Radu Iovita, Tobias Sprafke, Michelle Glantz, Sahra Talamo, Katharine Horton, Tyler Beeton, Saya Alipova, Galymzhan Bekseitov, Yerbolat Ospanov, Jean-Marc Deom, Renato Sala, Zhaken Taimagambetov
Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. However, data are limited: known archaeological sites with lithic assemblages generally lack human fossils, and consequently identifying the archaeological signatures of different human groups, and the timing of their occupation, remains elusive. Reliable chronologic data from sites in the region, crucial to our understanding of the timing and duration of interactions between different human species, are rare...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022796/aural-exostoses-surfer-s-ear-provide-vital-fossil-evidence-of-an-aquatic-phase-in-man-s-early-evolution
#6
P H Rhys Evans, M Cameron
For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949001/forearm-pronation-efficiency-in-a-l-288-1-australopithecus-afarensis-and-mh2-australopithecus-sediba-insights-into-their-locomotor-and-manipulative-habits
#7
Pere Ibáñez-Gimeno, Joan Manyosa, Ignasi Galtés, Xavier Jordana, Salvador Moyà-Solà, Assumpció Malgosa
OBJECTIVES: The locomotor and manipulative abilities of australopithecines are highly debated in the paleoanthropological context. Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus sediba likely engaged in arboreal locomotion and, especially the latter, in certain activities implying manipulation. Nevertheless, their degree of arboreality and the relevance of their manipulative skills remain unclear. Here we calculate the pronation efficiency of the forearm (Erot ) in these taxa to explore their arboreal and manipulative capabilities using a biomechanical approach...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874269/locomotion-and-basicranial-anatomy-in-primates-and-marsupials
#8
Catalina I Villamil
There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815961/from-monkeys-to-modeling-the-2017-meetings-of-the-paleoanthropology-society
#9
Jamie Hodgkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760580/landscape-scale-heterogeneity-in-the-east-turkana-ecosystem-during-the-okote-member-1-56-1-38-ma
#10
D B Patterson, D R Braun, A K Behrensmeyer, S B Lehmann, S R Merritt, J S Reeves, B A Wood, R Bobe
Placing the biological adaptations of Pleistocene hominins within a well-resolved ecological framework has been a longstanding goal of paleoanthropology. This effort, however, has been challenging due to the discontinuous nature of paleoecological data spanning many important periods in hominin evolution. Sediments from the Upper Burgi (1.98-1.87 Ma), KBS (1.87-1.56 Ma) and Okote (1.56-1.38 Ma) members of the Koobi Fora Formation at East Turkana in northern Kenya document an important time interval in the evolutionary history of the hominin genera Homo and Paranthropus...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#11
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627785/species-genera-and-phylogenetic-structure-in-the-human-fossil-record-a-modest-proposal
#12
Ian Tattersall
Because of the greater morphological distances among them, genera should be more robustly recognizable in the fossil record than species are. But there are clearly upper as well as lower bounds to their species inclusivity. Currently, the vast majority of fossils composing the large and rapidly expanding paleoanthropological record are crammed into one of two genera (Australopithecus vs Homo), expanding the latter, especially, far beyond any reasonable morphological or phylogenetic limits. This excessive inclusivity obscures both diversity and the complexities of phylogenetic structure within the hominid family...
May 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533391/thoracic-vertebral-count-and-thoracolumbar-transition-in-australopithecus-afarensis
#13
Carol V Ward, Thierra K Nalley, Fred Spoor, Paul Tafforeau, Zeresenay Alemseged
The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467343/a-reading-of-archaeological-and-anthropological-results-of-the-second-half-of-the-19th-century-on-paleoanthropological-skull-in-a-prehistoric-cave-of-north-west-lombardy
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406563/evolution-of-the-human-pelvis
#15
Karen R Rosenberg, Jeremy M DeSilva
No bone in the human postcranial skeleton differs more dramatically from its match in an ape skeleton than the pelvis. Humans have evolved a specialized pelvis, well-adapted for the rigors of bipedal locomotion. Precisely how this happened has been the subject of great interest and contention in the paleoanthropological literature. In part, this is because of the fragility of the pelvis and its resulting rarity in the human fossil record. However, new discoveries from Miocene hominoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins have reenergized debates about human pelvic evolution and shed new light on the competing roles of bipedal locomotion and obstetrics in shaping pelvic anatomy...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363458/ardipithecus-ramidus-and-the-evolution-of-language-and-singing-an-early-origin-for-hominin-vocal-capability
#16
Gary Clark, Maciej Henneberg
In this paper we analyse the possibility that the early hominin Ardipithecus ramidus had vocal capabilities far exceeding those of any extant non-human primate. We argue that erect posture combined with changes in craniofacial morphology, such as reduced facial and jaw length, not only provide evidence for increased levels of pro-sociality, but also increased vocal ability. Reduced length of the face and jaw, combined with a flexed cranial base, suggests the larynx in this species was situated deeper in the neck than in chimpanzees, a trait which may have facilitated increased vocal ability...
March 8, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330740/estimating-body-size-in-early-primates-the-case-of-archicebus-and-teilhardina
#17
Marian Dagosto, Daniel Gebo, Xijun Ni, Thierry Smith
Obtaining accurate estimations of the body mass of fossil primates has always been a subject of interest in paleoanthropology because mass is an important determinant for so many other aspects of biology, ecology, and life history. This paper focuses on the issues involved in attempting to reconstruct the mass of two early Eocene haplorhine primates, Teilhardina and Archicebus, which pose particular problems due to their small size and temporal and phylogenetic distance from extant primates. In addition to a ranking of variables from more to less useful, the effect of using models of varying taxonomic and size compositions is examined...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#18
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983519/two-acheuleans-two-humankinds-from-1-5-to-0-85-ma-at-melka-kunture-upper-awash-ethiopian-highlands
#19
Rosalia Gallotti, Margherita Mussi
The Acheulean is the longest-lasting human cultural record, spanning approximately 1.5 Ma and three continents. The most comprehensive sequences are found in East Africa, where, in largescale syntheses, the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean (LPA) has often been considered a uniform cultural entity. Furthermore, the emergence and development of Acheulean technology are seen as linked to the emergence and evolution of Homo ergaster/erectus. The criterion for grouping together different lithic assemblages scattered over space and time is the presence of large cutting tools (LCTs), more than of any other component...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966111/concha-bullosa-in-paleoanthropological-material
#20
Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, J Szczurowski, B Kwiatkowska, P Konczewski, E Dzieciołowska-Baran, M Donotek, A Walecka, D Nowakowski
Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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