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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796897/hookworm-excretory-secretory-products-modulate-immune-responses-to-heterologous-and-species-specific-antigens
#1
Nicholas Diliani, Blaise Dondji
Approximately one billion people are currently infected with hookworm. Despite its high prevalence and the concomitant immune suppression seen in infected individuals, little research has been done on the mechanism of immunosuppression by hookworm. Our study focused on characterizing mechanisms utilized by hookworm to suppress the host immune response. Splenocytes and draining lymph node cells from mice injected with hookworm excretory/secretory (ES) proteins showed decreased proliferation in response to both heterologous and species-specific antigens while also having increased nitric oxide secretion...
August 10, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793922/comparison-of-novel-and-standard-diagnostic-tools-for-the-detection-of-schistosoma-mekongi-infection-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-and-cambodia
#2
Youthanavanh Vonghachack, Somphou Sayasone, Virak Khieu, Robert Bergquist, Govert J van Dam, Pytsje T Hoekstra, Paul L A M Corstjens, Beatrice Nickel, Hanspeter Marti, Jürg Utzinger, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Given the restricted distribution of Schistosoma mekongi in one province in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and two provinces in Cambodia, together with progress of the national control programmes aimed at reducing morbidity and infection prevalence, the elimination of schistosomiasis mekongi seems feasible. However, sensitive diagnostic tools will be required to determine whether elimination has been achieved. We compared several standard and novel diagnostic tools in S...
August 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791178/kelp-and-dolphin-gulls-cause-perineal-wounds-in-south-american-fur-seal-pups-arctocephalus-australis-at-guafo-island-chilean-patagonia
#3
Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Pavés, Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765810/the-diversity-and-impact-of-hookworm-infections-in-wildlife
#4
REVIEW
Mauricio Seguel, Nicole Gottdenker
Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the alimentary system of mammals. Despite their high pathogenic potential, little is known about their diversity and impact in wildlife populations. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on hookworm infections of wildlife and analyzed 218 studies qualitative and quantitatively. At least 68 hookworm species have been described in 9 orders, 24 families, and 111 species of wild mammals. Black bears, red foxes, and bobcats harbored the highest diversity of hookworm species and Ancylostoma pluridentatum, A...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761475/the-helminths-causing-surgical-or-endoscopic-abdominal-intervention-a-review-article
#5
REVIEW
Erdal Uysal, Mehmet Dokur
BACKGROUND: Helminths sometimes require surgical or endoscopic intervention. Helminths may cause acute abdomen, mechanical intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforation, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and appendicitis. This study aimed to determine the surgical diseases that helminths cause and to gather, analyze the case reports, case series and original articles about this topic in literature. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective observational study...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752513/malnutrition-related-early-childhood-exposures-and-enamel-defects-in-the-permanent-dentition-a-longitudinal-study-from-the-bolivian-amazon
#6
Erin E Masterson, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Lloyd A Mancl, Esther Conde, Philippe P Hujoel
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between early childhood malnutrition-related measures and subsequent enamel defects in the permanent dentition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study included 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years, 52% male) from the Bolivian Amazon. Exposures included: stunted growth (height-for-age z-scores), underweight (weight-for-age z-scores), anemia (hemoglobin), acute inflammation (C-reactive protein) and parasitic infection (hookworm)...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732272/screening-of-the-open-scaffolds-collection-from-compounds-australia-identifies-a-new-chemical-entity-with-anthelmintic-activities-against-different-developmental-stages-of-the-barber-s-pole-worm-and-other-parasitic-nematodes
#7
Sarah Preston, Yaqing Jiao, Jonathan B Baell, Jennifer Keiser, Simon Crawford, Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Moana M Simpson, Ray M Kaplan, Karla J Cowley, Kaylene J Simpson, Andreas Hofmann, Abdul Jabbar, Robin B Gasser
The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the 'Open Scaffolds' collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the 'Open Scaffolds' collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays...
May 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722571/more-poop-more-precision-improving-epidemiologic-surveillance-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-with-multiple-fecal-sampling-using-the-kato-katz-technique
#8
Chengfang Liu, Louise Lu, Linxiu Zhang, Yu Bai, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle, Darvin Scott Smith, Changhai Zhou, Wei Zang
Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719642/infections-with-schistosoma-mansoni-and-geohelminths-among-school-children-dwelling-along-the-shore-of-the-lake-hawassa-southern-ethiopia
#9
Bamlaku Tadege, Techalew Shimelis
BACKGROUND: Infections with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthes (STHs) are major public health problems in Ethiopia. However, information was scarce on the current status of these infections to guide an intervention in the study area. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of infections with S. mansoni and STHs and associated factors among school children in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated children who were attending the Finchawa and Tullo junior elementary schools and were residing along the shore of the lake Hawassa in January and February, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716158/efficacy-of-single-dose-500-mg-mebendazole-in-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-a-review
#10
J Mrus, B Baeten, M Engelen, S A Silber
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms). Mebendazole is one of the recommended preventive chemotherapy agents for STH. This review summarizes the efficacy data from 29 studies with single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in STH treatment and compares the results with those of a recently conducted phase 3 study of a 500 mg mebendazole chewable tablet against A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711437/intestinal-parasitic-infections-current-status-and-associated-risk-factors-among-school-aged-children-in-an-archetypal-african-urban-slum-in-nigeria
#11
Vincent P Gyang, Ting-Wu Chuang, Chien-Wei Liao, Yueh-Lun Lee, Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Akwaowo Orok, Olusola Ajibaye, Ajayi J Babasola, Po-Ching Cheng, Chia-Mei Chou, Ying-Chieh Huang, Pasaiko Sonko, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among school aged children (SAC) in Nigeria remains endemic, hence the need for regular surveillance to attract the attention of policy makers. This cross-sectional study investigated the current prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school aged children in an urban slum of Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: Single stool samples from 384 school aged children (188 boys and 196 girls) were examined by employing Merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) and Kato-Katz methods...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708895/yeast-expressed-recombinant-as16-protects-mice-against-ascaris-suum-infection-through-induction-of-a-th2-skewed-immune-response
#12
Junfei Wei, Leroy Versteeg, Zhuyun Liu, Brian Keegan, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Neima Briggs, Kathryn M Jones, Ulrich Strych, Coreen M Beaumier, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701221/helminth-infections-and-practice-of-prevention-and-control-measures-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-anbesame-health-center-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Amtatachew Moges Zegeye, Agmas Dessalegn Mengistu
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015...
July 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692673/gastrointestinal-parasite-infections-and-self-medication-in-wild-chimpanzees-surviving-in-degraded-forest-fragments-within-an-agricultural-landscape-mosaic-in-uganda
#14
Matthew R McLennan, Hideo Hasegawa, Massimo Bardi, Michael A Huffman
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692668/a-novel-species-specific-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-the-emerging-zoonotic-parasite-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-in-human-stool
#15
Marina Papaiakovou, Nils Pilotte, Jessica R Grant, Rebecca J Traub, Stacey Llewellyn, James S McCarthy, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Rubén Cimino, Rojelio Mejia, Steven A Williams
BACKGROUND: Molecular-based surveys have indicated that Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in Asia. Most current PCR-based diagnostic options for the detection of Ancylostoma species target the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal gene cluster. These regions possess a considerable degree of conservation among the species of this genus and this conservation can lead to the misidentification of infecting species or require additional labor for accurate species-level determination...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680323/high-prevalence-of-helminths-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-among-adults-living-in-a-rural-setting-central-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Janet Masaku, Faith Mutungi, Paul M Gichuki, Collins Okoyo, Doris W Njomo, Sammy M Njenga
BACKGROUND: Schistosome infection and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are major public health problems in many developing countries where they contribute to the suffering of populations living in poor settings. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural villages in central region of Kenya to provide information on the status of schistosome and STH infections. Previous studies conducted in the area among primary school children showed that there were high STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678896/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-stray-and-shelter-cats-in-the-municipality-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#17
Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira, Alynne da Silva Barbosa, Ana Paula Pereira de Moura, Marcelo Leitão Vasconcellos, Claudia Maria Antunes Uchôa, Otílio Machado Pereira Bastos, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira
The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats...
June 29, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666452/identifying-optimal-threshold-statistics-for-elimination-of-hookworm-using-a-stochastic-simulation-model
#18
James E Truscott, Marleen Werkman, James E Wright, Sam H Farrell, Rajiv Sarkar, Kristjana Ásbjörnsdóttir, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is an increased focus on whether mass drug administration (MDA) programmes alone can interrupt the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Mathematical models can be used to model these interventions and are increasingly being implemented to inform investigators about expected trial outcome and the choice of optimum study design. One key factor is the choice of threshold for detecting elimination. However, there are currently no thresholds defined for STH regarding breaking transmission...
June 30, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666412/an-integrated-study-of-human-and-animal-infectious-disease-in-the-lake-victoria-crescent-small-holder-crop-livestock-production-system-kenya
#19
Eric M Fèvre, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, Samuel Kariuki, Claire N Wamae
BACKGROUND: The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design and descriptive epidemiological outputs from an integrated study of human and animal zoonotic and non-zoonotic disease in a rural farming community in western Kenya...
June 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647243/quantification-of-hookworm-ova-from-wastewater-matrices-using-quantitative-pcr
#20
Pradip Gyawali, Warish Ahmed, Jatinder P Sidhu, Paul Jagals, Simon Toze
A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was used to quantify Ancylostoma caninum ova in wastewater and sludge samples. We estimated the average gene copy numbers for a single ovum using a mixed population of ova. The average gene copy numbers derived from the mixed population were used to estimate numbers of hookworm ova in A. caninum seeded and unseeded wastewater and sludge samples. The newly developed qPCR assay estimated an average of 3.7×10(3) gene copies per ovum, which was then validated by seeding known numbers of hookworm ova into treated wastewater...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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