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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455968/nanostructured-electrospun-nonwovens-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-quaternized-chitosan-for-potential-biomedical-applications
#1
Danilo Martins Dos Santos, Ilaiáli Souza Leite, Andrea de Lacerda Bukzem, Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos, Elisabete Frollini, Natalia Mayumi Inada, Sérgio Paulo Campana-Filho
Blend solutions of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (QCh) were successfully electrospun. The weight ratio PCL/QCh ranged in the interval 95/5-70/30 while two QCh samples were used, namely QCh1 (DQ¯ = 47.3%; DPv¯ = 2218) and QCh2 (DQ¯ = 71.1%; DPv¯ = 1427). According to the characteristics of QCh derivative and to the QCh content on the resulting PCL/QCh nonwoven, the nanofibers displayed different average diameter (175 nm-415 nm), and the nonwovens exhibited variable porosity (57...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454622/development-of-adjuvanted-solid-fat-nanoemulsions-for-pulmonary-hepatitis-b-vaccination
#2
Sunita Minz, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Pulmonary vaccination is one of the most promising routes for immunization owing to its non-invasive nature and induction of strong mucosal immunity and systemic response. In the present study, recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen loaded solid fat nanoemulsions (SFNs) as carrier system and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant-carrier system was prepared and evaluated as multi adjuvanted vaccine system for deep pulmonary vaccination. Deposition and clearance from the deep lung of rats were determined by gamma scintigraphy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454544/mapping-the-spatiotemporal-evolution-of-solute-transport-in-articular-cartilage-explants-reveals-how-cartilage-recovers-fluid-within-the-contact-area-during-sliding
#3
Brian T Graham, Axel C Moore, David L Burris, Christopher Price
The interstitial fluid within articular cartilage shields the matrix from mechanical stresses, reduces friction and wear, enables biochemical processes, and transports solutes into and out of the avascular extracellular matrix. The balanced competition between fluid exudation and recovery under load is thus critical to the mechanical and biological functions of the tissue. We recently discovered that sliding alone can induce rapid solute transport into buried cartilage contact areas via a phenomenon termed tribological rehydration...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453981/the-c2-and-c3-endo-equilibrium-for-amp-molecules-bound-in-the-cystathionine-beta-synthase-domain
#4
Na Feng, Chao Qi, Yan-Jie Hou, Ying Zhang, Da-Cheng Wang, De-Feng Li
The equilibrium between C2'- and C3'-endo conformations of nucleotides in solution, as well as their polymers DNA and RNA, has been well studied in previous work. However, this equilibrium of nucleotides in their binding state remains unclear. We observed two AMP molecules, in C3'- and C2'-endo conformations respectively, simultaneously bound to a cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domain dimer of the magnesium and cobalt efflux protein CorC in the crystallographic study. The C2'-endo AMP molecule assumes the higher sugar pucker energy and one more hydrogen bond with the protein than the C3'-endo molecule does...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453718/cfd-simulation-of-copper-ii-extraction-with-tfa-in-non-dispersive-hollow-fiber-membrane-contactors
#5
Amir Muhammad, Mohammad Younas, Mashallah Rezakazemi
This study presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of dispersion-free liquid-liquid extraction of copper(II) with trifluoroacetylacetone (TFA) in hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC). Mass and momentum balance Navier-Stokes equations were coupled to address the transport of copper(II) solute across membrane contactor. Model equations were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics™. The simulation was run to study the detailed concentration distribution of copper(II) and to investigate the effects of various parameters like membrane characteristics, partition coefficient, and flow configuration on extraction efficiency...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452522/the-evolution-of-clinical-trials-can-we-address-the-challenges-of-the-future
#6
Hans-Georg Eichler, Fergus Sweeney
The authors describe key challenges facing the clinical trials community and propose solutions to these issues, including the role the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative can play in addressing these issues. Specifically, the authors reflect on clinical trial globalization and the harmonization of frameworks and requirements across regions; the challenges associated with balancing the desire for external validity, pragmatic trials, and precision medicine; clinical trial transparency; and operational complexity and the expense of clinical trials...
February 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448766/escape-rate-for-nonequilibrium-processes-dominated-by-strong-non-detailed-balance-force
#7
Ying Tang, Song Xu, Ping Ao
Quantifying the escape rate from a meta-stable state is essential to understand a wide range of dynamical processes. Kramers' classical rate formula is the product of an exponential function of the potential barrier height and a pre-factor related to the friction coefficient. Although many applications of the rate formula focused on the exponential term, the prefactor can have a significant effect on the escape rate in certain parameter regions, such as the overdamped limit and the underdamped limit. There have been continuous interests to understand the effect of non-detailed balance on the escape rate; however, how the prefactor behaves under strong non-detailed balance force remains elusive...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448499/sol-gel-derived-antibacterial-ag-containing-zno-films-on-biomedical-titanium
#8
T Fu, F Zhang, Z Alajmi, S Y Yang, F Wu, S L Han
ZnO and Ag-containing ZnO (ZnO/Ag) films with the Ag/Zn molar ratio of 3.3 and 9.1%, respectively were sol-gel coated on biomedical titanium for antibacterial and bioactive surface modification. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that ZnO peaks increase with the calcination temperature of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive of X-ray analyses reveal Ag-rich white particles (300~750 nm) on ZnO/Ag samples that were calcined at 400 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO/Ag samples shows that Zn and O exist as ZnO and Ag presents in metallic state...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448340/breathing-pulses-in-the-damped-soliton-model-for-nerves
#9
G Fongang Achu, F M Moukam Kakmeni, A M Dikande
Unlike the Hodgkin-Huxley picture in which the nerve impulse results from ion exchanges across the cell membrane through ion-gate channels, in the so-called soliton model the impulse is seen as an electromechanical process related to thermodynamical phenomena accompanying the generation of the action potential. In this work, account is taken of the effects of damping on the nerve impulse propagation, within the framework of the soliton model. Applying the reductive perturbation expansion on the resulting KdV-Burgers equation, a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and shown to admit breathing-type solitary wave solutions...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446989/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-two-human-fibrinogen-concentrates-to-treat-dilutional-coagulopathy-in-vitro
#10
Thorsten Haas, Melissa M Cushing, Lars M Asmis
Both congenital and acquired fibrinogen deficiency can be safely treated with administration of fibrinogen concentrate. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a new fibrinogen product (Fibryga) compared to a licensed product (Haemocomplettan) in an in vitro model of dilutional coagulopathy. Ten blood specimens from healthy volunteers were diluted 1:1 with balanced crystalloid solution and subsequently supplemented with each fibrinogen concentrate at a dose replicating in vivo supplementation (50 mg kg -1 )...
February 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444634/evaluation-of-reaction-gap-filling-accuracy-by-randomization
#11
Mario Latendresse, Peter D Karp
BACKGROUND: Completion of genome-scale flux-balance models using computational reaction gap-filling is a widely used approach, but its accuracy is not well known. RESULTS: We report on computational experiments of reaction gap filling in which we generated degraded versions of the EcoCyc-20.0-GEM model by randomly removing flux-carrying reactions from a growing model. We gap-filled the degraded models and compared the resulting gap-filled models with the original model...
February 14, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443919/a-novel-strategy-for-very-large-scale-cash-crop-mapping-in-the-context-of-weather-related-risk-assessment-combining-global-satellite-multispectral-datasets-environmental-constraints-and-in-situ-acquisition-of-geospatial-data
#12
Fabio Dell'Acqua, Gianni Cristian Iannelli, Marco A Torres, Mario L V Martina
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443031/ultrasound-cyclo-plasty-in-eyes-with-glaucoma
#13
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Stefano Sebastiani, Emilio C Campos
Glaucoma is a chronic disease caused by the progressive degeneration of the optical nerve fibers, resulting in decreased visual field that can lead to severe visual impairment, and eventually blindness. This manuscript describes a simple, surgeon-friendly, non-incisional technique, named Ultrasound Cyclo Plasty (UCP), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. The technique determines a selective coagulation necrosis of the ciliary body; in addition, the stimulation of supra-choroidal and trans-scleral portions of the uveo-scleral outflow pathway has been recently proposed...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442351/milk-alkali-syndrome-mas-as-a-complication-of-the-treatment-of-hypoparathyroidism
#14
Agata Skwarek, Janusz Pachucki, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Zuzanna Żurecka, Michał Popow
Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), characterized by renal failure, metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia, is a severe and life-threatening complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The clinical course is often sudden and is not preceded by any prodromal symptoms. Occurrence does not depend on the duration of hypoparathyroidism treatment, although it is closely related to the applied therapy, especially the dose of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D preparations. Drugs influencing the glomerular filtration rate (angiotensin receptor blockers, sartans, aldosterone receptor antagonists, thiazide diuretics), lack of adequate routine control, changing the calcium carbonate supplementation, dehydration, a diet rich in pH-basic foods (i...
February 14, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439442/a-survey-on-data-storage-and-information-discovery-in-the-wsans-based-edge-computing-systems
#15
Xingpo Ma, Junbin Liang, Renping Liu, Wei Ni, Yin Li, Ran Li, Wenpeng Ma, Chuanda Qi
In the post-Cloud era, the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) has pushed the horizon of Edge computing, which is a new computing paradigm with data are processed at the edge of the network. As the important systems of Edge computing, wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) play an important role in collecting and processing the sensing data from the surrounding environment as well as taking actions on the events happening in the environment. In WSANs, in-network data storage and information discovery schemes with high energy efficiency, high load balance and low latency are needed because of the limited resources of the sensor nodes and the real-time requirement of some specific applications, such as putting out a big fire in a forest...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431714/the-ion-exchanger-loop-stripping-process-ammonium-recovery-from-sludge-liquor-using-nacl-treated-clinoptilolite-and-simultaneous-air-stripping
#16
Markus Ellersdorfer
The technical feasibility of an ammonium recovery process ('ion-exchanger-loop-stripping') for sludge liquor from municipal wastewater treatment plants is examined. The proposed process combines ion-exchange on natural zeolites with simultaneous air stripping of ammonia to produce an industrial NOx-removal agent. Column experiments with continuously recycled NH4Cl-solutions and a real sludge liquor sample were conducted to determine basic ion-exchange kinetics of the applied clinoptilolite. Mass balances of consecutive loading/regeneration cycles show the positive influence of NaCl-pretreatment as well as simultaneous air stripping on the NH4+-exchange capacities...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429747/treatment-of-corneal-chemical-alkali-burns-with-a-crosslinked-thiolated-hyaluronic-acid-film
#17
Gina L Griffith, Barbara Wirostko, Hee-Kyoung Lee, Lauren E Cornell, Jennifer S McDaniel, David O Zamora, Anthony J Johnson
PURPOSE: The study objective was to test the utilization of a crosslinked, thiolated hyaluronic acid (CMHA-S) film for treating corneal chemical burns. METHODS: Burns 5.5mm in diameter were created on 10 anesthetized, male New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 1N NaOH soaked circular filter paper onto the cornea for 30s. Wounds were immediately rinsed with balanced salt solution (BSS). CMHA-S films were placed in the left inferior fornix of five injured and five uninjured animals...
February 8, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429347/hyperbranched-multiarm-copolymer-with-a-ucst-phase-transition-topological-effect-and-mechanism
#18
Meiwei Qi, Ke Li, Yongli Zheng, Tahir Rasheed, Yongfeng Zhou
A Novel thermoresponsive hyperbranched multiarm copolymer with a hydrophobic hyperbranched poly[3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane] (HBPO) core and many poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) (P(AAm-co-AN)) arms was for the first time synthesized through a reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These copolymers show reversible, sharp and controlled temperature-responsive phase transitions at the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in water and electrolyte solution. It is the first report on the hyperbranched copolymers with a UCST transition...
February 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427746/nanomedicine-an-effective-tool-in-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Saima Aftab, Afzal Shah, Akhtar Nadhman, Sevinc Kurbanoglu, Sibel Aysıl Ozkan, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Shyam S Shukla, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
Various types of nanoparticles (NPs) have been used in delivering anticancer drugs to the site of action. This area has become more attractive in recent years due to optimal size and negligible undesirable side effects caused by the NPs. The focus of this review is to explore various types of NPs and their surface/chemical modifications as well as attachment of targeting ligands for tuning their properties in order to facilitate targeted delivery to the cancer sites in a rate-controlled manner. Heme compatibility, biodistribution, longer circulation time, hydrophilic lipophilic balance for high bioavailability, prevention of drug degradation and leakage are important in transporting drugs to the targeted cancer sites...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427605/a-mathematical-framework-for-yield-versus-rate-optimization-in-constraint-based-modeling-and-applications-in-metabolic-engineering
#20
Steffen Klamt, Stefan Müller, Georg Regensburger, Jürgen Zanghellini
BACKGROUND: The optimization of metabolic rates (as linear objective functions) represents the methodical core of flux-balance analysis techniques which have become a standard tool for the study of genome-scale metabolic models. Besides (growth and synthesis) rates, metabolic yields are key parameters for the characterization of biochemical transformation processes, especially in the context of biotechnological applications. However, yields are ratios of rates, and hence the optimization of yields (as nonlinear objective functions) under arbitrary linear constraints is not possible with current flux-balance analysis techniques...
February 7, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
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