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nephrocalcinosis and ckd

Marcin Zaniew, Arend Bökenkamp, Marcin Kołbuc, Claudio La Scola, Federico Baronio, Anna Niemirska, Maria Szczepańska, Julia Bürger, Angela La Manna, Monika Miklaszewska, Anna Rogowska-Kalisz, Jutta Gellermann, Argyroula Zampetoglou, Anna Wasilewska, Magdalena Roszak, Jerzy Moczko, Aleksandra Krzemień, Dariusz Runowski, Grzegorz Siteń, Iga Załuska-Leśniewska, Patrizia Fonduli, Franca Zurrida, Fabio Paglialonga, Zoran Gucev, Dusan Paripovic, Rina Rus, Valerie Said-Conti, Lisa Sartz, Woo Yeong Chung, Se Jin Park, Jung Won Lee, Yong Hoon Park, Yo Han Ahn, Przemysław Sikora, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Velibor Tasic, Martin Konrad, Franca Anglani, Maria Addis, Hae Il Cheong, Michael Ludwig, Detlef Bockenhauer
BACKGROUND: Lowe syndrome (LS) and Dent-2 disease (DD2) are disorders associated with mutations in the OCRL gene and characterized by progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we aimed to investigate the long-term renal outcome and identify potential determinants of CKD and its progression in children with these tubulopathies. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were conducted of clinical and genetic data in a cohort of 106 boys (LS: 88 and DD2: 18). For genotype-phenotype analysis, we grouped mutations according to their type and localization...
October 5, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Shrikant R Mulay, Jonathan N Eberhard, Jyaysi Desai, Julian A Marschner, Santhosh V R Kumar, Marc Weidenbusch, Melissa Grigorescu, Maciej Lech, Nuru Eltrich, Lisa Müller, Wolfgang Hans, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Volker Vielhauer, Bernd Hoppe, John Asplin, Nicolai Burzlaff, Martin Herrmann, Andrew Evan, Hans-Joachim Anders
Intrarenal crystals trigger inflammation and renal cell necroptosis, processes that involve TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TNFRs also have a direct role in tubular crystal deposition and progression of hyperoxaluria-related CKD. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed upregulated tubular expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in human and murine kidneys with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrocalcinosis-related CKD compared with controls. Western blot and mRNA expression analyses in mice yielded consistent data...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Hassan Bouzidi, Ali Majdoub, Michel Daudon, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxalate and oxalate with recessive autosomal transmission. As a result, an increased endogenous production of oxalate leads to exessive urinary oxalate excretion. PH type 1, the most common form, is due to a deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: Glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the liver. PH type 2 is due to the deficiency of the glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate réductase, present in the cytosol of hepatocytes and leucocytes...
June 29, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
M Courbebaisse, C Prot-Bertoye, J-P Bertocchio, S Baron, G Maruani, S Briand, M Daudon, P Houillier
Nephrolithiasis is a very common (prevalence around 10 to 12% in France) and recurrent disorder. Nephrolithiasis is associated to chronic kidney disease and is responsible for 2 to 3% of cases of end-stage renal disease, mainly if it is associated to nephrocalcinosis or to a monogenic disorder (1.6% of nephrolithiasis in adults, among them 1% of cystinuria). To understand the underlying pathophysiological processes, stone analysis (morphology and using infrared spectrophotometry) as well as minimal biological assessment including urine crystal research are required...
June 24, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Ellen R Brooks, Bernd Hoppe, Dawn S Milliner, Eduardo Salido, John Rim, Leah M Krevitt, Julie B Olson, Heather E Price, Gulsah Vural, Craig B Langman
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IHC) are stone-forming diseases that may result in the formation of calcium (Ca) oxalate (Ox) stones, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Poorer clinical outcome in PH1 is segregated by the highest urine (Ur)-Ox (UrOx), while IHC outcomes are not predictable by UrCa. We hypothesized that differences would be found in selected Ur-protein (PRO) patterns in PH1 and IHC, compared to healthy intra-familial sibling controls (C) of PH1 patients...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Neil J Paloian, Elizabeth M Leaf, Cecilia M Giachelli
Pathologic calcification is a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The precise mechanisms of ectopic calcification are not fully elucidated, but it is known to be caused by an imbalance of procalcific and anticalcific factors. In the chronic kidney disease population, an elevated phosphate burden is both highly prevalent and a known risk factor for ectopic calcification. Here we tested whether osteopontin, an inhibitor of calcification, protects against high phosphate load-induced nephrocalcinosis and vascular calcification...
May 2016: Kidney International
Daniela Anne Braun, Jennifer Ashley Lawson, Heon Yung Gee, Jan Halbritter, Shirlee Shril, Weizhen Tan, Deborah Stein, Ari J Wassner, Michael A Ferguson, Zoran Gucev, Brittany Fisher, Leslie Spaneas, Jennifer Varner, John A Sayer, Danko Milosevic, Michelle Baum, Velibor Tasic, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent condition that affects 10%-15% of adults in their lifetime. It is associated with high morbidity due to colicky pain, the necessity for surgical intervention, and sometimes progression to CKD. In recent years, multiple monogenic causes of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis have been identified. However, the prevalence of each monogenic gene in a pediatric renal stone cohort has not yet been extensively studied. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: To determine the percentage of cases that can be explained molecularly by mutations in one of 30 known nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis genes, we conducted a high-throughput exon sequencing analysis in an international cohort of 143 individuals <18 years of age, with nephrolithiasis (n=123) or isolated nephrocalcinosis (n=20)...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Franca Anglani, Angela D'Angelo, Luisa Maria Bertizzolo, Enrica Tosetto, Monica Ceol, Daniela Cremasco, Luciana Bonfante, Maria Antonietta Addis, Dorella Del Prete
Dent disease (DD) is a rare X-linked recessive renal tubulopathy characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. DD is caused by mutations in both the CLCN5 and OCRL genes. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5 which is involved in the tubular reabsorption of albumin and LMW proteins, OCRL encodes the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, and was initially associated with Lowe syndrome. In approximately 25 % of patients, no CLCN5 and OCRL mutations were detected...
2015: SpringerPlus
Paulo Marcio Yamaguti, Pollyanna Almeida Costa dos Santos, Bruno Sakamoto Leal, Viviane Brandão Bandeira de Mello Santana, Juliana Forte Mazzeu, Ana Carolina Acevedo, Francisco de Assis Rocha Neves
BACKGROUND: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease characterized by tubular disorders at the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. It is caused by mutations in the tight junction structural proteins claudin-16 or claudin-19, which are encoded by the CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes, respectively. Patients exhibit excessive wasting of calcium and magnesium, nephrocalcinosis, chronic kidney disease, and early progression to end-stage renal failure during infancy...
2015: BMC Nephrology
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Agostino De Pascale, Olga Randone, Federica Neve Vigotti, Adriano Massimiliano Priola, Carla Naretto, Martina Ferraresi, Emiliano Aroasio, Silvana Gonella, Elena Mongilardi, Stefania Scognamiglio, Valentina Consiglio, Simona Roggero, Antonio Piga, Dario Roccatello, Andrea Veltri
AIM: Nephrocalcinosis is a clinical-pathological entity characterized by the deposition of calcium salts within the kidney parenchyma. Both the protean presentation and multiple causes may explain the lack of data regarding its prevalence. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence and main clinical features of nephrocalcinosis diagnosed in a newly opened nephrology outpatient unit. METHODS: Analysis on the data we prospectively gathered from the start of activity (2007-2013) was carried out...
February 2016: Nephrology
Bhavna Bhasin, Hatice Melda Ürekli, Mohamed G Atta
Hyperoxaluria is characterized by an increased urinary excretion of oxalate. Primary and secondary hyperoxaluria are two distinct clinical expressions of hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria is an inherited error of metabolism due to defective enzyme activity. In contrast, secondary hyperoxaluria is caused by increased dietary ingestion of oxalate, precursors of oxalate or alteration in intestinal microflora. The disease spectrum extends from recurrent kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis and urinary tract infections to chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease...
May 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Oriane Hanssen, Emilie Castermans, Christophe Bovy, Laurent Weekers, Pauline Erpicum, Bernard Dubois, Vincent Bours, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, François Jouret
Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is an autosomal-recessive disease caused by mutations in the CLDN16 or CLDN19 genes, which encode tight junction-associated proteins, claudin-16 and -19. The resultant tubulopathy leads to urinary loss of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), with subsequent nephrocalcinosis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An 18-year-old boy presented with chronic kidney disease and proteinuria, as well as hypomagnesaemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. A kidney biopsy revealed tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and segmental sclerosis of some glomeruli...
June 2014: Clinical Kidney Journal
Cláudia Gomes, Luísa Lobo, António Siborro Azevedo, Carla Simão
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, transient and self-healing panniculits. This entity generally follows an uncomplicated course, however there are rare and important complications. The authors present a case of a newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia is not fully understood and the nephrocalcinosis can evolve to chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should be aware of subcutaneous fat necrosis as a possible risk factor for hypercalcemia and patients should have serial serum and urinary calcium determinations for up to 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesions...
January 2015: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Lama Nazzal, Sonika Puri, David S Goldfarb
Hyperoxaluria is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel diseases, ileal resection and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and is well-known to cause nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. The associated prevalence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is less clear but may be more consequential than recognized. In this review, we highlight three cases of ESKD due to enteric hyperoxaluria following small bowel resections. We review current information on the pathophysiology, complications and treatment of this complex disease...
March 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Pieter Evenepoel, Kristien Daenen, Bert Bammens, Kathleen Claes, Björn Meijers, Maarten Naesens, Ben Sprangers, Dirk Kuypers, Eveline Lerut
BACKGROUND: Experimental data indicate that microscopic calcium phosphate deposition in the kidney (nephrocalcinosis) may accelerate progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the prevalence, risk factors and implications of nephrocalcinosis in CKD patients are scarce. A mineral metabolism disorder could play an important pathogenetic role, as suggested by recent protocol biopsy findings in incident renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Kidney biopsy cylinders of CKD patients, collected between January 1989 and December 2007, were screened for the presence of nephrocalcinosis...
May 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Przemysław Sikora, Marcin Zaniew, Lea Haisch, Barbara Pulcer, Maria Szczepańska, Anna Moczulska, Anna Rogowska-Kalisz, Beata Bieniaś, Marcin Tkaczyk, Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Lidia Hyla-Klekot, Karl Peter Schlingmann, Martin Konrad
BACKGROUND: Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive tubular disorder exhibiting a high risk for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentre study of 25 paediatric cases with FHHNC in Poland. Median age at diagnosis was 4 years and median follow-up time was 4.8 years. RESULTS: All cases of FHHNC carried recessive mutations in CLDN16. The founder mutation in CLDN16, Leu151Phe, was the most frequent cause of FHHNC in Polish patients, with 13 (52%) cases being homozygous and 5 (20%) carrying Leu151Phe allele in compound heterozygosity...
April 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Marie-Lucile Figueres, Agnès Linglart, Frank Bienaime, Emma Allain-Launay, Gwenaelle Roussey-Kessler, Amélie Ryckewaert, Marie-Laure Kottler, Maryvonne Hourmant
Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the enzyme that converts the major circulating and active forms of vitamin D to inactive metabolites, recently have been implicated in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with biallelic mutations in CYP24A1 present with severe hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis in infancy or hypercalciuria, kidney stones, and nephrocalcinosis in adulthood. We describe a cohort of 7 patients (2 adults, 5 children) presenting with severe hypercalcemia who had homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in CYP24A1...
January 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Jason M Scovell, Richard E Link
We present the case of a patient with nephrocalcinosis and chronic kidney disease who underwent percutaneous nephrostolithotomy via a mid-pole access. After nephroureteral stent removal, the patient developed a tension hydrothorax due to the rare combination of a nephropleural fistula and ipsilateral distal ureteral obstruction. This complication was managed by percutaneous nephrostomy and thoracostomy placement and subsequent thoracoscopic surgery without further sequelae.
December 2014: Urology
Robert H Glew, Yijuan Sun, Bruce L Horowitz, Konstantin N Konstantinov, Marc Barry, Joanna R Fair, Larry Massie, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Hyperoxaluria can cause not only nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, but also renal parenchymal disease histologically characterized by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals throughout the renal parenchyma, profound tubular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Hyperoxaluric nephropathy presents clinically as acute or chronic renal failure that may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This sequence of events, well recognized in the past in primary and enteric hyperoxalurias, has also been documented in a few cases of dietary hyperoxaluria...
November 6, 2014: World Journal of Nephrology
Debayan Dasgupta, Mark J Wee, Monica Reyes, Yuwen Li, Peter J Simm, Amita Sharma, Karl-Peter Schlingmann, Marco Janner, Andrew Biggin, Joanna Lazier, Michaela Gessner, Dionisios Chrysis, Shamir Tuchman, H Jorge Baluarte, Michael A Levine, Dov Tiosano, Karl Insogna, David A Hanley, Thomas O Carpenter, Shoji Ichikawa, Bernd Hoppe, Martin Konrad, Lars Sävendahl, Craig F Munns, Hang Lee, Harald Jüppner, Clemens Bergwitz
Compound heterozygous and homozygous (comp/hom) mutations in solute carrier family 34, member 3 (SLC34A3), the gene encoding the sodium (Na(+))-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2c (NPT2c), cause hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH), a disorder characterized by renal phosphate wasting resulting in hypophosphatemia, correspondingly elevated 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, hypercalciuria, and rickets/osteomalacia. Similar, albeit less severe, biochemical changes are observed in heterozygous (het) carriers and indistinguishable from those changes encountered in idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH)...
October 2014: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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