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Kinesin and ions

Arunima Banerjee, Janet L Paluh, Amitava Mukherjee, K Gaurav Kumar, Archisman Ghosh, Mrinal K Naskar
Aim: In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), molecular changes spanning multiple subcellular compartments of the neuron contribute to neurodegeneration and altered axonal signaling. Computational modeling of end-to-end linked events benefit mechanistic analysis and can be informative to understand disease progression and accelerate development of effective therapies. In the calcium-amyloid beta model of AD, calcium ions that are an important regulator of neuronal function undergo dysregulated homeostasis that disrupts cargo loading for neurotrophic signaling along axonal microtubules (MTs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jeong-Hwa Baek, Janet Lee, Hong Shik Yun, Chang-Woo Lee, Jie-Young Song, Hong-Duck Um, Jong Kuk Park, In-Chul Park, Jae-Sung Kim, Eun Ho Kim, Sang-Gu Hwang
Kinesins act as molecular microtubule-dependent motor proteins and have various important cellular functions related to cell division, intracellular transport, and membrane trafficking. However, the function of kinesin light chain 4 (KLC4) in cancer, especially radioresistance, has not been previously described. Thus, we investigated KLC4 function in lung cancer cells and radioresistant R-H460 cells by analyzing alterations in radiosensitivity after gene knockdown with siRNA and by evaluating cellular phenotypes and xenograft tumor growth...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Eliana Calvo, Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans. This parasite is a divergent eukaryote with a compact genome. The calcium ion is an essential messenger in cell signaling. Calcium's role as a messenger is mediated through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) that decode the message. The most important family of CaBPs is the EF-Hand protein family. In this study we have explored the role of EF-Hand protein CaBP2933. We analyzed its location, confirmed its ability to bind calcium and identified some of its interacting proteins...
June 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Ortal Barel, May Christine V Malicdan, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Judith Kandel, Hadass Pri-Chen, Joshi Stephen, Inês G Castro, Jeremy Metz, Osama Atawa, Sharon Moshkovitz, Esther Ganelin, Iris Barshack, Sylvie Polak-Charcon, Dvora Nass, Dina Marek-Yagel, Ninette Amariglio, Nechama Shalva, Thierry Vilboux, Carlos Ferreira, Ben Pode-Shakked, Gali Heimer, Chen Hoffmann, Tal Yardeni, Andreea Nissenkorn, Camila Avivi, Eran Eyal, Nitzan Kol, Efrat Glick Saar, Douglas C Wallace, William A Gahl, Gideon Rechavi, Michael Schrader, David M Eckmann, Yair Anikster
Cellular distribution and dynamics of mitochondria are regulated by several motor proteins and a microtubule network. In neurons, mitochondrial trafficking is crucial because of high energy needs and calcium ion buffering along axons to synapses during neurotransmission. The trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs) are well characterized for their role in lysosomal and mitochondrial trafficking in cells, especially neurons. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Geri Kreitzer, Monn Monn Myat
Epithelial cells play a key role in insuring physiological homeostasis by acting as a barrier between the outside environment and internal organs. They are also responsible for the vectorial transport of ions and fluid essential to the function of many organs. To accomplish these tasks, epithelial cells must generate an asymmetrically organized plasma membrane comprised of structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral membranes. Adherent and occluding junctions, respectively, anchor cells within a layer and prevent lateral diffusion of proteins in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and restrict passage of proteins and solutes through intercellular spaces...
February 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Konrad J Böhm
In healthy organisms the metabolism of the trace element zinc is well balanced. If this balance becomes destroyed the free zinc level might increase and cause toxic effects. The present study demonstrates that under definite conditions zinc ions are able to inhibit the ATPase activity of neuron-specific KIF5A (kinesin-1). Correspondingly, the motility activity of KIF5A also decreased. The inhibition rates have been found to depend on the magnesium ion concentration. Lowering the magnesium concentration weakens the inhibition...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Michael G Gottschalk, Melanie P Leussis, Tillmann Ruland, Klaudio Gjeluci, Tracey L Petryshen, Sabine Bahn
Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder (BD), however the resulting pathophysiological and treatment implications remain elusive. In a preclinical systems biological approach, we aimed to characterize the behavioral and proteomic effects of Ank3 haploinsufficiency and chronic mood-stabilizer treatment in mice. Psychiatric-related behavior was evaluated with the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm, elevated plus maze (EPM) and a passive avoidance task (PAT). Tandem mass spectrometry (MSE ) was employed for hippocampal proteome profiling...
March 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Junyu Xu, Na Wang, Jian-Hong Luo, Jun Xia
PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons...
February 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amber L Jolly, Chi-Hao Luan, Brendon E Dusel, Sara F Dunne, Michael Winding, Vishrut J Dixit, Chloe Robins, Jennifer L Saluk, David J Logan, Anne E Carpenter, Manu Sharma, Deborah Dean, Andrew R Cohen, Vladimir I Gelfand
Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins ("cargo") occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins, but the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naive Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells...
January 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Udo Rüb, Horst-Werner Korf
Neurons are extremely polarized cells with a complex and unique morphology, as well as long processes (axon and dendrites) that extend far away from the nerve cell body. This architectonic feature of polarization with afferent (i.e., dendrites) and efferent processes (i.e., axons) requires efficient communication between the body of nerve cells and their periphery and makes nerve cells particularly dependent on functionally intact, sufficient, and timely axonal and/or dendritic intracellular transport processes over long distances...
2015: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Hui-Ming Zhang, Simon Wheeler, Xue Xia, Ruslana Radchuk, Hans Weber, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick
BACKGROUND: Transfer cells are characterized by intricate ingrowth walls, comprising an uniform wall upon which wall ingrowths are deposited. The ingrowth wall forms a scaffold to support an amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched in membrane transporters that collectively confers transfer cells with an enhanced capacity for membrane transport at bottlenecks for apo-/symplasmic exchange of nutrients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating polarized construction of the ingrowth wall and membrane transporter profile are poorly understood...
2015: BMC Plant Biology
Lian Duan, Tong-Qing Wang, Wei Bian, Wen Liu, Yue Sun, Bin-Sheng Yang
Monastrol, a cell-permeable inhibitor, considered to specifically inhibit kinesin Eg5, can cause mitotic arrest and monopolar spindle formation, thus exhibiting antitumor properties. Centrin, a ubiquitous protein associated with centrosome, plays a critical role in centrosome duplication. Moreover, a correlation between centrosome amplification and cancer has been reported. In this study, it is proposed for the first time that centrin may be another target of the anticancer drug monastrol since monastrol can effectively inhibit not only the growth of the transformed Escherichia coli cells in vivo, but also the Lu(3+)-dependent self-assembly of EoCen in vitro...
February 25, 2015: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Stefan Dhein, Anna Schreiber, Sabine Steinbach, Daniel Apel, Aida Salameh, Franziska Schlegel, Martin Kostelka, Pascal M Dohmen, Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to elucidate how cyclic mechanical stretch is sensed by cardiomyocytes and in which way it affects cytoskeletal organization. METHODS: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, cultured on flexible membranes, were subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch (1 Hz, 10% elongation) for 24 h using either round or rectangular loading posts for equibi-axial or uni-axial stretch, respectively, using the FlexCell stretch system. Cells were treated either with vehicle, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-573,228 (200 nM), or the stretch-activated ion channel blocker gadolinium (Gd(3+); 100 μM)...
August 2014: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Konrad J Böhm
Copper is a trace element required to maintain essential life processes. In healthy organisms, copper metabolism is well balanced. If this balance is destroyed, the cellular level of free copper might increase and cause toxic effects. So far, the molecular mechanisms of copper intoxication are understood only partly. The present study revealed that the kinesin-dependent transport system is strongly affected by copper(II) ions. Both the microtubules, along which kinesin moves, and the kinesin itself were found to be the target structures of copper ions: Microtubule formation was suppressed by copper ions (IC50 26-70 µM) apparently chiefly by inhibition of binding of microtubule-associated proteins to tubulin...
April 2015: Archives of Toxicology
Christopher I Ugbode, Warren D Hirst, Marcus Rattray
Recent evidence suggests that the predominant astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1/ Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 (EAAT2) is associated with mitochondria. We used primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to assess co-localization of GLT-1 with mitochondria, and tested whether the interaction was dependent on neurons, actin polymerization or the kinesin adaptor, TRAK2. Mouse primary astrocytes were transfected with constructs expressing V5-tagged GLT-1, pDsRed1-Mito with and without dominant negative TRAK2...
September 2014: Journal of Neurochemistry
Konrad J Böhm
The anterograde vesicle transport within neurons critically depends on microtubules and on the activity of kinesin. The present study demonstrates that cadmium ions inhibit the in vitro assembly of microtubules from tubulin, whereby at high cadmium levels (∼500 μM) unstructured protein aggregates were formed. Cadmium ions also significantly lower both the ATPase and motility activity of neuron-specific kinesin KIF5A in concentration-dependent manner. For the inhibition of KIF5A ATPase activity, an IC50 value of 10...
January 30, 2014: Toxicology Letters
Philip Klepeisz, Sandra Sagmeister, Verena Haudek-Prinz, Melanie Pichlbauer, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christopher Gerner
Preceding studies on the mode of action of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGCs) have concentrated on alterations induced in hepatocytes (HCs). A potential role of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) in NGC-driven hepatocarcinogenesis has been largely neglected so far. The aim of this study is to characterize NGC-induced alterations in the proteome profiles of HCs as well as NPCs. We chose the prototypic NGC phenobarbital (PB) which was applied to male rats for a period of 14 days. The livers of PB-treated rats were perfused by collagenase and the cell suspensions obtained were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate HCs from NPCs...
2013: PloS One
Helmut Plattner
The contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of freshwater protists sequesters the excess of water and ions (Ca(2+)) for exocytosis cycles at the pore. Sequestration is based on a chemiosmotic proton gradient produced by a V-type H(+)-ATPase. So far, many pieces of information available have not been combined to a comprehensive view on CVC biogenesis and function. One main function now appears as follows. Ca(2+)-release channels, type inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3R), may serve for fine-tuning of local cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and mediate numerous membrane-to-membrane interactions within the tubular spongiome meshwork...
June 2015: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Hitomi Mitsugi, Takeshi Niki, Kazuko Takahashi-Niki, Kyoko Tanimura, Kumiko Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Masahiko Tsunemi, Sanae M M Iguchi-Ariga, Hiroyoshi Ariga
DJ-1, the product of familial Parkinson's disease gene and an oncogene, is a cysteine protease which plays a role in anti-oxidative stress reaction. In this study, we identified the recognition sequence for DJ-1 protease by using recombinant DJ-1 and a peptide library. Protease activity of DJ-1 lacking C-terminal α-helix (DJ-1ΔH9) was stronger than that of full-sized DJ-1, and the most susceptible sequence digested by DJ-1ΔH9 was valine-lysine-valine-alanine (VKVA) under the optimal conditions of pH 5.5 and 0 mM NaCl...
August 19, 2013: FEBS Letters
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