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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428002/performance-during-competition-and-competition-outcome-in-relation-to-testosterone-and-cortisol-among-women
#1
Andrea Henry, Jason R Sattizahn, Greg J Norman, Sian L Beilock, Dario Maestripieri
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. This study investigated the relation between competition, testosterone (T), and cortisol (C) in women. One hundred and twenty female participants competed against a male confederate in a computerized laboratory task. The task was preprogrammed so that half the women won and half of the women lost the competition. T and C concentrations were measured in saliva samples collected at four time points before and after the competition. Accuracy and reaction time during the competition were recorded...
April 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422297/piecing-together-the-aggression-puzzle-testing-the-mediating-variables-linking-early-to-later-aggression
#2
Christopher P Barlett, Kaitlyn M Helmstetter, Douglas A Kowalewski, Logan Pezzillo
Results from several studies show that early aggression predicts later aggression; however, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms in these relations. The paucity of research that has tested mediation found that aggressive motives and hostile attributions are important causal processes. This past work is limited by not measuring aggression multiple times throughout the study to test aggression change over time and the variables that mediate such change. The current study had participants (N = 90) interact with a same-sex confederate on a modified version of the Tangram Task-our measure of aggressive behavior-for three trials...
April 19, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405353/effects-of-25-mg-oxazepam-on-emotional-mimicry-and-empathy-for-pain-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#3
Gustav Nilsonne, Sandra Tamm, Armita Golkar, Karolina Sörman, Katarina Howner, Marianne Kristiansson, Andreas Olsson, Martin Ingvar, Predrag Petrovic
Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (n=76) were randomized to 25 mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400712/inverted-u-shaped-curvilinear-relationship-between-challenge-and-one-s-intrinsic-motivation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#4
Qingguo Ma, Guanxiong Pei, Liang Meng
The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375496/a-review-and-survey-of-neurosurgeon-hospital-relationships-evolution-and-options
#5
Dong H Kim, Bernard Duco, Daniel Wolterman, Charles Stokes, Rod Brace, Robert A Solomon, Nicholas Barbaro, Richard Westmark, David MacDougall, James Bean, Joanna O'Leary, Nicole Moayeri, Ralph G Dacey, Mitchel S Berger, Robert Harbaugh
As healthcare delivery shifts from fee-for-service, episodic care to pay for performance and population health, both hospitals and physicians are looking for new forms of integration. A number of regulations and restrictions govern physician relationships with hospitals. In this paper, we review the legal basis for such relationships and the options available. We also survey neurosurgeons and hospital executives to gain their perspective on the current situation and likely future. Two series of structured interviews were conducted with 10 neurosurgeons who work in a range of situations in diverse markets, and with Memorial Hermann Healthcare System senior executive leadership...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371492/i-tawt-i-taw-a-puddy-tat-gestures-in-canary-row-narrations-by-high-functioning-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Laura B Silverman, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Loisa Bennetto
This study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produce co-speech gestures similarly to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 20 youth ages 10-18 years with high-functioning ASD and 21 TD controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and handedness. Gestures were elicited using a classic narrative-retelling task, in which participants watched a Tweety and Sylvester cartoon and retold the cartoon to a confederate. Analyses compared gesture rate, type, and viewpoint (character, observer, dual) across groups...
April 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333824/committee-opinion-no-697-planned-home-birth
#7
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333817/committee-opinion-no-697-summary-planned-home-birth
#8
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326593/allocation-of-speech-in-conversation
#9
Carsta Simon, William M Baum
In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze...
March 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#10
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300488/for-better-or-for-worse-social-influences-on-risk-taking
#11
Shelly Sadek McCoy, Misaki N Natsuaki
This study investigated changes in risk-taking propensity on a behavioral decision-making task as a function of varying social conditions with peers. In contrast to the effects of direct peer influence (pro-risk and anti-risk messages by peers), we included a socially ambiguous context (neutral messages by peers) and a no-peer control (participants alone) as comparison conditions. Using a counterbalanced mixed factorial design, college students (N = 187) completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth (BART-Y) twice during two consecutive sessions, including once alone and once with a confederate; the control group completed two sessions of the task alone...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286409/the-effects-of-the-putative-confession-and-parent-suggestion-on-children-s-disclosure-of-a-minor-transgression
#12
Elizabeth B Rush, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Jodi A Quas, Thomas D Lyon
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the putative confession (telling the child that an adult "told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth") on children's disclosure of a minor transgression after questioning by their parents. METHODS: Children (N = 188; 4 - 7-year-olds) played with a confederate, and while doing so, for half of the children, toys broke. Parents then questioned their children about what occurred, and half of the parents were given additional scripted suggestive questions...
February 2017: Legal and Criminological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284146/how-do-i-look-self-focused-attention-during-a-video-chat-of-women-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#13
Noortje Vriends, Yasemin Meral, Javier A Bargas-Avila, Christina Stadler, Susan M Bögels
We investigated the role of self-focused attention (SFA) in social anxiety (disorder) in an ecologically valid way. In Experiment 1 high (n = 26) versus low (n = 25) socially anxious single women between 18 and 30 years had a video ("Skype") conversation with an attractive male confederate, while seeing themselves and the confederate on-screen. The conversation was divided in four phases: (I) warm-up, (II) positive (confederate was friendly to the participant), (III) critical (confederate was critical to the participant), and (IV) active (participant was instructed to ask questions to the confederate)...
March 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276743/enhancing-treatment-effectiveness-through-social-modelling-a-pilot-study
#14
Kate Faasse, Anna Perera, Kate Loveys, Andrew Grey, Keith J Petrie
OBJECTIVE: Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. DESIGN: Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different...
February 20, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264793/online-self-tracking-groups-to-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-a-small-scale-study-on-mechanisms-of-group-effect-on-behavior-change
#15
Jingbo Meng, Wei Peng, Soo Yun Shin, Minwoong Chung
BACKGROUND: Web-based interventions with a self-tracking component have been found to be effective in promoting adults' fruit and vegetable consumption. However, these interventions primarily focus on individual- rather than group-based self-tracking. The rise of social media technologies enables sharing and comparing self-tracking records in a group context. Therefore, we developed an online group-based self-tracking program to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine (1) the effectiveness of online group-based self-tracking on fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) characteristics of online self-tracking groups that make the group more effective in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in early young adults...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263631/out-of-your-sight-out-of-my-mind-knowledge-about-another-person-s-visual-access-modulates-spontaneous-visuospatial-perspective-taking
#16
Martin Freundlieb, Natalie Sebanz, Ágnes M Kovács
Accumulating evidence suggests that humans spontaneously adopt each other's visuospatial perspective (VSP), but many aspects about the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether knowledge about another's visual access systematically modulates spontaneous VSP-taking. In a spatial compatibility task, a participant and a confederate sat at a 90°angle to each other, with visual stimuli being aligned vertically for the participants and horizontally for the confederate...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261123/the-unresponsive-partner-roles-of-social-status-auditory-feedback-and-animacy-in-coordination-of-joint-music-performance
#17
Alexander P Demos, Daniel J Carter, Marcelo M Wanderley, Caroline Palmer
We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174476/evaluation-of-research-trends-in-physical-therapy-through-analysis-of-articles-published-at-the-world-confederation-for-physical-therapy-congress
#18
REVIEW
Wan-Hee Lee, Ju-Ri Jeong, Joohee Hahn
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine research trends in physical therapy through analysis of articles published at the 2015 World Confederation for Physical Therapy Congress. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 1,339 were analyzed (presentations: 346, posters: 993). The number of papers per subject area, number of oral presentations and posters, and the number of moderator nations and regional publications were analyzed by subject area. The mean and standard deviation was used for statistical analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166188/focused-and-corrective-feedback-versus-structured-and-supported-debriefing-in-a-simulation-based-cardiac-arrest-team-training-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Ji-Hoon Kim, Young-Min Kim, Seong Heui Park, Eun A Ju, Se Min Choi, Tai Yong Hong
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the educational impact of two postsimulation debriefing methods-focused and corrective feedback (FCF) versus Structured and Supported Debriefing (SSD)-on team dynamics in simulation-based cardiac arrest team training. METHODS: This was a pilot randomized controlled study conducted at a simulation center. Fourth-year medical students were randomly assigned to the FCF or SSD group, with each team composed of six students and a confederate...
February 4, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150970/neural-outcome-processing-of-peer-influenced-risk-taking-behavior-in-late-adolescence-preliminary-evidence-for-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interactions
#20
Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts, Jong Y Park, Marina A Bornovalova
Adolescent brains are particularly susceptible to the rewarding properties of risky decisions in social contexts. Individual differences in genetic influences on dopamine transmission moderate neural outcome processing of risky decisions and may exert pronounced effects on adolescent risk-taking behavior (RTB) and corresponding neural outcome processing in peer contexts, a process called gene-environment interaction (G × E). Eighty-five undergraduate students completed a behavioral risk task alone and in the presence of a confederate peer providing "risky" feedback...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
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