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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815614/resveratrol-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Christine Sawda, Charbel Moussa, R Scott Turner
The amyloid hypothesis suggests that the progressive accumulation and deposition of central nervous system (CNS) amyloid with aging is the proximate cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting molecular mechanisms of aging may be a viable treatment approach. Caloric restriction prevents diseases of aging, including AD, in animal models, perhaps by activation of sirtuins. The sirtuins (e.g., mammalian SIRT1) are deacetylases that link energy balance (NAD(+) /NADH) to regulation of gene transcription. Resveratrol is a potent activator of SIRT1, and thus may mimic caloric restriction to prevent diseases of aging...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#2
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812111/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuresis-induces-volume-dependent-hypercalciuria
#3
J Grellier, A Jaafar, A Martin, M El Alaoui, C Lebely, I Tack, M Vallet
Hyponatremia is associated with bone demineralization. We hypothesized that, during hyponatremia, calciuria and calcium balance depend on volemic status. We evaluated calciuria in patients with hyponatremia, secondary to SIAD or hypovolemia. Patients with SIAD exhibited a volemic expansion that was associated with hypercalciuria. Calciuria was proportional to markers of volemia. INTRODUCTION: Chronic mild hyponatremia has been associated with bone demineralization of unknown mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807037/selepressin-a-novel-selective-vasopressin-v1a-agonist-is-an-effective-substitute-for-norepinephrine-in-a-phase-iia-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-in-septic-shock-patients
#4
James A Russell, Jean-Louis Vincent, Anne Louise Kjølbye, Håkan Olsson, Allan Blemings, Herbert Spapen, Peder Carl, Pierre-Francois Laterre, Lars Grundemar
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1...
August 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804120/mitochondrial-energetics-in-the-kidney
#5
REVIEW
Pallavi Bhargava, Rick G Schnellmann
The kidney requires a large number of mitochondria to remove waste from the blood and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Mitochondria provide the energy to drive these important functions and can adapt to different metabolic conditions through a number of signalling pathways (for example, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways) that activate the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α), and by balancing mitochondrial dynamics and energetics to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis...
August 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803998/high-serum-lactate-as-an-adjunct-in-the-early-prediction-of-anastomotic-leak-following-oesophagectomy
#6
B Ip, K T Ng, S Packer, S Paterson-Brown, G W Couper
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak (AL) following oesophagectomy carries a high mortality and morbidity. Early detection and intervention is required for a successful outcome. We have examined the role of a high postoperative serum lactate in predicting which patients are at risk of developing an anastomotic leak(AL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy over a 3-year period were identified from a prospectively collected database...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803369/volume-balance-and-intradialytic-ultrafiltration-rate-in-the-hemodialysis-patient
#7
REVIEW
Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Volume management in hemodialysis patients is often challenging. Assessing volume status and deciding how much fluid to remove during hemodialysis, the so-called ultrafiltration rate (UFR), has remained a conundrum. RECENT FINDINGS: To date there is no objective assessment tool to determine the needed UFR during each hemodialysis session. Higher volume overload or higher UFR is associated with poor outcomes including worse mortality and unfavorable clinical outcomes...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803333/low-dose-tolvaptan-pk-pd-comparison-of-patients-with-hyponatremia-due-to-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-to-healthy-adults
#8
Susan E Shoaf, Patricia Bricmont, Ann Dandurand
PURPOSE: Tolvaptan (TLV) is indicated to treat hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) in Europe. Treatment is to be initiated at 15 mg QD but post-approval reporting indicates increasing use of 7.5 mg as the starting dose. Physicians believe 7.5 mg is effective and has a lower incidence of overly rapid correction of serum sodium. METHODS: Single TLV doses of 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg were administered to 14 healthy adults in a crossover design and to 29 subjects ≥18 years with SIADH and serum sodium between 120 and 133 mmol/L in a parallel-group design...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797619/mechanical-ventilation-weaning-protocol-improves-medical-adherence-and-results
#9
Luís Guilherme Alegretti Borges, Augusto Savi, Cassiano Teixeira, Roselaine Pinheiro de Oliveira, Marcio Luiz Ferreira De Camillis, Ricardo Wickert, Sérgio Fernando Monteiro Brodt, Túlio Frederico Tonietto, Ricardo Cremonese, Leonardo Silveira da Silva, Fernanda Gehm, Eubrando Silvestre Oliveira, Jose Herve Diel Barth, Juçara Gasparetto Macari, Cíntia Dias de Barros, Sílvia Regina Rios Vieira
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of a weaning protocol is related to better patient prognosis. However, new approaches may take several years to become the standard of care in daily practice. We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement a protocol to wean patients from mechanical ventilation (MV) and to evaluate the weaning success rate as well as practitioner adherence to the protocol. METHODS: We investigated all consecutive MV-dependent subjects admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) for >24h over 7years...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795163/a-reformulation-of-mechanics-and-electrodynamics
#10
Mario J Pinheiro
Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794814/a-new-microfluidic-device-design-for-a-defined-positioning-of-neurons-in-vitro
#11
Katharina Walczuch, Peter Renze, Claudia Ingensiep, Rudolf Degen, Thanh Phong Bui, Uwe Schnakenberg, Peter Bräunig, Katrin Bui-Göbbels
A new triangle-shaped microfluidic channel system for defined cell trapping is presented. Different variants of the same basic geometry were produced to reveal the best fitting parameter combinations regarding efficiency and sensitivity. Variants with differences in the trap gap width and the inter-trap distance were analyzed in detail by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and in experiments with artificial beads of different sizes (30, 60, 80 μm). Simulation analysis of flow dynamics and pressure profiles revealed strongly reduced pressure conditions and balanced flow rates inside the microfluidic channels compared to commonly used systems with meandering channels...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791529/effects-of-raas-inhibitors-in-patients-with-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Fan Zhang, Hong Liu, Di Liu, Yexin Liu, Huiqiong Li, Xia Tan, Fuyou Liu, Youming Peng, Hongqing Zhang
Proteinuria and decline of renal function are associated with progression of kidney disease. The Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, fluid volume, and sodium balance. Overactivity of RAAS contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of clinical conditions including progress of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review summarizes the use of RAAS inhibitors as dual therapy or monotherapy in different stages of kidney disease. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated RAAS inhibitors prevent proteinuria, kidney fibrosis and slow decline of renal function and thus play a protective role in both early and end stages of kidney disease...
August 8, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791006/regulation-of-lung-epithelial-sodium-channels-by-cytokines-and-chemokines
#13
REVIEW
Brandi M Wynne, Li Zou, Valerie Linck, Robert S Hoover, He-Ping Ma, Douglas C Eaton
Acute lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS) is a global health concern. ARDS patients have significant pulmonary inflammation leading to flooding of the pulmonary alveoli. This prevents normal gas exchange with consequent hypoxemia and causes mortality. A thin fluid layer in the alveoli is normal. The maintenance of this thin layer results from fluid movement out of the pulmonary capillaries into the alveolar interstitium driven by vascular hydrostatic pressure and then through alveolar tight junctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783358/long-range-ordering-of-blunt-ended-dna-tiles-on-supported-lipid-bilayers
#14
Nicole Avakyan, Justin Conway, Hanadi F Sleiman
Long-range ordering of DNA crossover tiles with blunt ends on lipid bilayers is investigated using atomic force microscopy. "Blunt-ended" tiles do not have single-stranded complementary ends, and thus instead of assembling via base-pairing, they can interact by π-stacking of their duplex ends. This work demonstrates that the balance of base π-stacking interactions between the ends of DNA duplexes, cholesterol-mediated DNA anchoring and electrostatic DNA binding to supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) presents an opportunity to build dynamic materials with long-range order on a soft support...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782823/drugs-and-the-kidneys-clinical-pharmacology-perspectives
#15
EDITORIAL
John Vincent
The focus of this edition of Clinical Pharmacolgoy & Therapeutics (CPT) is on drugs and renal function and will not include a detailed discussion of kidney disease and its treatment. It is well recognized that drugs affect the kidneys in different ways, while kidney disease impacts drug metabolism and response. It is impossible to underestimate the value of the kidneys to man in health and disease, from regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance to participating in drug metabolism and transport. Additionally, the kidneys serve as targets for drugs used to treat cardiovascular (CV) diseases including hypertension and heart failure, metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as playing a role in the regulation of several hormones...
September 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782112/lower-vs-higher-fluid-volumes-in-sepsis-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#16
T S Meyhoff, M H Møller, P B Hjortrup, M Cronhjort, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid administration with crystalloids is recommended in the initial management of sepsis. However, the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation on fluid volumes is low, and clinical equipoise exists. Potential benefits of restricting fluid volumes has been suggested, but the overall benefit or harm in patients with sepsis is unknown. Accordingly, we aim to assess patient-important benefits and harms of lower vs. higher fluid volumes in resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis...
September 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777197/elabela-improves-cardio-renal-outcome-in-fatal-experimental-septic-shock
#17
David Coquerel, Frédéric Chagnon, Xavier Sainsily, Lauralyne Dumont, Alexandre Murza, Jérôme Côté, Robert Dumaine, Philippe Sarret, Éric Marsault, Dany Salvail, Mannix Auger-Messier, Olivier Lesur
OBJECTIVES: Apelin-13 was recently proposed as an alternative to the recommended β-adrenergic drugs for supporting endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Since Apelin-13 signals through its receptor (Apelin peptide jejunum) to exert singular inotropic/vasotropic actions and to optimize body fluid balance, this candidate pathway might benefit septic shock management. Whether the newly discovered ELABELA (ELA), a second endogenous ligand of the Apelin peptide jejunum receptor highly expressed in the kidney, further improves cardio-renal impairment remains unknown...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775098/influenza-virus-infection-alters-ion-channel-function-of-airway-and-alveolar-cells-mechanisms-and-physiological-sequelae
#18
James D Londino, Ahmed Lazrak, James F Collawn, Zsuzsanna Bebok, Kevin S Harrod, Sadis Matalon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion and sodium (Na(+)) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial pericilary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771063/reliability-of-urinary-dehydration-markers-among-elite-youth-boxers
#19
Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular, Uros Marusic
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive urinary dehydration markers, in field-based settings on a day-to-day basis in elite adolescent amateur boxers. METHODS: Sixty-nine urine samples were collected on a day-to-day basis, from twenty-three athletes (17.3±1.9 y), during their weigh-stable phase and analyzed by field and laboratory measures of hydration status. Urine osmolality (UOSM), urine specific gravity (USG), total protein content (TPC) and body-mass (BM) stability were evaluated to determine fluid balance and hydration status...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770121/necrotizing-pneumonia-an-emerging-problem-in-children
#20
REVIEW
I Brent Masters, Alan F Isles, Keith Grimwood
BACKGROUND: In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae. REVIEW: NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a gradual increase in cases, which is partially explained by greater physician awareness and use of contrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and by temporal changes in circulating respiratory pathogens and antibiotic prescribing...
2017: Pneumonia
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