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Matthieu Le Bailly, Adauto Araújo
This chapter aims to provide some key points for researchers interested in the study of ancient gastrointestinal parasites. These few pages are dedicated to my colleague and friend, Prof. Adauto Araújo (1951-2015), who participated in the writing of this chapter. His huge efforts in paleoparasitology contributed to the development and promotion of the discipline during more than 30 years.
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Daniela Leles, Amanda Lobo, Taís Rhodes, Patrícia Riddell Millar, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, Adauto Araújo
Paleoparasitology studies parasite infections by finding the parasites' remains in preserved organic remains such as natural or artificial mummy tissues, skeletons, teeth, and coprolites, among others. However, some currently important infections like toxoplasmosis have not been studied by paleoparasitology. The reasons include this parasite's complex life cycle, the resulting difficulties in locating this protozoan in the intermediate host tissues, and the limitation of coprolite studies to felines, the protozoan's definitive host...
September 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Shênia Patrícia Corrêa Novo, Daniela Leles, Raffaella Bianucci, Adauto Araujo
Species of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) are causative agents of leishmaniasis, a complex disease with variable clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity, constituting, in some countries, a serious public health problem. The origin and evolution of leishmaniasis has been under discussion regarding some clinical and parasitological aspects. After the introduction of paleoparasitology, molecular methods and immunodiagnostic techniques have been applied allowing the recovery of parasite remains, as well as the diagnosis of past infections in humans and other hosts...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Matthieu Le Bailly, Céline Maicher, Benjamin Dufour
Understanding parasite history and the evolution of host/parasite relationships is one of the most important aspects of paleoparasitology. Within the framework of this research topic, this paper focuses on the human pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba histolytica. The compilation of all the available archaeological data concerning this parasite leads to a first glimpse of the history of this parasite of current medical importance. Paleoparasitological investigation into this parasite uses immunological techniques and shows that the modern strain of E...
August 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
María Ornela Beltrame, María Eugenia De Porras, Ramiro Barberena, Carina Lourdes Llano, Norma Haydée Sardella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Parasitology International
Niloofar Paknazhad, Gholamreza Mowlavi, Jean Dupouy Camet, Mohammad Esmaeili Jelodar, Iraj Mobedi, Mahsasadat Makki, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Siamak Sarlak, Faezeh Najafi
BACKGROUND: The Molavi street archeological site south of Tehran accidentally provided a unique opportunity for paleoparasitological studies in Iran. A female skeleton was unearthed and evaluated to be 7000 years old. Soil samples were collected around the pelvic and sacrum bones. FINDINGS: Careful microscopic investigation of rehydrated soil samples revealed the presence of one Enterobius vermicularis egg attached to the skeleton sacral region. CONCLUSION: The present finding likely represents the oldest evidence of a human pinworm infection in Asia...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Lauren Hubert Jaeger, Herminia Gijón-Botella, María Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes Martín-Oval, Conrado Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Mercedes Del Arco-Aguilar, Adauto Araújo, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination...
April 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Martin H Fugassa
Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed...
2015: Zootaxa
Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko, Alexander Vasilevich Gusev, Sergey Nikolaevich Ivanov, Evgenia Olegovna Svyatova
We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children...
December 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Gholamreza Mowlavi, Mahsasadat Makki, Zahra Heidari, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Adauto Araujo, Nicole Boenke, Abolfazl Aali, Thomas Stollner, Iraj Mobedi
Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th)/5(th) century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references...
April 2015: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Yuck Shim, Hoon Jin Jeong, Myeung Ju Kim, Mi-Hyun Lee, Ka Young Kim, In Hak Lee, Gyongtaek Kim, Jong Yil Chai, Chang Seok Oh, Min Seo
A paleoparasitological study was performed on soil samples obtained at archaeological sites dating to the Baekje period in ancient Korean history. The samples were obtained from Buyeo, the capital area of the Baekje Kingdom, and from others corresponding to provincial counties of the same period. We found Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura eggs in the Buyeo samples but not any in the samples from the provincial counties. Our results suggest that the parasite-egg contamination patterns were closely correlated with population densities, in that the provincial counties of the Kingdom, compared with the capital Buyeo, were very sparsely populated...
August 2015: Journal of Parasitology
Benjamin Dufour, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Sébastien Lepetz, Matthieu Le Bailly
This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods...
July 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Verónica Taglioretti, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Norma Haydée Sardella
Knowledge of parasitic infections to which fauna was exposed in the past provides information on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and for archaeological fauna on the potential zoonotic risk that human and animal populations could be exposed. The aim of the present study was to examine the gastrointestinal parasite present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra, cave 7 (CCP7), Patagonia, Argentina. Coprolites were collected from different stratified sequences dating from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition to the late Holocene...
July 2015: Parasitology Research
María Ornela Beltrame, Fernando Julián Fernández, Norma Haydeé Sardella
Eggs representative of an acanthocephalan were found in an ancient fragment of raptor pellet, probably belonged to the barn owl, Tyto alba, from the archeological site named "Epullán Chica cave." This site is a cave located at the southern of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The fragment of pellet was found in a layer with charcoals dated at 1980±80 years B.P. A total of 56 eggs were found. Eggs were brown colored and thick-shelled, and presented four membranes, the outer lightly sculpted. The embryos presented hooks in one extremity...
June 2015: Acta Tropica
Martin Jensen Søe, Peter Nejsum, Brian Lund Fredensborg, Christian Moliin Outzen Kapel
Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology...
February 2015: Journal of Parasitology
Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Yuck Shim, Myeung Ju Kim, Chang Seok Oh, Mi-Hyun Lee, Suk Bae Jung, Geon Il Lee, Jong-Yil Chai, Min Seo
In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies...
October 2014: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Matthieu Le Bailly, Michaël Landolt, Leslie Mauchamp, Benjamin Dufour
Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines...
2014: PloS One
Lauren Hubert Jaeger, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis...
2014: PloS One
Min Seo, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard, Jong Yil Chai, Dong Hoon Shin
Paleoparasitology is the application of conventional or molecular investigative techniques to archeological samples in order to reveal parasitic infection patterns among past populations. Although pioneering studies already have reported key paleoparasitological findings around the world, the same sorts of studies had not, until very recently, been conducted in sufficient numbers in Korea. Mummified remains of individuals dating to the Korean Joseon Dynasty actually have proved very meaningful to concerned researchers, owing particularly to their superb preservation status, which makes them ideal subjects for paleoparasitological studies...
June 2014: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Dietmar Steverding
The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century...
2014: Parasites & Vectors
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