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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222192/blastocystis-subtyping-and-its-association-with-intestinal-parasites-in-children-from-different-geographical-regions-of-colombia
#1
Juan David Ramírez, Carolina Flórez, Mario Olivera, María Consuelo Bernal, Julio Cesar Giraldo
Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215872/detection-of-specific-antibodies-in-cats-infected-with-the-lung-nematode-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus
#2
Eva-Maria Zottler, Christina Strube, Manuela Schnyder
Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongylid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an underestimated respiratory parasitosis. Its diagnosis currently mainly relies on the isolation of first stage larvae from fresh faecal samples. The aim of our study was to develop a serological test for the detection of specific antibodies against A. abstrusus by ELISA. We used recombinant major sperm protein (MSP) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus as detection antigen and evaluated two different ELISA plates (Maxisorp and Immobilizer™ Amino-plate, Nunc Roskilde, Denmark) with two different enzyme systems [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)]...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215215/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-ancylostoma-tubaeforme-from-cats-in-china
#3
X L Shi, Y Q Fu, A Y Abdullahi, M W Wang, F Yang, X G Yu, W D Pan, X X Yan, J X Hang, P Zhang, G Q Li
Ancylostoma tubaeforme may infect canids, felids and humans, and pose a potential risk to public health. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to amplify the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of A. tubaeforme from cats and to analyse its sequence characteristics after molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer ITS1+ sequence. The results show that the complete mt genome sequence (GenBank accession number KY070315) of A. tubaeforme from cats was 13,730 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, two non-coding regions and an AT-rich region...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212668/association-of-community-sanitation-usage-with-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-among-school-aged-children-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#5
William E Oswald, Aisha E P Stewart, Michael R Kramer, Tekola Endeshaw, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Eshetu Sata, Demelash Gessese, Tesfaye Teferi, Zerihun Tadesse, Birhan Guadie, Jonathan D King, Paul M Emerson, Elizabeth K Callahan, Matthew C Freeman, W Dana Flanders, Thomas F Clasen, Christine L Moe
BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212667/assessing-the-interruption-of-the-transmission-of-human-helminths-with-mass-drug-administration-alone-optimizing-the-design-of-cluster-randomized-trials
#6
Roy Anderson, Sam Farrell, Hugo Turner, Judd Walson, Christl A Donnelly, James Truscott
BACKGROUND: A method is outlined for the use of an individual-based stochastic model of parasite transmission dynamics to assess different designs for a cluster randomized trial in which mass drug administration (MDA) is employed in attempts to eliminate the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in defined geographic locations. The hypothesis to be tested is: Can MDA alone interrupt the transmission of STH species in defined settings? Clustering is at a village level and the choice of clusters of villages is stratified by transmission intensity (low, medium and high) and parasite species mix (either Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm dominant)...
February 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207376/hookworm-infection-in-south-american-fur-seal-arctocephalus-australis-pups
#7
M Seguel, F Muñoz, M J Navarrete, E Paredes, E Howerth, N Gottdenker
Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343...
March 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192438/advances-in-neglected-tropical-disease-vaccines-developing-relative-potency-and-functional-assays-for-the-na-gst-1-alhydrogel-hookworm-vaccine
#8
Jill B Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M Bethony
A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179024/impact-of-single-annual-treatment-and-four-monthly-treatment-for-hookworm-and-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-factors-associated-with-residual-infection-among-kenyan-school-children
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stella Kepha, Charles S Mwandawiro, Roy M Anderson, Rachel L Pullan, Fred Nuwaha, Jorge Cano, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, Elizabeth Allen, Simon J Brooker, Birgit Nikolay
BACKGROUND: School-based deworming is widely implemented in various countries to reduce the burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), however, the frequency of drug administration varies in different settings. In this study, we compared the impact of a single annual treatment and 4-monthly treatment over a follow-up among Kenyan school children, and investigated the factors associated with residual infection. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial investigating whether deworming for STHs alters risk of acquiring malaria...
February 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179008/unexpected-low-soil-transmitted-helminth-prevalence-in-the-butha-buthe-district-in-lesotho-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Wendelin Moser, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt, Molisana Cheleboi, Josephine Muhairwe, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura affect large parts of the world's population. For the implementation of national STH control programs, e.g. preventive chemotherapy (treatment with albendazole and mebendazole), the spatial distribution and prevalence of STH infections must be known. However, for Lesotho only little data were available and the STH distribution remains largely unknown. METHODS: In early 2016, a cross-sectional parasitological STH survey was conducted including six different primary schools in the Butha-Buthe district of Lesotho...
February 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178325/prevalence-and-clinical-relevance-of-helminth-co-infections-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-urban-tanzania
#11
Francis Mhimbira, Jerry Hella, Khadija Said, Lujeko Kamwela, Mohamed Sasamalo, Thomas Maroa, Magreth Chiryamkubi, Grace Mhalu, Christian Schindler, Klaus Reither, Stefanie Knopp, Jürg Utzinger, Sébastien Gagneux, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178298/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-parasitic-infections-and-to-anthelminthic-treatment-on-antibody-responses-to-routine-immunisations-given-in-infancy-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Stephen Nash, Alexander J Mentzer, Swaib A Lule, Dennison Kizito, Gaby Smits, Fiona R M van der Klis, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring's response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167597/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-and-intestinal-protozoan-infections-in-preschool-aged-children-in-the-amhara-region-of-ethiopia
#13
Kristen Aiemjoy, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Nicole E Stoller, Ayalew Shiferaw, Zerihun Tadesse, Melsew Chanyalew, Solomon Aragie, Kelly Callahan, Jeremy D Keenan
Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138197/hookworm-infestation-as-a-cause-of-melena-and-severe-anaemia-in-farmer
#14
Marvi Tariq, Syeda Maria Muzammil, Fareed Ahmed Shaikh, K M Inam Pal
Hookworm infections remain a major cause of morbidity in the developing world. Prevalence is highest in agricultural areas, where use of waste water for irrigation and poor hygiene increases infection rates among farmers. Infections present with gastrointestinal symptoms and chronic anaemia, and there are usually no signs of overt blood loss. The following report describes a case of melena in a middle-aged farmer, where the diagnosis of hookworm infestation was delayed due to the unusual presentation. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions before referral to the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi and was managed conservatively with mebendazole at our hospital after exclusion of other possible causes of gastrointestinal bleeding...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127367/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-nutritional-status-among-primary-school-children-in-delo-mena-district-south-eastern-ethiopia
#15
Begna Tulu, Solomon Taye, Yohannes Zenebe, Eden Amsalu
BACKGROUND: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124134/diagnosis-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-by-morphological-characteristics-combine-with-molecular-biological-methods
#16
Li-Fu Wang, Lian Xu, Shi-Qi Luo, Hui Xie, Wei Chen, Zhong-Dao Wu, Xi Sun
Strongyloidiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases caused by infection with the nematode Strongyloides genus and distributed worldwide. Strongyloidiasis can be fatal in immunosuppressed patients induced hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis. Unfortunately, until now, due to the unspecific clinical symptom in infected individuals and the low sensitivity diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, many patients were misdiagnosed every year. Furthermore, the larvae of the Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is similar to other nematodes such as hookworm, Trichostrongylus increased the difficulty of diagnosis...
January 26, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115686/gender-based-differences-in-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-related-diarrheal-disease-and-helminthic-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Varadan Sevilimedu, Keisha D Pressley, Kassandra R Snook, Jamesa V Hogges, Maria D Politis, Jessica K Sexton, Carmen H Duke, Blake A Smith, Lena C Swander, Kelly K Baker, Manoj Gambhir, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may affect diarrheal and helminthic infection in women disproportionately. We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 (updated 2016) and the WHO website, for relevant articles. METHODS: Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, and highlighting the role of gender in WASH were included. Where possible, we carried out a meta-analysis...
January 22, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114401/a-comparison-of-the-quality-of-informed-consent-for-clinical-trials-of-an-experimental-hookworm-vaccine-conducted-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#18
David J Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli
Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114314/diagnosing-polyparasitism-in-a-high-prevalence-setting-in-beira-mozambique-detection-of-intestinal-parasites-in-fecal-samples-by-microscopy-and-real-time-pcr
#19
Lynn Meurs, Anton M Polderman, Natalie V S Vinkeles Melchers, Eric A T Brienen, Jaco J Verweij, Bernhard Groosjohan, Felisberto Mendes, Manito Mechendura, Dagmar H Hepp, Marijke C C Langenberg, Rosanne Edelenbosch, Katja Polman, Lisette van Lieshout
BACKGROUND: Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103964/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-related-mortality-in-brazil
#20
Francisco R Martins-Melo, Alberto N Ramos, Carlos H Alencar, Mauricélia S Lima, Jorg Heukelbach
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
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