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Balanced solutions

Ke Yuan, Sang Soo Lee, Vincent De Andrade, Neil C Sturchio, Paul Fenter
The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb(2)(+) concentration and pH...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
M Hrubý, S K Filippov, P Štěpánek
Self-organization in a polymer system appears when a balance is achieved between long-range repulsive and short-range attractive forces between the chemically different building blocks. Block copolymers forming supramolecular assemblies in aqueous media represent materials which are extremely useful for the construction of drug delivery systems especially for cancer applications. Such formulations suppress unwanted physicochemical properties of the encapsulated drugs, modify biodistribution of the drugs towards targeted delivery into tissue of interest and allow triggered release of the active cargo...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Lakshmi Kumar, Murukesh Seetharaman, Nisha Rajmohan, Pavithra Ramamurthi, Sunil Rajan, Rekha Varghese
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lactate levels predict outcomes after hepatectomy. We compared metabolic effects of lactated versus lactate free solutions in living donor hepatectomy. METHODS: Consecutive right lobe donors (n = 53) were alternatively allotted to lactated Ringer's solution and normal saline (Group L-control) or acetated crystalloid (Sterofundin B Braun(®) Group S -study group) in an observational prospective randomised study. The primary outcome measure was lactate level, and secondary outcomes were base excess, bicarbonate, glucose and chloride intra- and post-operatively...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Vicente de Paulo R da Silva, Sonaly D de Oliveira, Célia C Braga, José Ivaldo B Brito, Francisco de Assis S de Sousa, Romildo M de Holanda, João Hugo B C Campos, Enio P de Souza, Armando César R Braga, Rafaela S Rodrigues Almeida, Lincoln E de Araújo
Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Nir Kampf, Chunxian Wu, Yilin Wang, Jacob Klein
The surface structure of the trimeric surfactant tri(dodecyldimethylammonioacetoxy)-diethyltriamine trichloride (DTAD) on mica, and the interactions between two such DTAD-coated surfaces were determined using atomic force microscopy and a surface force balance. In an aqueous solution of 3 mM, five times the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the surfaces are coated with worm-like micelles or hemi-micelles and larger (ca. 80 nm) bilayer vesicles. Repulsive normal interactions between the surfaces indicate a net surface charge and a solution concentration of ions close to that expected from the CAC...
October 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pierre-Olivier Barale, Paolo Mora, Marie-Hélène Errera, Raphaëlle Ores, Michel Pâques, José-Alain Sahel
PURPOSE: We discuss a modified surgical procedure for the treatment of macular folds complicating retinal reattachment surgery. METHODS: To facilitate the completion of the macular redetachment and the subsequent unrolling of the fold, we propose the subretinal injection, in addition to the conventional balanced salt solution, of filtered air as an original approach. In the presence of a subretinal air bubble, the action of gravity on the perfluorocarbon liquid in the vitreous cavity combined with an active globe manipulation proved to be very effective for flattening the central retina...
October 18, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Justin A Lemkul, Alexander D MacKerell
Mg2+ ions are important in biological systems, particularly in stabilizing compact RNA folds. Mg2+ is strongly polarizing, and representing its interactions in heterogeneous environments is a challenge for empirical force field development. To date, the most commonly used force fields in molecular dynamics simulations utilize a pairwise-additive approximation for electrostatic interactions, which cannot account for the significant polarization response in systems containing Mg2+. In the present work, we refine the interactions of Mg2+ with water, Cl- ions, and nucleic acid moieties using a polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Maurice Filo, Fadi Karameh, Mariette Awad
The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs...
October 17, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Matthew W Semler, Jonathan P Wanderer, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Joanna L Stollings, Wesley H Self, Edward D Siew, Li Wang, Daniel W Byrne, Andrew D Shaw, Gordon R Bernard, Todd W Rice
RATIONALE: Saline is the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, but may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether use of balanced crystalloids rather than saline affects patient outcomes remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To pilot a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial using software tools within the electronic health record to compare saline to balanced crystalloids. METHODS: Cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial among 974 adults admitted to a tertiary medical intensive care unit from February 3, 2015 through May 31, 2015...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Teresa F Mastropietro, Nadia Marino, Giovanni De Munno, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve, Emilio Pardo, Donatella Armentano
The preparation and structural characterization of four novel oxalate-based iron(III) compounds of formulas {(MeNH3)2[Fe2(ox)2Cl4]·2.5H2O}n (1), K(MeNH3)[Fe(ox)Cl3(H2O)] (2), {MeNH3[Fe2(OH)(ox)2Cl2]·2H2O}n (3), and {(H3O)(MeNH3)[Fe2O(ox)2Cl2]·3H2O}n (4) (MeNH3(+) = methylammonium cation and H2ox = oxalic acid) are reported here. 1 is an anionic waving chain of oxalato-bridged iron(III) ions with peripheral chloro ligands, the charge balance being ensured by methylammonium cations. 2 is a mononuclear complex with a bidentate oxalate, three terminal chloro ligands, and a coordinated water molecule achieving the six-coordination around each iron(III) ion...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Bryce Chiang, Nitin Venugopal, Henry F Edelhauser, Mark R Prausnitz
The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of injection volume, formulation composition, and time on circumferential spread of particles, small molecules and polymeric formulation excipients in the suprachoroidal space (SCS) after microneedle injection into New Zealand White rabbit eyes ex vivo and in vivo. Microneedle injections of 25-150 μL Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) containing 0.2 μm red-fluorescent particles and a model small molecule (fluorescein) were performed in rabbit eyes ex vivo, and visualized via flat mount...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Fernanda Pasinato, Clarissa C Santos-Couto-Paz, Jorge Luis Lopes Zeredo, Sergio Bruzadelli Macedo, Eliane C R Corrêa
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Ganiyu Oladunjoye Oyetibo, Keisuke Miyauchi, Hitoshi Suzuki, Ginro Endo
Ecotoxicological implications of mercury (Hg) pollution of hydrosphere require effective Hg-removal strategies as antidote to the environmental problems. Mercury-tolerant yeasts, Yarrowia spp. Idd1 and Idd2 strains, were studied for intracellular accumulation and extracellular micro-precipitation of Hg during growth stage of the yeast strains. In a liquid medium containing 870 (±23.6) µg of bioavailable Hg(2+), 419.0 µg Hg(2+) (approx.) was taken up by the wet biomasses of the yeast strains after 48 h post-inoculation...
December 2016: AMB Express
Kambiz Masoumi, Arash Forouzan, Ali Asgari Darian, Alireza Rafaty Navaii
BACKGROUND: Appropriate fluid therapy affects morbidity and mortality rates. A conclusion is yet to be reached on the role of crystalloids and colloids in immediate fluid therapy. This study was done to determine the suitable solution in immediate resuscitation of patients with hemorrhagic shock caused by tissue trauma. METHODS: One hundred trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock, who underwent fluid therapy in the emergency unit, were assigned randomly to two groups of hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) and normal saline...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
October 13, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fernanda Pacella, Enzo Agostinelli, Sandra Cinzia Carlesimo, Marcella Nebbioso, Roberto Secondi, Michele Forastiere, Elena Pacella
BACKGROUND: Ozurdex is a 700 mcg dexamethasone intravitreal implant, approved for the management of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion, and other related pathoglogiesAnterior chamber dislocation of Ozurdex represents an uncommon complication of the intravitreal injection, which can be managed by repositioning the implant into the vitreous cavity. We describe the case of a successful repositioning of an Ozurdex implant by mobilization and subsequent balanced saline solution injection in the anterior chamber...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Peter J Mazzone
Lung cancer screening with a low radiation dose chest CT scan has been shown to reduce the number of people, in a well-defined very high-risk cohort, who die from lung cancer. Many potential screening-related harms have been identified, including anxiety and morbidity related to the evaluation of screen-detected findings. A favorable balance of the benefit and harms of lung cancer screening requires careful implementation of a screening program, with a focus on several obstacles to the success of the program...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Hannah Dengel, Crispin Lichtenberg
The synthetic access to cationic bismuth compounds based on simple, monodentate, synthetically useful amido ligands, [Bi(NR2)2(L)n]+, has been investigated (R = Me, iPr, Ph; L = neutral ligand). With [BPh4]- as a counteranion, the formation of contact ion pairs and subsequent phenyl transfer from B to Bi is observed. An intermediate of this reaction, [Bi(NMe2)2(HNMe2)(BPh4)] (1), could be isolated and fully characterized. The use of fluorinated tetrarylborates as counteranions leads to more stable cationic bismuth amides...
October 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Areerat Kunanopparat, Ingorn Kimkong, Tanapat Palaga, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Boonchoo Sirichindakul, Nattiya Hirankarn
AIM: To investigate autophagy-related genes, particularly ATG12, in apoptosis and cell cycle in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-HBV-HCC cell lines. METHODS: The expression of autophagy-related genes in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma and non-HBV-HCC cell lines and human liver tissues was examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The silencing of target genes was used to examine the function of various genes in apoptosis and cell cycle progression...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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