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Lilian Vieira Oliveira, Thais Souza Maia, Karla Zancopé, Murilo de Souza Menezes, Carlos José Soares, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
The presence of residues within the root canal after post-space preparation can influence the bond strength between resin cement and root dentin when using fiberglass posts (FGPs). Currently, there is no consensus in the literature regarding what is the best solution for the removal of debris after post-space preparation. This systematic review involved "in vitro" studies to investigate if cleaning methods of the root canal after post-space preparation can increase the retention of FGPs evaluated by the push-out test...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Bruno Gonfiotti, Sandro Paci
During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA) in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions...
March 2018: Heliyon
Daoud Makki, Kiran Naikoti, S R Murali
We report a case of exuberant artefacts on the magnetic resonance imaging scan of the elbow produced by invisible metal debris secondary to previous surgery.
April 2018: Shoulder & Elbow
Cunxian Zhang, Edmond Y Wang, Fang Liu, C James Sung, M Ruhul Quddus, Joyce Ou, Michele Lomme, W Dwayne Lawrence
There is a wide range of finding endometrial adenocarcinoma (ADCA) in the uterus following a diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), likely due to a poor diagnostic reproducibility and an inherent heterogeneity in CAH. We evaluated whether histologic subtyping of CAH would help predict ADCA. Our study consisted of 222 cases of CAH diagnosed by endometrial biopsy or curettage. ADCA was seen in 38.3% of these cases at hysterectomy. We divided CAH into two subtypes: type A was defined as back-to-back glands in a focus smaller than 2...
March 17, 2018: Human Pathology
Mathew J Tomlinson, Asad Naeem
CASA has been used in reproductive medicine and pathology laboratories for over 25 years, yet the 'fertility industry' generally remains sceptical and has avoided automation, despite clear weaknesses in manual semen analysis. Early implementers had difficulty in validating CASA-Mot instruments against recommended manual methods (haemocytometer) due to the interference of seminal debris and non-sperm cells, which also affects the accuracy of grading motility. Both the inability to provide accurate sperm counts and a lack of consensus as to the value of sperm kinematic parameters appear to have continued to have a negative effect on CASA-Mot's reputation...
March 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexya Cunha de Queiroz, Marcelo Vallinoto, Yoichi Sakai, Tommaso Giarrizzo, Breno Barros
The mimetic juveniles of a number of carangid fish species resemble plant parts floating near the water surface, such as leaves, seeds and other plant debris. The present study is the first to verify the morphological similarities and ecomorphological relationships between three carangids (Oligoplites saurus, Oligoplites palometa and Trachinotus falcatus) and their associated plant models. Behavioral observations were conducted in the estuary of Curuçá River, in northeastern Pará (Brazil) between August 2015 and July 2016...
2018: PloS One
Piya Ghose, Alina Rashid, Peter Insley, Meera Trivedi, Pavak Shah, Anupriya Singhal, Yun Lu, Zhirong Bao, Shai Shaham
Phagocytosis of dying cells is critical in development and immunity1-3 . Although proteins for recognition and engulfment of cellular debris following cell death are known4,5 , proteins that directly mediate phagosome sealing are uncharacterized. Furthermore, whether all phagocytic targets are cleared using the same machinery is unclear. Degeneration of morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, glia and melanocytes, produces phagocytic targets of various shapes and sizes located in different microenvironments6,7 ...
March 19, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Robert A Hill, Alice M Li, Jaime Grutzendler
Axonal myelin increases neural processing speed and efficiency. It is unknown whether patterns of myelin distribution are fixed or whether myelinating oligodendrocytes are continually generated in adulthood and maintain the capacity for structural remodeling. Using high-resolution, intravital label-free and fluorescence optical imaging in mouse cortex, we demonstrate lifelong oligodendrocyte generation occurring in parallel with structural plasticity of individual myelin internodes. Continuous internode formation occurred on both partially myelinated and unmyelinated axons, and the total myelin coverage along individual axons progressed up to two years of age...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren
Alcoholism is accompanied with a high incidence of cardiac morbidity and mortality due to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, manifested as dilation of one or both ventricles, reduced ventricular wall thickness, myofibrillary disarray, interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated for the etiology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy including ethanol/acetaldehyde toxicity, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative injury, apoptosis, impaired myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and protein synthesis, altered fatty acid extraction and deposition, as well as accelerated protein catabolism...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Axel Bronstert, Ankit Agarwal, Berry Boessenkool, Irene Crisologo, Madlen Fischer, Maik Heistermann, Lisei Köhn-Reich, José Andrés López-Tarazón, Thomas Moran, Ugur Ozturk, Christian Reinhardt-Imjela, Dadiyorto Wendi
The flash-flood in Braunsbach in the north-eastern part of Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany was a particularly strong and concise event which took place during the floods in southern Germany at the end of May/early June 2016. This article presents a detailed analysis of the hydro-meteorological forcing and the hydrological consequences of this event. A specific approach, the "forensic hydrological analysis" was followed in order to include and combine retrospectively a variety of data from different disciplines...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Zhang, Huahong Shi, Jinping Peng, Yinghui Wang, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Paul K S Lam
The pollution of marine environments and inland waters by plastic debris has raised increasing concerns worldwide in recent years. China is the world's largest developing country and the largest plastic producer. In this review, we gather available information on microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems. The results show that microplastics are ubiquitous in the investigated inland water systems, and high microplastic abundances were observed in developed areas. Although similar sampling and analytical methods were used for microplastic research in inland water and marine systems, methods of investigation should be standardized in the future...
March 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lisa Ito, Takayuki Omori, Minoru Yoneda, Toru Yamaguchi, Ryuta Kobayashi, Yoshio Takahashi
The sediments of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, consist of bioclastic materials, including foraminifera and coral debris. The sedimentary depth profiles of elements showed that various elements including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were enriched in the upper layers of the islands of Majuro Atoll. Carbon-14 dating revealed that the sedimentation of the upper layer was completed before 1670 and 542 cal BP in Laura and Calalen, respectively. The enriched elements could be categorized by their origins: (a) terrestrial elements transported as dust (aluminum (Al) and rare earth elements (REEs)); (b) anthropogenic elements (Zn and Cu); and (c) elements supplied by seabirds (phosphorus (P))...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Muriel M Schornack, Cherie B Nau
OBJECTIVES: Debris accumulation in the postlens fluid reservoir during scleral lens wear is clinically observed. We evaluated a method to quantify increases in turbidity of the postlens fluid reservoir by assessing changes in optical density of the fluid over time and compared these changes during 2 hr of scleral lens wear using three different lens designs. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (age, mean [SD], 29 [7] years) with no history of eye disease were enrolled in the study...
March 16, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Jessica C Stark, Euan Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the first responders to inflammation or injury in the central nervous system. Recent research has revealed microglia to be dynamic, capable of assuming both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Both M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (pro-reparative) phenotypes play an important role in neuroinflammatory conditions such as perinatal brain injury, and exhibit differing functions in response to certain environmental stimuli. The modulation of microglial activation has been noted to confer neuroprotection thus suggesting microglia may have therapeutic potential in brain injury...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrew L Loyd, Benjamin W Held, Eric R Linder, Jason A Smith, Robert A Blanchette
The laccate (shiny or varnished) Ganoderma contain fungi that are important wood decay fungi of living trees and decomposers of woody debris. They are also an important group of fungi for their degradative enzymes and bioprocessing potential. Laboratory decay microcosms (LDMs) were used to study the relative decay ability of G anoderma curtisii, Ganoderma meredithiae, Ganoderma sessile, and G anoderma zonatum, which are four commonly encountered Ganoderma species in the U.S., across four wood types (Pinus taeda, Quercus nigra, Q uercus virginiana, and Sabal palmetto)...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Dirk van den Brand, Cornelia Veelken, Leon Massuger, Roland Brock
Drug delivery into tumors and metastases is a major challenge in the eradication of cancers such as epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a promising group of delivery vehicles to mediate cellular entry of molecules that otherwise poorly enter cells. However, little is known about their penetration behavior in tissues. Here, we investigated penetration of cationic CPPs in 3D ovarian cancer spheroids and patient-derived 3D tumor explants. Penetration kinetics and distribution after long-term incubation were imaged by confocal microscopy...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gülşah Uslu, Taha Özyürek, Koray Yılmaz, Mustafa Gündoğar, Gianluca Plotino
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of apically extruded debris by Reciproc Blue (REC Blue; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) files during root canal preparation at body temperature. METHODS: Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The canals were instrumented using 1 of the following instruments: REC Blue, HEDM, or XPS...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Zhejun Wang, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo
INTRODUCTION: Conventional endodontic treatment includes instrumentation of the canals in most cases to size #25/.06 or larger, which changes the original canal wall anatomy. In recent years, energy-driven equipment, such as photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (Fotona LLC, Dallas, TX) and a multisonic GentleWave system (Sonendo Inc, Laguna Hills, CA), have been introduced to facilitate cleaning of minimally instrumented canals or even uninstrumented canals. The purpose of this study was to examine root canal wall anatomy in premolar teeth cleaned by a noninstrumentation method after #10 K-file patency examination...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Natalia D Andersen, Paula V Monje
Adult Schwann cell (SC) cultures are usually derived from nerves subjected to a lengthy step of pre-degeneration to facilitate enzymatic digestion and recovery of viable cells. To overcome the need for pre-degeneration, we developed a method that allows the isolation of adult rat sciatic nerve SCs immediately after tissue harvesting. This method combines the advantages of implementing a rapid enzymatic dissociation of the nerve fibers and a straightforward separation of cells versus myelin that improves both cell yield and viability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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