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Spot diagnosis

Laurence Thielemans, Gornpan Gornsawun, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Moo Kho Paw, Pen Porn, Paw Khu Moo, Bart Van Overmeire, Stephane Proux, François Nosten, Rose McGready, Verena I Carrara, Germana Bancone
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Nanjela Chindima, Panji Nkhoma, Musalula Sinkala, Mildred Zulu, Doris Kafita, Marah Simakando, Florence Mwaba, Hamakwa Mantina, Mubanga Mutale
Context: Sickle cell disease is a group of hemoglobin (Hb) disorders resulting from the inheritance of the sickle β-globin gene. It is the most common pathological Hb mutation worldwide with 75% being born in Sub-Saharan Africa. Aims: This study aims to determine if dried blood spots (DBSs) can be used for diagnosis of sickle cell in newborns. In Zambia, there is no neonatal screening program for sickle cell anemia (SCA), yet it has been proved that early diagnosis by newborn screening (NBS) using DBSs and access to comprehensive care results in survival to adulthood of over 96% of sickle cell patients...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Heather L Howie, Xiaohong Wang, Linda Kapp, Jenna N Lebedev, James C Zimring
There are four subtypes of human IgG with different effector functions. Quantifying the relative amount of each IgG subtype is important for laboratory diagnosis in multiple settings. However, in an evolving landscape of the appreciation of human variability and the need for precision/personalised laboratory diagnosis, it has also been shown that there are numerous natural variants of IgG subtypes, with at least 29 having been described. It has recently been reported that commercially available polyclonal antisera to IgG3 cross react with variants of other IgG subtypes, while available monoclonal anti-IgG3 have a blind-spot for the IgG3-04 variant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Rafał Podgórski, David Aebisher, Monika Stompor, Dominika Podgórska, Artur Mazur
The aim of this paper is a straightforward presentation of the steroidogenesis process and the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - 21-hydroxylase deficiency - as well as the analytical diagnostic methods that are used to recognize this disease. CAH is a family of common autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impaired adrenal cortisol biosynthesis with associated androgen excess due to a deficiency of one or more enzymes in the steroidogenesis process within the adrenal cortex...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
K Kavvadia, K Seremidi, C Reppa, M Makou, P Lagouvardos
AIM: To clinically validate the fluorescence devices, DIAGNOdent Pen™ and Vista Proof™ for the evaluation of non-cavitated white spot lesions (WSL) in orthodontic patients and using direct visual examination after the brackets removal, as the gold standard. METHODS: The sample consisted of 31 patients, 13-28 years old, under fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Teeth (N = 619) were evaluated with the brackets on, after cleaning and air drying, by direct, indirect visual examination and using the DIAGNOdent Pen™ device...
March 13, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Sineepat Talungchit, Waranun Buajeeb, Chotima Lerdtripop, Rudee Surarit, Kongthawat Chairatvit, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yuichi Izumi, Siribang-On Piboonniyom Khovidhunkit
BACKGROUND: Salivary protein biomarkers for screening and diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP) are not well-defined. The objective of this study was to identify putative protein biomarkers for OLP using proteomic approaches. METHODS: Pooled unstimulated whole saliva was collected from five OLP patients and five healthy control participants. Saliva samples were then subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometry to identify putative protein biomarkers...
March 13, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Chi-Ju Yang, Na Wei, Ming Li, Kun Xie, Jian-Qiu Li, Cheng-Gang Huang, Yong-Sheng Xiao, Wen-Hua Liu, Xi-Gui Chen
BACKGROUND: Mandatory newborn screening for metabolic disorders has not been implemented in most parts of China. Newborn mortality and morbidity could be markedly reduced by early diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Methods of screening for IEM by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) have been developed, and their advantages include rapid testing, high sensitivity, high specificity, high throughput, and low sample volume (a single dried blood spot). METHODS: Dried blood spots of 100,077 newborns obtained from Jining city in 2014-2015 were screened by MS/MS...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Louise Elizabeth Bird, Graham Bilbrough, Ronan Fitzgerald, David John Walker
Objectives: To determine the time from treatment with a product containing imidacloprid 10 per cent/moxidectin 2.5 per cent spot-on (Advocate™), to dogs becoming negative for Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum). The authors hypothesised that most dogs would have resolution of A. vasorum within four weeks of treatment with Advocate™. Design: Prospective, non-randomised, prepost treatment study. Setting: Cases were enrolled from general practices along the southern coast of the United Kingdom...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Chi Yang, Shaojun Zhang, Lan Yao, Lin Fan
Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Richard Manber, Kris Thielemans, Brian F Hutton, Simon Wan, Francesco Fraioli, Anna Barnes, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, David Atkinson
In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET imaging with Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging in PET/MR scanners provides spatially aligned complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. We validate our PET respiratory motion correction methodology based on a joint PET-MR motion model, on a patient cohort, showing it can improve lesion detectability and quantitation, and reduce image artefacts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Syed Mustafa Ali, Farah Naureen, Arif Noor, Irum Fatima, Kerri Viney, Muhammad Ishaq, Naveed Anjum, Aamna Rashid, Ghulam Rasool Haider, Muhammad Aamir Khan, Javariya Aamir
BACKGROUND: Researchers and policy-makers have identified loss to follow-up as a major programmatic problem. Therefore, the objective of this study is to quantify TB related pre-treatment loss to follow up and treatment delay in private sector health care facilities in Pakistan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort study using routinely collected programmatic data from TB referral, diagnosis and treatment registers. Data from 48 private healthcare facilities were collected using an online questionnaire prepared in ODK Collect, for the period October 2015 to March 2016...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
Charlotte Jones, Gareth J Dunseath, Jessica Lemon, Stephen D Luzio
BACKGROUND: Microsampling techniques are alternative methods to venous sampling for obtaining blood for measurement of circulating biomarkers, offering the convenience of reduced sample volume and elimination of the need for phlebotomists. Dried blood spot (DBS) microsampling methods have been used for many years while more recently a volumetric absorptive microsampling device (VAMS™) has been introduced. In diabetes mellitus, circulating C-peptide is commonly used as an indicator of endogenous insulin secretion and clinical measurement can aid in diagnosis as well as informing on therapy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Chongwen Wang, Bing Gu, Qiqi Liu, Yuanfeng Pang, Rui Xiao, Shengqi Wang
Background: Pathogenic bacteria have always been a significant threat to human health. The detection of pathogens needs to be rapid, accurate, and convenient. Methods: We present a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor based on the combination of vancomycin-modified Ag-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @Ag-Van MNPs) and Au@Ag nanoparticles (NPs) that can effectively capture and discriminate bacterial pathogens from solution. The high-performance Fe3 O4 @Ag MNPs were modified with vancomycin and used as bacteria capturer for magnetic separation and enrichment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hepeng Fu, Yuxiang Zhang
Platelets play a pivotal role in the thromboembolic, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory process. The alteration of platelet quality often affects the treatment and prognosis of critically ill patients, and has a significant correlation with mortality. With the further research on the function of the platelet, it is found that the abnormal platelet quality can present during the early stage of the illness of the critically ill patients. In order to evaluate the alterations of the platelet quality more accurately, the further studies of platelet parameters, including platelet counts (PLT), platelet hematocrit (PCT), platelet large cell ratio (PLCR), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), immature platelet fraction (IPF) and so on, are still be the focus of current researches in the field of critical illness...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ombretta Repetto, Stefania Maiero, Raffaella Magris, Gianmaria Miolo, Maria Rita Cozzi, Agostino Steffan, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Renato Cannizzaro, Valli De Re
Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels and tumor progression in patients with gastric cancer (GC) have been largely reported. However, distinct fibrinogen chains and domains have different effects on coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize fibrinogen β chain (FGB) in GC tissues. Retrospectively we analyzed the data of matched pairs of normal (N) and malignant tissues (T) of 28 consecutive patients with GC at diagnosis by combining one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE) with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry together with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lais Lovison Sturaro, Tohru Gonoi, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Cibele Aparecida Tararam, Carlos Emilio Levy, Luzia Lyra, Plinio Trabasso, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Katsuhiko Kamei, Maria Luiza Moretti
A DNA microarray platform, based on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2) of the rRNA gene, was developed to identify 32 fungal pathogens at the species level. The probe sequences were spotted onto polycarbonate slides with a mini-microarray printer, and after the hybridization, the results were visible with the naked eye. The performance of the microarray platform was evaluated against the commercial automated systems (Vitek ® 2 and BD Phoenix™ systems) and DNA sequencing (gold standard)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
David Weisburd, Breanne Cave, Matthew Nelson, Clair White, Amelia Haviland, Justin Ready, Brian Lawton, Kathleen Sikkema
This study explores the relationship between mental health and place at microgeographic units of analysis. We examine self-reported symptomology for depression and PTSD for 2,724 survey respondents interviewed in three types of randomly selected street segments: violent crime hot spots, cool spots, and cold spots. We find that the mean symptomology score is 61% higher for depression in violent crime hot spots than cold spots, and 85% higher for PTSD. Overall, we estimate that 14.8% of residents of violent crime hot spots meet thresholds for moderate depression or a diagnosis of PTSD...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Antoine Verger, Christian P Filss, Philipp Lohmann, Gabriele Stoffels, Michael Sabel, Hans-J Wittsack, Elena Rota Kops, Norbert Galldiks, Gereon R Fink, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of O-(2-18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18 F-FET) PET and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) for the diagnosis of progressive or recurrent glioma. METHODS: Thirty-two pretreated gliomas (25 progressive or recurrent tumors, 7 treatment-related changes, TRC) were investigated with18 F-FET PET and PWI using a hybrid PET/MR scanner. Volumes of interest (VOIs) with a diameter of 16 mm were centered upon the maximum of abnormality in the tumor area in PET and PWI maps (rCBV, rCBF, MTT) and the contralateral unaffected hemisphere...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Arya Sobhakumari, Robert H Poppenga, J Brad Pesavento, Francisco A Uzal
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Qianping Zhou, Lanshan Huang, Yongyao Gu, Huiping Lu, Zhenbo Feng
BACKGROUND: Molecular target therapy has become a hot spot in cancer treatment, finding effective targets for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an urgent problem. OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression level of C-C motif chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) in DLBCL and clarify its potential role in the progression of DLBCL. METHODS: Gene expression datas of DLBCL were obtained from TCGA and GEO databases. The relationship between CCL18 and clinicopathologic information of DLBCL was assessed using meta-analysis method...
February 9, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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