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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645185/soil-prokaryotic-communities-in-chernobyl-waste-disposal-trench-t22-are-modulated-by-organic-matter-and-radionuclide-contamination
#1
Nicolas Theodorakopoulos, Laureline Février, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Richard Christen, Laurie Piette, Sviatoslav Levchuk, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Claire Sergeant, Catherine Berthomieu, Virginie Chapon
After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest, and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644993/long-term-toxicity-of-surface-charged-polystyrene-nanoplastics-to-marine-planktonic-species-dunaliella-tertiolecta-and-artemia-franciscana
#2
E Bergami, S Pugnalini, M L Vannuccini, L Manfra, C Faleri, F Savorelli, K A Dawson, I Corsi
Plastic pollution has been globally recognized as a critical issue for marine ecosystems and nanoplastics constitute one of the last unexplored areas to understand the magnitude of this threat. However, current difficulties in sampling and identifying nano-sized debris make hard to assess their occurrence in marine environment. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) are largely used as nanoplastics in ecotoxicological studies and although acute exposures have been already investigated, long-term toxicity on marine organisms is unknown...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643347/off-resonance-based-assessment-of-metallic-wear-debris-near-total-hip-arthroplasty
#3
Kevin M Koch, Matthew F Koff, Thomas W Bauer, Parina H Shah, Andrew S Nencka, S Sivaram Kaushik, Hollis G Potter
PURPOSE: The presence of metallic debris near total hip arthroplasty can have a significant impact on longitudinal patient management. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging-based quantification of metallic debris near painful total hip replacements are described and applied to cohorts of symptomatic and control subject cases. METHODS: A combination of metal artifact reduction, off-resonance mapping, off-resonance background removal, and spatial clustering methods are utilized to quantify off-resonance signatures in cases of suspected metallosis...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643058/prospective-randomized-comparison-of-the-use-of-floshield-air-system-%C3%A2-versus-the-reference-technique-water%C3%A2-%C3%A2-povidone-iodine-solution-during-gynecologic-endoscopic-surgery-to-evaluate-the-operative-lens-vision-quality
#4
S Bendifallah, E Salakos, I Naoura, P Aristizabal, E Furet, S Zilberman, M Ballester, E Darai
BACKGROUND: The FloShield Air System(®) is a new device for laparoscopic surgery that utilizes a continuous dry CO2 gas flow over the scope to defog the lens and protect it from condensation, debris and smoke. We set out to compare the performance and efficiency of the device in terms of operative lens vision quality (OLVQ) with the reference technique (water + povidone-iodine (PVI) solution) during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center randomized prospective study between March and June 2016 (Trials Database Registration NCT02702531) including 53 patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopic surgery with water + PVI solution and 51 patients who underwent surgical procedures with the FloShield Air System...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642677/a-novel-workflow-combining-plaque-imaging-plaque-and-plasma-proteomics-identifies-biomarkers-of-human-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-disruption
#5
Regent Lee, Roman Fischer, Philip D Charles, David Adlam, Alessandro Valli, Katalin Di Gleria, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Robin P Choudhury, Charalambos Antoniades, Benedikt M Kessler, Keith M Channon
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the culprit event which underpins most acute vascular syndromes such as acute myocardial infarction. Novel biomarkers of plaque rupture could improve biological understanding and clinical management of patients presenting with possible acute vascular syndromes but such biomarker(s) remain elusive. Investigation of biomarkers in the context of de novo plaque rupture in humans is confounded by the inability to attribute the plaque rupture as the source of biomarker release, as plaque ruptures are typically associated with prompt down-stream events of myocardial necrosis and systemic inflammation...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642575/reactive-astrocytes-function-as-phagocytes-after-brain-ischemia-via-abca1-mediated-pathway
#6
Yosuke M Morizawa, Yuri Hirayama, Noubuhiko Ohno, Shinsuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yang Sui, Junichi Nabekura, Koichi Sato, Fumikazu Okajima, Hirohide Takebayashi, Hideyuki Okano, Schuichi Koizumi
Astrocytes become reactive following various brain insults; however, the functions of reactive astrocytes are poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes function as phagocytes after transient ischemic injury and appear in a limited spatiotemporal pattern. Following transient brain ischemia, phagocytic astrocytes are observed within the ischemic penumbra region during the later stage of ischemia. However, phagocytic microglia are mainly observed within the ischemic core region during the earlier stage of ischemia...
June 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640069/exosomes-from-cell-debris-to-potential-biomarkers-in-transplantation
#7
Adrian E Morelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638559/comparative-evaluation-of-anti-microbial-effects-of-triple-antibiotic-paste-and-amox-and-its-derivatives-against-e-faecalis-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Manjeet Kaur, Shrikant Kendre, Parmod Gupta, Navneet Singh, Harsimran Sethi, Neha Gupta, Rushil Acharya
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is a microorganism commonly detected in asymptomatic, persistent endodontic infections. Triple antibiotic paste has stood the test of time as a proven antibiotic combination against E. Faecalis. However, problems with this include staining of teeth and standardization of the preparation. Thus, the search for better alternatives and better preparation techniques is still on. AIM: To observe the potential of combinations [(Amoxicillin+ Metronidazole, Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid + Metronidazole; Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin + Metronidazole)] over Triple Antibiotic Paste...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634512/diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-the-detection-and-evaluation-of-cholesteatoma
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin Henninger, Christian Kremser
Cholesteatoma is a collection of keratinous debris and stratified squamous epithelium. It is trapped in the middle ear and can lead to bony erosion. The disease is treated surgically often followed by a second-look procedure to check for residual tissue or recurrence. Cholesteatoma has specific signal-intensity characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging with very high signal intensity on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Various DWI techniques exist: Echo-planar imaging (EPI)-based and non-EPI-based techniques as well as new approaches like multi-shot EPI DWI...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633912/life-cycle-assessment-and-life-cycle-costs-for-pre-disaster-waste-management-systems
#10
Yohei Wakabayashi, Tsai Peii, Tomohiro Tabata, Takashi Saeki
This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633808/impact-of-mr-guided-boiling-histotripsy-in-distinct-murine-tumor-models
#11
Martijn Hoogenboom, Dylan C Eikelenboom, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Arend Heerschap, Pieter Wesseling, Martijn H den Brok, Jurgen J Fütterer, Gosse J Adema
Interest in mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is rapidly growing. Boiling histotripsy (BH) is applied for mechanical fragmentation of soft tissue into submicron fragments with limited temperature increase using the shock wave and cavitation effects of HIFU. Research on BH has been largely limited to ex vivo experiments. As a consequence, the in vivo pathology after BH treatment and the relation to preexistent tissue characteristics are not well understood. This study reports on in vivo MR guided BH treatment, either with 100 or 200 pulses per focal spot, in three different subcutaneous mouse tumor models: a soft-tissue melanoma (B16OVA), a compact growing thymoma (EL4), and a highly vascularized neuroblastoma (9464D)...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632986/atom-probe-tomography-unveils-formation-mechanisms-of-wear-protective-tribofilms-by-zddp-ionic-liquid-and-their-combination
#12
Wei Guo, Yan Zhou, Xiahan Sang, Donovan N Leonard, Jun Qu, Jonathan D Poplawsky
The development of advanced lubricant additives has been a critical component for in paving the way for increasing energy efficiency and durability for numerous industry applications. However, the formation mechanisms of additive-induced protective tribofilms are not yet fully understood due to the complex chemomechanical interactions at the contact interface and the limited spatial resolution of many characterizing techniques currently used. Here, the tribofilms on a grey cast iron surface formed by three antiwear additives are systematically studied; a phosphonium-phosphate ionic liquid (IL), a zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), and an IL+ZDDP combination...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631586/benign-positional-vertigo-and-endolymphatic-hydrops-what-is-the-connection
#13
A F Jahn
BACKGROUND: Although benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and endolymphatic hydrops are considered to be distinct diagnoses, a minority of vertiginous patients exhibit features of both conditions. This coincidence has been reported previously in the literature, and is reviewed here in terms of possible aetiology. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A new hypothesis to account for both conditions is offered, implicating free-floating degenerating debris from the otolithic apparatus...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627679/exosomes-new-players-in-cancer-review
#15
Wei Guo, Yibo Gao, Ning Li, Fei Shao, Chunni Wang, Pan Wang, Zhenlin Yang, Renda Li, Jie He
The past decade has witnessed an exponential increase in research on exosomes. For many years considered to be extracellular debris, exosomes are now considered important mediators in intercellular communication. The capability of exosomes to transfer proteins, DNA, mRNA, as well as non-coding RNAs has made them an attractive focus of research into the pathogenesis of different diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor cells release a large sum of exosomes, which may not only influence proximal tumor cells and stromal cells in local microenvironment, but also can exert systemic effects when participating in blood circulation...
June 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626592/diffuse-b-cell-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-presenting-atypically-as-periprosthetic-joint-infection-in-a-total-hip-replacement
#16
Aysha Rajeev, Angela Ralte, Nameer Choudhry, Faizan Jabbar, Paul Banaszkiewicz
The occurrence of extranodal primary B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. Total hip replacement is one of the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. There has been an increased incidence of primary lymphomas involving periprosthetic sites. Chronic inflammation due to metal debris arising from the prosthetic implants has been evidenced as one of the causes for the development of soft tissue lymphomas albeit rarely. We describe a case report of a 77-year-old patient who had underwent a cemented total hip replacement in the past who further developed large B cell primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626275/phylogeny-of-saprobic-microfungi-from-southern-europe
#17
M Hernández-Restrepo, J Gené, R F Castañeda-Ruiz, J Mena-Portales, P W Crous, J Guarro
During a survey of saprophytic microfungi on decomposing woody, herbaceous debris and soil from different regions in Southern Europe, a wide range of interesting species of asexual ascomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of SSU, LSU and ITS proved that most of these fungi were related to Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes and to lesser extent to Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Four new monotypic orders with their respective families are proposed here, i.e. Lauriomycetales, Lauriomycetaceae; Parasympodiellales, Parasympodiellaceae; Vermiculariopsiellales, Vermiculariopsiellaceae and Xenospadicoidales, Xenospadicoidaceae...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625700/the-effectiveness-of-sterilization-for-flexible-ureteroscopes-a-real-world-study
#18
Cori L Ofstead, Otis L Heymann, Mariah R Quick, Ellen A Johnson, John E Eiland, Harry P Wetzler
BACKGROUND: There are no guidelines or quality benchmarks specific to ureteroscope reprocessing, and patient injuries and infections have been linked to ureteroscopes. This prospective study evaluated ureteroscope reprocessing effectiveness. METHODS: Reprocessing practices at 2 institutions were assessed. Microbial cultures, biochemical tests, and visual inspections were conducted on sterilized ureteroscopes. RESULTS: Researchers examined 16 ureteroscopes after manual cleaning and sterilization using hydrogen peroxide gas...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623606/marcks-is-necessary-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-maturation
#19
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) development into myelinated oligodendrocytes demands vigorous membrane addition. Since myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) reportedly contributes to Ras-associated protein (Rab)-10-associated vesicle insertion into neuronal membranes, we investigated the role of MARCKS in OPC maturation. We found that either knockdown of MARCKS or interruption of its interaction with Rab10 would cause a decrease of the cell membrane area during OPC development. Enhanced MARCKS phosphorylation by Nogo66 or myelin debris treatment inhibited OPC maturation, while its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2 A activator D-erythro-sphingosine promoted OPC development in the presence of myelin debris...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622381/cell-free-dna-release-by-mouse-placental-explants
#20
Mark Phillippe, Sharareh Adeli
Although suggested that "fetal" cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is derived from trophoblast cells, the exact origin is unclear. The studies in this report sought to demonstrate that placental tissue releases cfDNA in parallel with cell death, that the size range of cfDNA is similar to that found in maternal plasma, and that the cfDNA fragments are able to stimulate a proinflammatory cytokine response. Placentas were harvested from near term pregnant CD-1 mice and cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12/FBS media in 8% or 21% O2. After centrifugation to remove cells and cellular debris, the cfDNA was extracted from the media and quantified by DNA spectrophotometry...
2017: PloS One
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