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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447070/reading-your-mind-while-you-are-reading-evidence-for-spontaneous-visuospatial-perspective-taking-during-a-semantic-categorization-task
#1
Martin Freundlieb, Ágnes M Kovács, Natalie Sebanz
Recent studies have demonstrated people's propensity to adopt others' visuospatial perspectives (VSPs) in a shared physical context. The present study investigated whether spontaneous VSP taking occurs in mental space where another person's perspective matters for mental activities rather than physical actions. Participants sat at a 90° angle to a confederate and performed a semantic categorization task on written words. From the participants' point of view, words were always displayed vertically, while for the confederate, these words appeared either the right way up or upside down, depending on the confederate's sitting position...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439207/a-casino-goes-smoke-free-a-longitudinal-study-of-secondhand-and-thirdhand-smoke-pollution-and-exposure
#2
Georg E Matt, Penelope J E Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Joy M Zakarian, Zohir Chowdhury, Melbourne F Hovell, Peyton Jacob, Kayo Watanabe, Teaba S Theweny, Victoria Flores, Anh Nguyen, Narinder Dhaliwal, Gary Hayward
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed. METHODS: A casino was visited nine times over a 15-month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit...
February 8, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436156/cytochrome-p450-genetic-variation-associated-with-tamoxifen-biotransformation-in-american-indian-and-alaska-native-people
#3
Burhan A Khan, Renee Robinson, Alison E Fohner, LeeAnna I Muzquiz, Brian D Schilling, Julie A Beans, Matthew J Olnes, Laura Trawicki, Holly Frydenlund, Cindi Laukes, Patrick Beatty, Brian Phillips, Deborah Nickerson, Kevin Howlett, Denise A Dillard, Timothy A Thornton, Kenneth E Thummel, Erica L Woodahl
Despite evidence that pharmacogenetics can improve tamoxifen pharmacotherapy, there are few studies with American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) people. We examined variation in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9) and tamoxifen biotransformation in AIAN patients with breast cancer (n = 42) from the Southcentral Foundation in Alaska and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana. We tested for associations between CYP diplotypes and plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and metabolites...
February 13, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421846/survey-highlights-important-discrepancies-between-definitions-of-paediatric-abnormal-growth-taught-to-medical-students-in-23-european-countries
#4
Pauline Scherdel, Nils Hjelm, Jean-François Salaün, Barbara Heude, Martin Chalumeau
AIM: This study compared the definitions of abnormal growth that are taught across Europe to explain previously reported variations in growth-monitoring practices. METHODS: We developed two online surveys in 2016 to obtain the definitions of abnormal growth in European countries and approached the national chairs of the European Confederation of Primary Care Paediatricians in 18 countries and the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations in 33 countries...
February 8, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405924/multi-informant-assessments-of-adolescent-social-anxiety-adding-clarity-by-leveraging-reports-from-unfamiliar-peer-confederates
#5
Danielle E Deros, Sarah J Racz, Melanie F Lipton, Tara M Augenstein, Jeremy N Karp, Lauren M Keeley, Noor Qasmieh, Brigitte I Grewe, Amelia Aldao, Andres De Los Reyes
Adolescent social anxiety (SA) assessments often include adolescent and parent reports, and low reporting correspondence results in uncertainties in clinical decision-making. Adolescents display SA within non-home contexts such as peer interactions. Yet, current methods for collecting peer reports raise confidentiality concerns, though adolescent SA assessments nonetheless would benefit from context-specific reports relevant to adolescent SA (i.e., interactions with unfamiliar peers). In a sample of 89 adolescents (30 Evaluation-Seeking; 59 Community Control), we collected SA reports from adolescents and their parents, and SA reports from unfamiliar peer confederates who interacted with adolescents during 20-minute mock social interactions...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381184/l%C3%A3-g-f%C3%A3-ljsamhet-till-rekommenderad-hj%C3%A3-rtscreening-av-elitidrottare-l%C3%A3-gesanalys-i-%C3%A3-sterg%C3%A3-tland
#6
Sofia Sunnerud, Eva Nylander, Magnus Janzon, Anna Carlén, Kristofer Hedman
Low adherence to recommended pre-participation cardiac evaluation of Swedish athletes Pre-participation cardiac evaluation of athletes is recommended by international organizations like the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, as well as by the Swedish Sports Confederation. The purpose of the evaluation is to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes by early identification of individuals at risk. To our knowledge, no previous study has been made regarding the implementation of pre-participation cardiac evaluation of athletes in Sweden...
January 30, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336329/-current-status-of-urological-training-in-latin-america
#7
Javier C Angulo, Carlos Figueroa, Reynaldo Gómez, Francisco Martins, Juan Guillermo Corrales, Fernando Secin, Gerardo López-Secchi, Antonio León, Marcelo Torrico, Leonardo O Reis, Mauricio Plata, Mariano Sotomayor, Jorge Gutiérrez-Aceves
OBJECTIVE: Achieving residents' medical training of quality is a constant concern in the Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third Urological Society worldwide. We aim to analyze the diversity of state training programs, with the intention to identify opportunities for global improvement within them and also to analyse the professional reality in different countries. METHODS: Data from 2nd and 3rd Foro Educativo CAU regarding postgraduate training and labour implications are reviewed...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329025/the-midwifery-services-framework-the-process-of-implementation
#8
Andrea Nove, Nester T Moyo, Martha Bokosi, Shantanu Garg
In 2015, the International Confederation of Midwives launched the Midwifery Services Framework: a new evidence-based tool to guide countries through the process of improving their sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health services through strengthening and developing the midwifery workforce. The Midwifery Services Framework is aligned with key global architecture for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health and human resources for health, and with the recommendations of the 2014 Lancet Series on Midwifery...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305653/the-effect-of-height-and-shoulder-to-hip-ratio-on-interpersonal-space-in-virtual-environment
#9
Farid Pazhoohi, Carlos Silva, João Lamas, Sandra Mouta, Jorge Santos, Joana Arantes
Previous research has associated men's physical features such as height and Shoulder-to-Hip Ratio (SHR) with dominance. Proxemics literature has suggested that the interpersonal space (comfort distance) increases in threatening and uncomfortable situations and decreases in unthreatening and comfortable situations. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of different heights and SHRs on comfortable interpersonal distance by systematic manipulation of virtual confederates bodily features. More specifically, participants determined their comfort distances from virtual male confederates with different heights and SHRs in a virtual environment...
January 5, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289658/oxytocin-blurs-the-self-other-distinction-implicitly-but-not-explicitly
#10
Michaela Pfundmair, Anne Rimpel, Korrina Duffy, Clarissa Zwarg
Previous research has shown an inconsistent pattern of how oxytocin (OT) affects the distinction between self and others: whereas one line of studies has revealed that OT blurs the self-other distinction, other studies have not. In an attempt to solve these inconsistencies, we hypothesized that OT blurs the boundary between self and other implicitly but not explicitly. To test this assumption, we used two experimental approaches. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while conducting a prediction task (Study 1) or they were video-recorded while conducting a distraction task with a human counterpart (Study 2)...
December 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258459/-once-the-delivery-is-done-they-have-finished-a-qualitative-study-of-perspectives-on-postnatal-care-referrals-by-traditional-birth-attendants-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#11
Adanna Chukwuma, Chinyere Mbachu, Jessica Cohen, Thomas Bossert, Margaret McConnell
BACKGROUND: While 79% of Nigerian mothers who deliver in facilities receive postnatal care within 48 h of delivery, this is only true for 16% of mothers who deliver outside facilities. Most maternal deaths can be prevented with access to timely and competent health care. Thus, the World Health Organization, International Confederation of Midwives, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend that unskilled birth attendants be involved in advocacy for skilled care use among mothers...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250890/asian-pacific-endodontic-confederation-apec-report
#12
Sanjay Miglani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218840/behaviour-vs-perception-an-investigation-into-the-components-of-emotional-invalidation
#13
Meredith Elzy, Marc Karver
BACKGROUND: The negative effects of emotionally invalidating environments are theorized by the biosocial theory of borderline personality disorder to be vast and severe. However, findings from studies on the impact of emotional invalidation (EI) vary, perhaps due to different operational definitions of EI. The current investigation seeks to explore the relationship between the objective behavioural observations of EI and recipient's subjective perceptions of experiencing these behaviours...
December 8, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197787/the-midwifery-services-framework-what-is-it-and-why-is-it-needed
#14
Andrea Nove, Petra Ten Hoope-Bender, Nester T Moyo, Martha Bokosi
Most low- and middle-income countries failed to meet the Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal, newborn and child health, and even more ambitious targets have been set under the Sustainable Development Goals and the Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality initiative. This means that many countries will need to accelerate progress on sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health over the next few years. Recent years have seen the publication of a large and convincing body of evidence about the potential of midwifery to make a significant contribution to this acceleration, but little practical guidance has emerged to help countries invest in midwifery services so that their health systems can meet the increasing need for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health care...
November 15, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197169/human-like-me-evidence-that-i-sharing-humanizes-the-otherwise-dehumanized
#15
Elizabeth C Pinel, Geneva C Yawger, Anson E Long, Nolan Rampy, Robert Brenna, Sasha K Finnell
People persistently undermine the humanness of outgroup members, leaving researchers perplexed as to how to address this problem of 'dehumanization' (Haslam & Loughnan, , Ann Rev of Psychol, 65, 399; Leyens, , Group Process Intergroup Relat, 12, 807). Here, we test whether I-sharing (i.e., sharing a subjective experience) counters this tendency by promoting the humanization of outgroup members. In Study 1, White participants had a face-to-face meeting with a White or Black confederate and either did or did not I-share with this confederate...
December 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175382/the-influence-of-social-threat-on-pain-aggression-and-empathy-in-women
#16
Kai Karos, Ann Meulders, Liesbet Goubert, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Only one published study has investigated the effect of a threatening social context on the perception and expression of pain, demonstrating that social threat leads to increased pain reports but reduced non-verbal pain expression. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to further explore the effects of a threatening social context. Healthy, female participants (N = 71) received 10 electrocutaneous stimuli delivered by a confederate. They were led to believe that the confederate was requested to administer 10 painful stimuli (control group) or that the confederate deliberately chose to deliver 10 painful stimuli when given the choice to deliver between 1 to 10 painful stimuli (social threat group)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172621/effects-of-oxytocin-administration-on-receiving-help
#17
Lauren J Human, Joshua D Woolley, Wendy Berry Mendes
Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152864/the-effect-of-active-and-passive-peer-discouragement-on-adolescent-risk-taking-an-experimental-study
#18
Anouk de Boer, Zeena Harakeh
This experiment investigated the effect of peer discouragement on adolescent risk taking. Overall, 269 Dutch adolescents aged 11-15 years completed a risk taking computer task in the presence of an e-confederate who demonstrated very little risk taking (passive peer discouragement) and/or sent risk-discouraging messages to participants (active peer discouragement). The results showed that, compared to a situation with no peer discouragement, adolescents took significantly less risk only when they encountered a combination of active and passive peer discouragement; hence, when peers practiced what they preached...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141512/the-impact-of-own-and-others-alcohol-consumption-on-social-contagion-following-a-collaborative-memory-task
#19
Craig Thorley, Paul Christiansen
When one person alters his or her recollection of an event to be consistent with another person's erroneous account of the same event, social contagion has occurred. In two studies, we examined whether alcohol consumption influences the degree to which people engage in social contagion. In Study 1, participants consumed alcohol, an alcohol placebo, or a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate who consumed a soft drink. In Study 2, participants consumed a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate they believed had consumed a soft drink or alcohol (but no alcohol was ever consumed)...
November 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138093/electrophysiological-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-under-social-observation-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#20
Rolf Voegler, Jutta Peterburs, Hannah Lemke, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Roman Liepelt, Thomas Straube
Previous research suggests that electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), vary according to psychopathology and context factors. The present study examined the effect of social context on behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy adult subjects and in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants performed two runs of a Go/NoGo flanker task in different social conditions: in the observation condition, they were observed by a confederate while performing the task, whereas there was no observation in the control condition...
November 11, 2017: Biological Psychology
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