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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918575/optimum-spacing-between-electrodes-in-an-air-cathode-single-chamber-microbial-fuel-cell-with-a-low-cost-polypropylene-separator
#1
Sanath Kondaveeti, Jung Mi Moon, Booki Min
The performance of a single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a low-cost polypropylene separator was investigated at various electrode interspaces in a separator electrode assembly (SEA). The lag period was shortened (3.74-0.17 days) and voltage generation was enhanced (0.2-0.5 V) as electrode spacing was increased from 0 to 9 mm. Power density was increased from 220 to 370 mW/m(2) with increased spacing. The highest power density of 488 mW/m(2) was obtained in polarization analysis with 6 mm. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients with 0 mm (K o = 3...
September 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917844/comparison-of-chitosan-and-chitosan-nanoparticles-on-the-performance-and-charge-recombination-of-water-based-gel-electrolyte-in-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#2
Malihe Khalili, Mohammad Abedi, Hossein Salar Amoli, Seyed Ahmad Mozaffari
In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917733/stabilization-of-gas-phase-uranyl-complexes-enables-rapid-speciation-using-electrospray-ionization-and-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#3
Austen L Davis, Brian H Clowers
Significant challenges exist when characterizing f-element complexes in solution using traditional approaches such as electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques as they do not always capture information for lower abundance species. However, provided a metal-complex with sufficient stability, soft ionization techniques such as electrospray offer a means to quantify and probe the characteristics of such systems using mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the gas-phase species observed in ESI-MS systems do not always reflect the solution phase distributions due to the inherent electrochemical mechanism of the electrospray process, ion transfer from ambient to low pressures conditions, and other factors that are related to droplet evaporation...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917670/morphological-characterization-and-biocontrol-effects-of-vibrio-vulnificus-phages-against-vibriosis-in-the-shrimp-aquaculture-environment
#4
P Srinivasan, P Ramasamy
The re-emerging field of phage therapy is the potential biocontrol agents for the transfer of virulence factor and to kill their bacterial hosts. In this study, the lytic Vibrio vulnificus phages were studied to provide a better understanding of phage-host interactions and development of phage therapy. Four new V. vulnificus phages were detected from shrimp aquaculture system, named VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4. All lytic V. vulnificus phages are the Tecviruses of the family Tectiviridae with typical double layered elongated icosahedral head and tailless morphology...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917604/the-needs-of-the-relatives-in-the-adult-intensive-care-unit-cultural-adaptation-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-chilean-spanish-version-of-the-critical-care-family-needs-inventory
#5
Noelia Rojas Silva, Cristobal Padilla Fortunatti, Yerko Molina Muñoz, Macarena Amthauer Rojas
INTRODUCTION: The admission of a patient to an intensive care unit is an extraordinary event for their family. Although the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory is the most commonly used questionnaire for understanding the needs of relatives of critically ill patients, no Spanish-language version is available. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate theCritical Care Family Needs Inventory in a sample of Chilean relatives of intensive care patients. METHODS: The back-translated version of the inventory was culturally adapted following input from 12 intensive care and family experts...
September 13, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917174/potential-effects-of-changes-in-climate-and-emissions-on-distribution-and-fate-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-the-bohai-rim-china
#6
Chao Su, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Shijie Liu, John P Giesy, Deliang Chen, Alan Jenkins, Andrew J Sweetman, Baninla Yvette
Climate change and emissions rates of contaminants are expected to affect distribution and fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the environment, however, studies on these combined factors are rare. In this study, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is used as an example to assess how those two factors synthetically affect fate and disposition of POPs in the Bohai Rim of China by using the Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural (BETR-Urban-Rural) model. We set up three climate change scenarios and four emission scenarios to conduct the simulations...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916290/conceptualizing-a-dynamic-fall-risk-model-including-intrinsic-risks-and-exposures
#7
Jochen Klenk, Clemens Becker, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Lars Schwickert, Kilan Rapp, Jorunn L Helbostad, Chris Todd, Stephen R Lord, Ngaire Kerse
Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916260/primary-facial-reanimation-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Axel Sahovaler, David Yeh, John Yoo
Facial Paralysis (FP) profoundly impairs the life of individuals, both functionally and psychosocially. Surgical approaches to treat this condition are myriad, but the ultimate goal is to restore symmetry and movement. Ablative surgery for tumors of the head and neck region are amongst the most common etiologies causing FP and this group of patients represents unique challenges. Surgical defects may have multiple competing reconstructive requirements and addressing the FP must be considered in this context...
September 12, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916179/a-comparison-of-inhomogeneous-magnetization-transfer-myelin-volume-fraction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-in-healthy-children
#9
REVIEW
Bryce L Geeraert, R Marc Lebel, Alyssa C Mah, Sean C Deoni, David C Alsop, Gopal Varma, Catherine Lebel
Sensitive and specific biomarkers of myelin can help define baseline brain health and development, identify and monitor disease pathology, and evaluate response to treatment where myelin content is affected. Diffusion measures such as radial diffusivity (RD) are commonly used to assess myelin content, but are not specific to myelin. Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) and multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) offer quantitative parameters (qihMT and myelin volume fraction/VFm, respectively) which are suggested to have improved sensitivity to myelin...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915837/professional-groups-driving-change-toward-patient-centred-care-interprofessional-working-in-stroke-rehabilitation-in-denmark
#10
Viola Burau, Kathrine Carstensen, Stina Lou, Ellen Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: Patient-centred care based on needs has been gaining momentum in health policy and the workforce. This creates new demand for interprofessional teams and redefining roles and tasks of professionals, yet little is known on how to implement new health policies more effectively. Our aim was to analyse the role and capacity of health professions in driving organisational change in interprofessional working and patient-centred care. METHODS: A case study of the introduction of interprofessional, early discharge teams in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark was conducted with focus on day-to-day coordination of care tasks and the professional groups' interests and strategies...
September 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915651/programmed-differentiated-natural-killer-cells-kill-leukemia-cells-by-engaging-slam-family-receptors
#11
Yang Wu, Young Li, Binqing Fu, Linlin Jin, Xiaohu Zheng, Aimei Zhang, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian, Haiming Wei
Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate immune cells that can directly kill transformed or virus-infected cells. The adoptive transfer of NK cells has been used to treat hematological malignancies; however, the limited sources and quantities of NK cells have restricted their clinical application. Here, we acquired sufficient quantities of functional NK cells from CD34(+) cells treated with a cytokine cocktail. Microarray analysis of the cultured cells revealed a two-stage pattern of programmed differentiation during NK cell development...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915312/dce-and-dw-mri-as-early-imaging-biomarkers-of-treatment-response-in-a-preclinical-model-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#12
Stephanie L Barnes, Anna G Sorace, Jennifer G Whisenant, J Oliver McIntyre, Hakmook Kang, Thomas E Yankeelov
This work evaluates quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) parameters as early biomarkers of response in a preclinical model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The standard Tofts' model of DCE-MRI returns estimates of the volume transfer constant (K(trans) ) and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve ). DW-MRI returns estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Mice (n = 38) were injected subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915057/highly-efficient-flavin-adenine-dinucleotide-glucose-dehydrogenase-fused-to-a-minimal-cytochrome-c-domain
#13
Itay Algov, Jennifer Grushka, Raz Zarivach, Lital Alfonta
Flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is a thermostable, oxygen insensitive redox enzyme that has been widely used in bioelectrochemical applications. The FAD co-factor of the enzyme is buried within the proteinogenic matrix of the enzyme which makes it almost unreachable for a direct communication with an electrode. In the present study, FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase was fused to a natural minimal cytochrome domain in its c-terminus to achieve direct electron transfer...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915035/photoelectrochemistry-of-photosystem-ii-in-vitro-vs-in-vivo
#14
Jenny Z Zhang, Paolo Bombelli, Katarzyna P Sokol, Andrea Fantuzzi, A William Rutherford, Christopher J Howe, Erwin Reisner
Factors governing the photoelectrochemical output of photosynthetic microorganisms are poorly understood, which can lead to energy losses through inefficient electron transfer (ET) processes. Here, we systematically compare the photoe-lectrochemistry of photosystem II (PSII) protein-films to cyano-bacteria biofilms to derive: (i) the losses in light-to-charge con-version efficiencies, (ii) gains in photocatalytic longevity, and (iii) insights into the ET mechanism at the biofilm interface. This study was enabled by the use of hierarchically structured elec-trodes, which could be tailored for high/stable loadings of PSII core complexes and Synechocystis sp...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914539/phonon-assisted-ultrafast-charge-transfer-at-van-der-waals-heterostructure-interface
#15
Qijing Zheng, Wissam A Saidi, Yu Xie, Zhenggang Lan, Oleg V Prezhdo, Hrvoje Petek, Jin Zhao
The van der Waals (vdW) interfaces of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor are central to new device concepts and emerging technologies in light-electricity transduction where the efficient charge separation is a key factor. Contrary to general expectation, efficient electron-hole separation can occur in vertically stacked transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructure bilayers through ultrafast charge transfer between the neighboring layers despite their weak vdW bonding. In this report, we show by ab initio non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) calculations, that instead of direct tunneling, the ultrafast interlayer hole transfer is strongly promoted by an adiabatic (AD) mechanism through phonon excitation occurring on 20 fs, which is in good agreement with the experiment...
September 15, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914310/plasmonic-enhancement-of-sers-measured-on-molecules-in-carbon-nanotubes
#16
Niclas S Mueller, Sebastian Heeg, Patryk Kusch, Etienne Gaufrès, Nathalie Y-W Tang, Uwe Hübner, Richard Martel, Aravind Vijayaraghavan, Stephanie Reich
We isolated the plasmonic contribution to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and found it to be much stronger than expected. Organic dyes encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes are ideal probes for quantifying plasmonic enhancement in a Raman experiment. The molecules are chemically protected through the nanotube wall and spatially isolated from the metal, which prevents enhancement by chemical means and through surface roughness. The tubes carry molecules into SERS hotspots, thereby defining molecular position and making it accessible for structural characterization with atomic-force and electron microscopy...
September 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913974/impact-of-ladder-related-falls-on-the-emergency-department-and-recommendations-for-ladder-safety
#17
C J Cabilan, Kirsten Vallmuur, Rob Eley, Chantelle Judge, Sarah Cochrane, Connie Reed, Jessica Riordan, Kym Roberts, Ogilvie Thom, Gabriella Wood
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of patients who presented to the ED from a ladder-related fall and their injuries, highlight the impact of ladder-related falls on the ED, identify contributing factors of ladder falls and draw recommendations to improve ladder safety. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in two EDs. Patients' demographics and ED services used were obtained from medical records. A 53-item questionnaire was used to gather information about the type of ladder used, ladder activity, circumstances of the fall, contributing factors and future recommendations...
September 14, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912844/triptolide-inhibits-cd4-memory-t-cell-mediated-acute-rejection-and-prolongs-cardiac-allograft-survival-in-mice
#18
Shuiwei Qiu, Dingliang Lv
There have been numerous investigations into the immunosuppressive effects of triptolide; however, its inhibitory effects on memory T cells remain to be elucidated. Using a cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) memory T-cell transfer model, the aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of triptolide on CD4(+) memory T cell-mediated acute rejection and to determine the potential underlying mechanisms. At 4 weeks after skin transplantation, mouse cervical heart transplantation was performed following the transfer of CD4(+) memory T cells...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912704/reliability-of-eeg-measures-of-interaction-a-paradigm-shift-is-needed-to-fight-the-reproducibility-crisis
#19
Yvonne Höller, Andreas Uhl, Arne Bathke, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Kevin Butz, Raffaele Nardone, Jürgen Fell, Eugen Trinka
Measures of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG are at the forefront of current neuroscientific research. Unfortunately, test-retest reliability can be very low, depending on the measure and its estimation, the EEG-frequency of interest, the length of the signal, and the population under investigation. In addition, artifacts can hamper the continuity of the EEG signal, and in some clinical situations it is impractical to exclude artifacts. We aimed to examine factors that moderate test-retest reliability of measures of interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911944/assessing-the-mechanisms-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors
#20
Meng Zhang, Dongsheng Lei, Bo Peng, Mickey Yang, Lei Zhang, M Art Charles, Kerry-Anne Rye, Ronald M Krauss, Douglas G Johns, Gang Ren
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are a new class of therapeutics for dyslipidemia that simultaneously improve two major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their efficacy are poorly understood, as are any potential mechanistic differences among the drugs in this class. Herein, we used electron microscopy (EM) to investigate the effects of three of these agents (Torcetrapib, Dalcetrapib and Anacetrapib) on CETP structure, CETP-lipoprotein complex formation and CETP-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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