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Balanced solutions

D Evan Piephoff, Jianshu Cao
We recently developed a pathway analysis framework (paper 1) for describing single-molecule kinetics for renewal (i.e., memoryless) processes based on the decomposition of a kinetic scheme into generic structures. In our approach, waiting time distribution functions corresponding to such structures are expressed in terms of self-consistent pathway solutions and concatenated to form measurable probability distribution functions (PDFs), affording a simple way to decompose and recombine a network. Here, we extend this framework to nonrenewal processes, which involve correlations between events, and employ it to formulate waiting time PDFs, including the first-passage time PDF, for a general kinetic network model...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Craig E Kuziemsky, Shashi B Gogia, Mowafa Househ, Carolyn Petersen, Arindam Basu
OBJECTIVES:  Connected healthcare is an essential part of patient-centred care delivery. Technology such as telehealth is a critical part of connected healthcare. However, exchanging health information brings the risk of privacy issues. To better manage privacy risks we first need to understand the different patterns of patient-centred care in order to tailor solutions to address privacy risks. METHODS:  Drawing upon published literature, we develop a business model to enable patient-centred care via telehealth...
April 22, 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
Na Zhang, Min Liang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Yi-Rong Xiao, Yan-Zhen Li, You-Guang Gao, Hong-da Cai, Xian-Zhong Lin, Cai-Zhu Lin, Kai Zeng, Xiao-Dan Wu
PURPOSE: To explore effect of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on early cognitive function in elderly patients with spinal stenosis. METHODS: 83 elderly patients with spinal stenosis were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 40) and GDFT group (n = 43). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, IL-6 and S100β levels, hemodynamic parameters, cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ), arterial lactic acid values, output of surgery, operation time and cases of hypotension, intraoperative complications within 7 days were recorded for all patients...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Keith Davey, Bernard Chang, Christine Purslow, Emilie Clay, Anne-Lise Vataire
BACKGROUND: During cataract surgery, maintaining an adequate degree of mydriasis throughout the entire operation is critical to allow for visualisation of the capsulorhexis and the crystalline lens. Good anaesthesia is also essential for safe intraocular surgery. Mydrane® is a new injectable intracameral solution containing two mydriatics (tropicamide 0.02% and phenylephrine 0.31%) and one anaesthetic (lidocaine 1%) that was developed as an alternative to the conventional topical pre-operative mydriatics used in cataract surgery...
April 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Wouter Kool, Samuel J Gershman, Fiery A Cushman
Decision-making algorithms face a basic tradeoff between accuracy and effort (i.e., computational demands). It is widely agreed that humans can choose between multiple decision-making processes that embody different solutions to this tradeoff: Some are computationally cheap but inaccurate, whereas others are computationally expensive but accurate. Recent progress in understanding this tradeoff has been catalyzed by formalizing it in terms of model-free (i.e., habitual) versus model-based (i.e., planning) approaches to reinforcement learning...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Thomas A Vo, Zack Oakey, Yasir A Khan, Donald S Minckler
BACKGROUND: Cold agglutinin disease is a rare disorder characterized by an autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurring at low temperatures. Physical examination findings, often limited to acrocyanosis, are combined with a thermal amplitude test to help establish the diagnosis. Thermal amplitude testing determines the highest temperature at which the cold agglutination will occur and is an important parameter in diagnosing cold agglutinin disease. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a 57-year-old white man of German and Nicaraguan descent with known chronic cold agglutinin disease who presented to our ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of a cataract...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mengmeng Li, Cunbin An, Wojciech Pisula, Klaus Müllen
Donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers are of great interest as organic semiconductors, because they offer a rational tailoring of the electronic properties by modification of the donor and acceptor units. Nowadays, D-A polymers exhibit field-effect mobilities on the order of 10-2 -100 cm2 V-1 s-1 , while several examples showed a mobility over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1 . The development of cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CDT-BTZ) copolymers one decade ago represents an important step toward high-performance organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kristina Kemter, Jens Altrichter, Roland Derwand, Thomas Kriehuber, Eva Reinauer, Martin Scholz
To develop highly concentrated therapeutic antibodies enabling convenient subcutaneous application, well stabilizing pharmaceutical formulations with low viscosities are considered to be key. The purpose of this study was to select specific amino acid combinations that reduce and balance aggregation, fragmentation and chemical degradation and also lower viscosity of highly concentrated liquid antibodies. As a model, the therapeutically well-established antibody trastuzumab (25 - >200 mg/mL) in liquid formulation was used...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Gintare Grybauskaite-Kaminskiene, Dmytro Volyniuk, Viktorija Mimaite, Oleksandr Bezvikonnyi, Audrius Bucinskas, Gintautas Bagdziunas, Juozas Vidas Grazulevicius
Derivatives of 9-phenyl-9H-carbazole were synthesized as efficient emitters exhibiting both thermally activated delayed fluorescence and aggregation induced emission enhancement. Effects of methoxy and tert-butyl substituents at the different positions of carbazolyl groups on the properties of the emitters were studied. Depending on the substitutions, photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) of non-doped solid films of the compounds ranged from 17% to 53% which were much higher than those observed for the solutions in low-polarity solvent toluene...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
ZhuoHua Shen, Justin Seipel
The relative leg stiffness of most running animals falls in a small range between 7 and 27. Here we present a theoretical study of an established running model, an actuated Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum model, to determine if the energetic cost and stability of running might be co-optimized over this range of leg stiffness values. The energetic cost of the model is quantified as the energy spent to move a unit mass a unit distance. The stability of the model is based on the system response to perturbations with respect to periodic locomotion solutions, and uses the linearized dynamics of Poincaré return maps and the resulting maximum eigenvalue and singular value decomposition in order to analyze asymptotic stability and the overall system response to perturbations, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes, David Comas, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Diego Rovaris, Claiton Dotto Bau, Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Hominin evolution is characterized by adaptive solutions often rooted in behavioral and cognitive changes. If balancing selection had an important and long-lasting impact on the evolution of these traits, it can be hypothesized that genes associated with them should carry an excess of shared polymorphisms (trans- SNPs) across recent Homo species. In this study, we investigate the role of balancing selection in human evolution using available exomes from modern (Homo sapiens) and archaic humans (H. neanderthalensis and Denisovan) for an excess of trans-SNP in two gene sets: one associated with the immune system (IMMS) and another one with behavioral system (BEHS)...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Anne C Berends, Ward van der Stam, Jan P Hofmann, Eva Bladt, Johannes D Meeldijk, Sara Bals, Celso de Mello Donega
ZnS shelling of I-III-VI2 nanocrystals (NCs) invariably leads to blue-shifts in both the absorption and photoluminescence spectra. These observations imply that the outcome of ZnS shelling reactions on I-III-VI2 colloidal NCs results from a complex interplay between several processes taking place in solution, at the surface of, and within the seed NC. However, a fundamental understanding of the factors determining the balance between these different processes is still lacking. In this work, we address this need by investigating the impact of precursor reactivity, reaction temperature, and surface chemistry (due to the washing procedure) on the outcome of ZnS shelling reactions on CuInS2 NCs using a seeded growth approach...
April 10, 2018: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
A L Belli, R B Reis, A Veronese, R Moreira, K Flanagan, J Driver, C D Nelson, J A Clapper, M A Ballou, K C Jeong, R C Chebel
Weaning may be associated with negative energy balance and body weight loss when calves are still immunologically immature, predisposing them to infectious diseases. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of treatment of preweaning dairy calves with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on the somatotropic axis, selected immune parameters, and hematology of calves around weaning. Thirty-six Holstein female calves were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 to 1.8 mg of rbST (Posilac, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) per kilogram of body weight or to receive injections of saline (saline solution 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
Lin Ye, Yuanyuan Yao, Hui Guo, Yun Peng
AIM OF THE STUDY: Blepharoptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid, usually due to dysfunction of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). Recently, skeletal muscle satellite cells (SSCs) have been reported to promote the repair of damaged skeletal muscle. This study aims to investigate the potential contribution of exogenous SSCs to the regeneration of mechanically damaged LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups, including control group, SSCs-treated group, SSCs-treated injury group and non-treated injury group...
April 13, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Justin Shumate, Pierre Baillargeon, Timothy P Spicer, Louis Scampavia
Critical to maintaining quality control in high-throughput screening is the need for constant monitoring of liquid-dispensing fidelity. Traditional methods involve operator intervention with gravimetric analysis to monitor the gross accuracy of full plate dispenses, visual verification of contents, or dedicated weigh stations on screening platforms that introduce potential bottlenecks and increase the plate-processing cycle time. We present a unique solution using open-source hardware, software, and 3D printing to automate dispenser accuracy determination by providing real-time dispense weight measurements via a network-connected precision balance...
April 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Adam S Weingarten, Adam J Dannenhoffer, Roman V Kazantsev, Hiroaki Sai, Dongxu Huang, Samuel I Stupp
The spontaneous self-assembly of chromophores into light-harvesting antennae provides a potentially low-cost approach to building solar-to-fuel conversion materials. However, designing such supramolecular architectures requires a better understanding of the balance between noncovalent forces among the molecular components. We investigated here the aqueous assembly of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles synthesized with different substituents in the 9-position. The molecular dipole strength decreases as the nature of the substituent is altered from electron donating to electron withdrawing...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Suzanne Laplante, Dilip U Makhija, Sibyl H Munson, Victor S Khangulov, Fred W Peyerl, Scott M Paluszkiewicz, Aditi J Ravindranath, Carol R Schermer
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of the benefits of intravenous fluid therapy with balanced crystalloids over 0.9% 'normal' saline. This analysis evaluated the economic impact of increasing usage of a calcium-free balanced crystalloid solution (BAL) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) on an annual hospital budget. METHODS: An Excel® -based economic model was developed to estimate costs associated with increased BAL usage (i.e., use in a greater proportion of patients), from the US hospital perspective, over a 5-year time horizon...
September 4, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Jincheng Lu, Yesong Guo, Huanfeng Zhu, Feijiang Wang
Autophagy inhibition is crucial for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of autophagy and its correlation with mitochondria in human esophageal carcinoma cells following treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Autophagy in Eca‑109 cells was induced under poor nutrient conditions. The formation of autophagic vacuoles was monitored using electron microscopy. In addition, cell apoptosis after IR and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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