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Balanced solutions

Nicholas E Rothfuss, Aleksandra Marsh, Grazia Rovelli, Markus D Petters, Jonathan Philip Reid
Responding to changes in the surrounding environment, aerosol particles can grow by water condensation changing rapidly in composition and changing dramatically in viscosity. The timescale for growth is important to establish for particles undergoing hydration processes in the atmosphere or during inhalation. Using an electrodynamic balance, we report direct measurements at -7.5, 0 and 20 o C of timescales for hygroscopic condensational growth on a range of model hygroscopic aerosol systems. These extend from viscous aerosol particles containing a single saccharide solute (sucrose, glucose, raffinose or trehalose) and a starting viscosity equivalent to a glass of ~1012 Pas, to non-viscous (~10-2 Pa·s) tetraethylene glycol particles...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tetsuya Hattori, Toru Itagaki, Hirotaka Uji, Shunsaku Kimura
Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michael L De Ieso, Andrea J Yool
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is rising with numbers expected to increase 70% in the next two decades. The fact that current mainline treatments for cancer patients are accompanied by debilitating side effects prompts a growing demand for new therapies that not only inhibit growth and proliferation of cancer cells, but also control invasion and metastasis. One class of targets gaining international attention is the aquaporins, a family of membrane-spanning water channels with diverse physiological functions and extensive tissue-specific distributions in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jessica Kong, Matthew Davies, Peter Mount
In contrast to peritoneal dialysis, residual kidney function is commonly disregarded for haemodialysis patients, and not regularly monitored or taken into account in routine clinical care. This is despite evidence that higher levels of residual kidney function in haemodialysis patients associate with better outcomes including survival, total solute clearance, nutrition, inflammation, and fluid balance. This review aims to summarise the clinical effects of residual kidney function specifically in haemodialysis patients...
June 19, 2018: Nephrology
Angelo Tremblay
The prevalence of overweight has substantially increased over the last decades despite the intent of health professionals and the general population to prevent this trend. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been attributed to unhealthy dietary macronutrient composition and/or to the decrease in physical activity participation. Beyond the influence of these factors, it is more than likely that other factors have influenced energy balance in a context of modernity. These include inadequate sleep, demanding cognitive effort, chemical pollution, and probably others which also have the potential to promote a positive energy balance but which are also part of the reality of success and productivity in a globalized world...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
V Duquennoy-Martinot, C Depoortère, C Calibre, P Guerreschi, P Patenotre
The lower gluteal flap is an autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction procedure using the soft tissue of the region of the gluteal sulcus. The perineal extension increases the volume of the sample. The pedicle with one artery and two large veins extends up the ischial notch and can reach 8 to 12cm. The two operative positions, the relative shortness of the pedicle and the firm tissues transferred are balanced by the discretion of the sequelae of the donor site and the volume which is always enough even in the slim woman...
June 15, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Mariana F Lima, Iuri S Neville, Sergio Cavalheiro, Dafne C Bourguignon, Paolo Pelosi, Luiz M S Malbouisson
BACKGROUND: Balanced crystalloid solutions induce less hyperchloremia than normal saline, but their role as primary fluid replacement for children undergoing surgery is unestablished. We hypothesized that balanced crystalloids induce less chloride and metabolic derangements than 0.9% saline solutions in children undergoing brain tumor resection. METHODS: In total, 53 patients (age range, 6 mo to 12 y) were randomized to receive balanced crystalloid (balanced group) or 0...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Peng Yang, Ulrich Kortz
Noble metal catalysts, in particular palladium-containing materials, are of prime commercial interest, because of their role as oxidation catalysts in automobile emission-control systems and reforming catalysts for the production of high-octane gasoline. However, despite almost two centuries of research, the precise structure of such materials is still ill-defined on the sub-nanometer scale, which severely limits the understanding of the underlying catalytic mechanisms. As a burgeoning class of structurally well-defined noble metal oxide nanoclusters, polyoxopalladates (POPs) have been highly rated as ideal models to fully decipher the molecular mechanism of noble metal-based catalysis...
June 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Zhibin Wang, Tai Cheng, Fuzhi Wang, Yiming Bai, Xingming Bian, Bing Zhang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Zhan'ao Tan
Stable and efficient red (R), green (G), and blue (B) light sources based on solution-processed quantum dots (QDs) play important roles in next-generation displays and solid-state lighting technologies. The brightness and efficiency of blue QDs-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remain inferior to their red and green counterparts, due to the inherently unfavorable energy levels of different colors of light. To solve these problems, a device structure should be designed to balance the injection holes and electrons into the emissive QD layer...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Costantino Creton, Masao Doi
We propose a simple theoretical model describing the debonding process of soft adhesives in the probe-tack test. In this model, the expansion dynamics of interfacial cavities is determined by the balance between the strain energy release rate and the rate-dependent fracture energy. As a result, we obtain analytical solutions for the cavity size, stress-strain curve, peak stress, strain at the peak stress, maximum strain, as well as the adhesion energy. Furthermore, we discuss the validity of our theoretical results by comparing them with experiments...
June 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Eszter Ferentzi, Tamás Bogdány, Zsuzsanna Szabolcs, Barbara Csala, Áron Horváth, Ferenc Köteles
Objective : The term interoception refers to the perception of bodily cues. In empirical studies, it is assessed using heartbeat detection or tracking tasks, often with the implicit assumption that cardioception reflects general interoceptive ability. Studies that applied a multichannel approach measured only a limited number of modalities. In the current study, six modalities were assessed to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the different sensory channels of interoception. Methods : For 118 university students (53% male) gastric perception (water load test), heartbeat perception (Schandry task), proprioception (elbow joint), ischemic pain (tourniquet technique), balancing ability (one leg stand), and perception of bitter taste were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jonathan C Lake, Celso Boianovsky, Thiago de Faria Pacini, Armando Crema
We describe the technique of second-wave hydrodissection (the first wave being the initial cortical cleaving hydrodissection) performed after the removal of the cataract nucleus in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. After femtosecond laser application, the cortex is typically found adhered to the anterior capsule. Under high magnification, a steady stream of a balanced salt solution is directed toward the anterior capsule using a hydrodissection cannula. Full cleavage of the remaining cortex is observed by noting the appearance of a dark inner circle by the capsulotomy edge once the balanced salt solution wave has separated the cortex from the capsule...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Jennifer R DuBose, Zorana Matić, Maria Fernanda Wong Sala, Joel M Mumma, Colleen S Kraft, Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Francis T Durso, Victoria L Walsh, Puja Shah, Craig M Zimring, Jesse T Jacob
OBJECTIVE: To identify ways that the built environment may support or disrupt safe doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) in biocontainment units (BCU). DESIGN: We observed interactions between healthcare workers (HCWs) and the built environment during 41 simulated PPE donning and doffing exercises. SETTING: The BCUs of 4 Ebola treatment facilities and 1 high-fidelity BCU mockup.ParticipantsA total of 64 HCWs (41 doffing HCWs and 15 trained observers) participated in this study...
June 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
A S M L Ahasan, G Invernizzi, G Farina, A Pilotto, F Barbé, V Bontempo, R Rossi, F Bellagamba, C Lecchi, G Savoini, A Agazzi
Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets...
June 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Emese Hadnagy, Andrew Mai, Benjamin Smolinski, Washington Braida, Agamemnon Koutsospyros
The manufacturing of insensitive munition 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) generates waste streams that require treatment. DNAN has been treated previously with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and Fe-based bimetals. Use of Mg-based bimetals offers certain advantages including potential higher reactivity and relative insensitivity to pH conditions. This work reports preliminary findings of DNAN degradation by three Mg-based bimetals: Mg/Cu, Mg/Ni, and Mg/Zn. Treatment of DNAN by all three bimetals is highly effective in aqueous solutions (> 89% removal) and wastewater (> 91% removal) in comparison with treatment solely with zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg; 35% removal)...
June 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianeng Xu, Conghui Huang, Xiaoyang Shi, Shengkun Dong, Baoling Yuan, Thanh H Nguyen
PVC pipe loops were constructed to simulate household premise plumbing. These pipe loops were exposed to water treated by physical processes at three water treatment plants in Xiamen, China from August 2016 to June 2017. After the biofilms were allowed to develop inside the pipes, these pipes were deconstructed and exposed to organic-free chlorine solution buffered at pH 6.8 ± 0.2 for 48 h. The decay of chlorine by these biofilms was higher than by the effluent waters that were used to grow the biofilms...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Quan H Le, Peter J T Verheijen, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Eveline I P Volcke
A stepwise experimental design procedure to obtain reliable data from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was developed. The proposed procedure aims at determining sets of additional measurements (besides available ones) that guarantee the identifiability of key process variables, which means that their value can be calculated from other, measured variables, based on available constraints in the form of linear mass balances. Among all solutions, i.e. all possible sets of additional measurements allowing the identifiability of all key process variables, the optimal solutions were found taking into account two objectives, namely the accuracy of the identified key variables and the cost of additional measurements...
May 15, 2018: Water Research
Nawavi Naleem, Nikolaos Bentenitis, Paul E Smith
The activity and function of many macromolecules in cellular environments are coupled with the binding of divalent ions such as calcium or magnesium. In principle, computer simulations can be used to understand the molecular level aspects of how many important macromolecules interact with ions. However, most of the force fields currently available often fail to accurately reproduce the properties of divalent ions in aqueous environments. Here we develop classical non-polarizable force fields for the aqueous alkaline earth metal halides (MX2 ), where M = Mg2+ , Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Ba2+ and X = Cl- , Br- , I- , which can be used in bimolecular simulations and which are compatible with the Simple Point Charge/Extended (SPC/E) water model...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Gethin H Evans, Lewis Mattin, Isabelle Ireland, William Harrison, Adora M W Yau, Victoria McIver, Tristan Pocock, Elizabeth Sheader, Lewis J James
Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP) or maltodextrin (MD) at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13 C breath tests...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
Mrinmoy Mukherjee, Jagannath Mondal
Osmolytes' mechanism of protecting proteins against denaturation is a longstanding puzzle, further complicated by the complex diversities inherent in protein sequences. An emergent approach in understanding osmolytes' mechanism of action towards biopolymer has been to investigate osmolytes' interplay with hydrophobic interaction, the major driving force of protein folding. However, the crucial question is whether all these protein-stabilizing osmolytes display a single unified mechanism towards hydrophobic interactions...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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