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María Ornela Beltrame, Agustín Bellusci, Analía Andrade
The Somuncurá Plateau is a Protected Natural Area located in the middle of the northern extra-Andean arid Patagonia. Inhabited by at least 20 small mammal species, is the place with the uppermost species richness in Patagonia. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains from micromammal coprolites collected in association with a bone sequence recovered at the east of the Somuncurá plateau (site "Alero Las lechuzas"). Coprolites came from the four temporal units previously defined: unit I (4790 ± 100 yrs...
February 27, 2018: Parasitology International
Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Jong Yil Chai, Jin Og Ju, Dong Hoon Shin
The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE-660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jane E Buikstra, Della C Cook, Katelyn L Bolhofner
This introductory chapter to the Special Issue on "Scientific Rigor in Paleopathology" serves to orient and introduce the chapters that follow through a detailed consideration of paleopathology as a 21st century intellectual field. In this vein, we first make the significant point that paleopathology is a profoundly interdisciplinary endeavor, encompassing aspects of the biomedical science, the humanities, and the social sciences. Thus, we suggest that no one practitioner can personally command the range of skills necessary for a 21st century paleopathologist...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Karl Reinhard
Archaeological parasitology originated in the mid-twentieth century with interdisciplinary teams of specialists directed by archaeologists. The goals of such studies were detailed analyses of dietary, medicinal, and environmental factors that shaped the patterns of infection. By the 1970s, a cadre of unique coprolite analysts was trained to analyze macroscopic and microscopic remains for integrated reconstructions of the cultural determinants of parasitism. During these first phases of research, diagnostic rigor was maintained by direct training of specialists in parasitology and archaeology sub-disciplines including archaeobotany and archaeopalynology...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Mônica Vieira de Souza, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro da Silva, Verónica Silva-Pinto, Pablo Mendez-Quiros, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition...
February 2018: Acta Tropica
Niloofar Paknezhad, Farbod Haji Mazdarani, Morteza Hessari, Iraj Mobedi, Faezeh Najafi, Negar Bizhani, Mahsasadat Makki, Gholamreza Hassanpour, Gholamreza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Paleoparasitology reveals the status of parasitic infections in humans and animals in ancient times based on parasitic particles found in biological remains from archaeological excavations. This line of research emerged in Iran in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The identification of parasites from Neolithic times is an attractive subject that shows the oldest origins of parasitic infections in a given geographical region. From an archaeological point of view, this archaeological site is well-known for animal domestication and agriculture in ancient Iran...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Luciana Sianto, Sérgio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Nathalie Antunes-Ferreira, Ana Raquel M Silva
In 2005, an adult male was excavated in the cloister of the former Convent of the Holy Spirit, in the Franciscan Province of Holy Mary of Arrábida, Lisbon district. From the anterior part of the sacrum, a darker organic agglomeration was collected and studied for intestinal parasites. Samples were rehydrated with Lycopodium tablets in a Na3PO4 5% solution for 72h, followed by the swirl technique. Organic material was concentrated at 2500rpm. At least 20 slides of each sample were examined using a light/polarized microscope...
September 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
Dong Hoon Shin, Jong-Yil Chai, Jong Ha Hong, Min Seo
Previous paleoparasitological studies of Joseon specimens established that the prevalence of Taenia infection was not much different from that of the early 20th century Korean population. As many of taeniases originally diagnosed as Taenia saginata in South Korea were revealed to be actually Taenia asiatica, which share a common intermediate host with T. solium (the pig), Joseon people must have ingested raw pork frequently. However, the current examination of extant Joseon documents revealed that the population ate significant amounts of beef even if the beef ban was enforced; and pork was not consumed as much as we thought...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Negar Bizhani, Abdol Motalleb Sharifi, Mohmmad Bagher Rokni, Jean Dupouy Camet, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mohammad Fallah Kiapi, Niloofar Paknezhad, Faezeh Najafi, Gholamreza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Along with the newly emergence of paleoparasitology research in Iran, findings of parasites from Northern part of the county have not been reported so far. In this study tracking for the lancet liver fluke dates back 250 BC is addressed. METHODS: Samples were taken from grave crypts of the soil layers attached to the pelvic bones from above-mentioned site in 2015. The laboratory examinations were conducted in the Dept. of Medial Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
V Taglioretti, M H Fugassa, D Rindel, N H Sardella
Paleoparasitological examination provides information of parasite-host associations in the past, shedding light on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and on some of the processes that modelled the parasitic communities. The aim of the present study was to examine parasite remains present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque, Patagonia and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in a biogeographical and paleoecological context...
November 2017: Parasitology
Mahsasadat Makki, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Seyed Mansour Seyed Sajjadi, František Moravec, Saied Reza Naddaf, Iraj Mobedi, Hossein Malekafzali, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Faranak Kargar, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Evidence of rare human helminthiasis in paleoparasitological records is scarce. we report here the finding of Physaloptera spp. eggs in a soil sample collected in the pelvic and sacrum bones area of a skeleton excavated from a grave of Shahr-e Sukhteh archeological site dating back to the Bronze Age. The site is located in southeastern Iran and has attracted the attention of numerous archeological teams owing to its vast expanse and diverse archeological findings since 1997. The spirurid nematodes Physaloptera spp...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Mahsasadat Makki, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Seyed Mansour Seyed Sajjadi, Saied Reza Naddaf, Iraj Mobedi, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Shahr-e Sukhteh (meaning burnt city in Persian) in Iran is an archeological site dated back to around 3,200-1,800 BC. It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province of Iran and known as the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. It was appointed as current study area for paleoparasitological investigations. Excavations at this site have revealed various archeological materials since 1967. In the present study, sheep and carnivore coprolites excavated from this site were analyzed by means of rehydration technique using TSP solution for finding helminth eggs...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
María Ornela Beltrame, Eleonor Tietze, Alberto Enrique Pérez, Agustín Bellusci, Norma Haydée Sardella
The narrow Andean-Patagonian temperate rainforest strip in the west of southern South America is inhabited by two endemic species of cervids, the southern pudu (Pudu puda) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), both cataloged as near threatened and threatened species, respectively. One of the possible causes of their declined number is the susceptibility to livestock diseases. Significant zooarchaeological records of both deer have been found throughout the Holocene from Patagonia. The present contribution reports the first paleoparasitological results obtained from coprolites of endemic deer from the archeological site "Cueva Parque Diana," Neuquén Province, Argentina, and discusses the possible diseases found in ancient times...
May 2017: Parasitology Research
Beltrame María Ornela, Tietze Eleonor, Pérez Alberto Enrique, Sardella Norma Haydeé
Eggs representative of a digenean species were found in coprolites belonged to an endemic deer from Patagonia. Samples were collected from the archaeological site named "Cueva Parque Diana". This site is a cave located at the Lanín National Park, Neuquén Province, Argentina. The coprolites were dated from 2370±70 to 580±60 years B.P. The eggs were ellipsoidal, operculated, yellowish and thin-shelled. Measurements (n=65) ranged from 120.0 to 142.5 (133.2±6.53) μm long and 62.5 to 87.5 (72.6±6.15) μm wide...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Dietmar Steverding
In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Victor Hugo Borba Nunes, Josep Antoni Alcover, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Paula Borba Cruz, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Adauto José Gonçalves de Araújo
Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca...
April 2017: Parasitology International
Benjamin Dufour, Maxence Segard, Matthieu Le Bailly
A paleoparasitological study was carried out on 2 lead coffins recovered from the Roman site of Jaunay-Clan (near Poitiers, France). For the first time, this particular type of burial gave positive parasitological results, and eggs of the whipworm Trichuris trichiura were identified in 1 individual. In the present case, thanatomorphose associated with funerary practices may explain the scarcity of the recovered eggs. However, human whipworm has now been observed in 9 individuals dated to the Roman period. The very high frequency of Trichuris sp...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko, Sergey Nikolaevich Ivanov, Bagashev Anatoly Nikolaevich, Tsybankov Alexander Alekseevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav Sergeyevich
An excavation of the Vesakoyakha II-IV and Nyamboyto I burial grounds was conducted during the 2014 field season, and soil samples from intact burials dating from the 19th and 20th centuries, respectively, were analyzed to determine interactions between parasites and host/vectors. Considering the discovery of Diphyllobothrium sp. and Taenia sp. eggs in soil samples from the pelvic region, diphyllobothriasis was the most frequent helminthic infection among the Taz Nenets. The Nyamboyto Nenets mainly consumed uncooked fish, while the Vesakoyakha Nenets had a bigger variety in food choices, including reindeer meat...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Shênia Patrícia Corrêa Novo, Luiz Fernando Ferreira
The review article presents some of the history of how paleoparasitology started in Brazil, making highlight the great responsible Dr. Luiz Fernando Ferreira and Dr. Adauto Araújo, the trajectory of paleoparasitology in Brazil since 1978 and its performance in science to the present day. In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred. Many of the parasites found in archaeological material and mentioned in this review went out of Africa with the peopling of Europe and from there they dispersed around the world, where climatic conditions allow the transmission...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Min Seo, Jong-Yil Chai, Myeung Ju Kim, Sang Yuk Shim, Ho Chul Ki, Dong Hoon Shin
For several years, we have conducted a series of studies on the patterns of ancient parasitism prevailing in the soil of rural and urban areas of past Kingdom of Korea. Actually, during our survey of paleoparasitology in archaeological sites of Korean peninsula, numerous ancient parasite eggs were discovered in the samples from the city districts of Hansung (Joseon) and Buyeo (Baikje), the palace moat at Gyeongju (Silla), shell-midden site at Bonghwang-dong (Silla to Joseon), and the reservoir found in Hwawangsansung fortress (Silla)...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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