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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913203/frontal-eeg-asymmetry-moderates-the-association-between-attentional-bias-towards-food-and-body-mass-index
#1
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
High global incidence of obesity has led to efforts to identify factors that may contribute to elevated body mass index (BMI). Studies have shown individuals with obesity tend to display an attentional bias (AB) towards food. Left frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (FA) has been associated with motivation to approach rewards and may heighten reactivity to food cues. The current study thus explored whether the association between AB to food and BMI is moderated by FA. EEG was recorded while 93 female participants watched a video confederate incidentally consume potato chips...
June 15, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911875/the-relation-between-narcissism-and-laboratory-aggression-is-not-contingent-on-environmental-cues-of-competition
#2
Courtland S Hyatt, Brandon M Weiss, Nathan T Carter, Amos Zeichner, Joshua D Miller
Narcissism has been robustly linked to self-report and lab-based measures of aggression. However, less is known about the role that a competitive context may play in the relations found between narcissism and aggression as measured in behavioral paradigms. In circumstances of competition, narcissistic individuals may be particularly attuned to external indicators of status and use aggression as a way of asserting power and a motivation to "win," rather than to do harm. The goal of the present study was to test the role of competition in understanding the relation between narcissism and related traits (i...
June 18, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907562/nhs-must-work-harder-to-retain-clinical-workforce-says-nhs-confederation-chief
#3
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906456/reward-circuitry-activation-reflects-social-preferences-in-the-face-of-cognitive-effort
#4
Holly Sullivan-Toole, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuation and the gap in the literature regarding cognitive effort in the social domain. Next, we present a study designed to explore valuation processes linked to cognitive effort within the social context of an inequality manipulation...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902696/-tell-tell-tell-again-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-young-children-s-response-to-and-disclosure-of-an-in-vivo-lure-from-a-stranger
#5
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines
Despite being a key target outcome to prevent child maltreatment, little research has been conducted to examine the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal safety skills in a standardised manner. In this study, interpersonal safety skills were measured in a Year 1-2 student sample through use of a standardised simulated risk scenario, with three primary skills examined: withdrawal from an unknown confederate (motor safety response), verbal refusal of an abduction lure (verbal safety response) and disclosure of confederate presence...
June 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891475/the-canadian-partnership-for-tomorrow-project-a-pan-canadian-platform-for-research-on-chronic-disease-prevention
#6
Trevor J B Dummer, Philip Awadalla, Catherine Boileau, Camille Craig, Isabel Fortier, Vivek Goel, Jason M T Hicks, Sébastien Jacquemont, Bartha Maria Knoppers, Nhu Le, Treena McDonald, John McLaughlin, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Anne-Monique Nuyt, Lyle J Palmer, Louise Parker, Mark Purdue, Paula J Robson, John J Spinelli, David Thompson, Jennifer Vena, Ma'n Zawati
BACKGROUND: Understanding the complex interaction of risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing common diseases is challenging. The Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow Project (CPTP) is a prospective cohort study created as a population-health research platform for assessing the effect of genetics, behaviour, family health history and environment (among other factors) on chronic diseases. METHODS: Volunteer participants were recruited from the general Canadian population for a confederation of 5 regional cohorts...
June 11, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887825/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-is-critical-for-helping-others-who-are-suffering
#7
Janelle N Beadle, Sergio Paradiso, Daniel Tranel
Neurological patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are reported to display reduced empathy toward others in their daily lives in clinical case studies. However, the empathic behavior of patients with damage to the vmPFC has not been measured experimentally in response to an empathy-eliciting event. This is important because characterizing the degree to which patients with damage to the vmPFC have lower empathic behavior will allow for the development of targeted interventions to improve patients' social skills and in turn will help family members to better understand their impairments so they can provide appropriate supports...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870034/freshwater-macroinvertebrate-samples-from-a-water-quality-monitoring-network-in-the-iberian-peninsula
#8
Nora Escribano, Javier Oscoz, David Galicia, Tommaso Cancellario, Concha Durán, Patricia Navarro, Arturo H Ariño
This dataset gathers information about the macroinvertatebrate samples and environmental variables collected on rivers of the Ebro River Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), the second largest catchment in the Iberian Peninsula. The collection is composed of 1,776 sampling events carried out between 2005 and 2015 at more than 400 sampling sites. This dataset is part of a monitoring network set up by the Ebro Hydrographic Confederation, the official body entrusted with the care of the basin, to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867639/physiological-response-to-facial-expressions-in-peripersonal-space-determines-interpersonal-distance-in-a-social-interaction-context
#9
Alice Cartaud, Gennaro Ruggiero, Laurent Ott, Tina Iachini, Yann Coello
Accurate control of interpersonal distances in social contexts is an important determinant of effective social interactions. Although comfortable interpersonal distance seems to be dependent on social factors such as the gender, age and activity of the confederates, it also seems to be modulated by the way we represent our peripersonal-action space. To test this hypothesis, the present study investigated the relation between the emotional responses registered through electrodermal activity (EDA) triggered by human-like point-light displays (PLDs) carrying different facial expressions (neutral, angry, happy) when located in the participants peripersonal or extrapersonal space, and the comfort distance with the same PLDs when approaching and crossing the participants fronto-parallel axis on the right or left side...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860935/workload-and-non-contact-injury-incidence-in-elite-football-players-competing-in-european-leagues
#10
Barthelemy Delecroix, Alan McCall, Brian Dawson, Serge Berthoin, Gregory Dupont
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between absolute and acute:chronic workload ratios and non-contact injury incidence in professional football players and to assess their predictive ability. METHODS: Elite football players (n = 130) from five teams competing in European domestic and confederation level competitions were followed during one full competitive season. Non-contact injuries were recorded and using session rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) internal absolute workload and acute:chronic (A:C) workload ratios (4-weeks, 3-weeks, 2-weeks and week-to-week) were calculated using a rolling days method...
June 2, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860362/the-influence-of-social-modeling-gender-and-empathy-on-treatment-side-effects
#11
Kate Faasse, Bryony Parkes, James Kearney, Keith J Petrie
Background: Social modeling has the capacity to shape treatment outcomes, including side effects. Purpose: This study investigated the influence of social modeling of treatment side effects, gender, and participant empathy, on side effects of a placebo treatment. Methods: Ninety-six participants (48 females) completed a study purportedly investigating the influence of modafinil (actually placebo) on alertness and fatigue. The participants were randomly seated with a male or female confederate and saw this confederate report experiencing side effects or no side effects...
May 31, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858095/out-of-my-league-appraisals-of-anxiety-and-confidence-in-others-by-individuals-with-and-without-social-anxiety-disorder
#12
Tatiana Bielak, David A Moscovitch, Stephanie Waechter
Forty participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 42 healthy controls (HCs) were randomized to watch a confederate deliver a speech in either a visibly anxious or confident manner. Participants rated their perception of the presenter's desirability across five attributes and compared themselves to the presenter along these same dimensions. Participants then delivered their own speeches, and were rated in a similar manner by trained research assistants who were naïve to participants' group status and study objectives...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800942/speech-rate-entrainment-in-children-and-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Camille J Wynn, Stephanie A Borrie, Tyra P Sellers
Purpose: Conversational entrainment, a phenomenon whereby people modify their behaviors to match their communication partner, has been evidenced as critical to successful conversation. It is plausible that deficits in entrainment contribute to the conversational breakdowns and social difficulties exhibited by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined speech rate entrainment in children and adult populations with and without ASD. Method: Sixty participants including typically developing children, children with ASD, typically developed adults, and adults with ASD participated in a quasi-conversational paradigm with a pseudoconfederate...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771982/idiosyncratic-representation-of-peripersonal-space-depends-on-the-success-of-one-s-own-motor-actions-but-also-the-successful-actions-of-others
#14
Yann Coello, François Quesque, Maria-Francesca Gigliotti, Laurent Ott, Jean-Luc Bruyelle
Peripersonal space is a multisensory representation of the environment around the body in relation to the motor system, underlying the interactions with the physical and social world. Although changing body properties and social context have been shown to alter the functional processing of space, little is known about how changing the value of objects influences the representation of peripersonal space. In two experiments, we tested the effect of modifying the spatial distribution of reward-yielding targets on manual reaching actions and peripersonal space representation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752704/university-sports-rivalries-provide-insights-on-coalitional-psychology-territorial-context-influences-reactions-to-vocal-signals-of-allegiance
#15
Daniel J Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader, Shannon Murphy
Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival's territory during active rival engagement...
May 11, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743675/137-ancient-human-genomes-from-across-the-eurasian-steppes
#16
Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen, Michaël Peyrot, Gabriel Renaud, Thorfinn Korneliussen, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Amy Goldberg, Emma Usmanova, Nurbol Baimukhanov, Valeriy Loman, Lotte Hedeager, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Kasper Nielsen, Gennady Afanasiev, Kunbolot Akmatov, Almaz Aldashev, Ashyk Alpaslan, Gabit Baimbetov, Vladimir I Bazaliiskii, Arman Beisenov, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Choduraa Dorzhu, Sturla Ellingvag, Diimaajav Erdenebaatar, Rana Dajani, Evgeniy Dmitriev, Valeriy Evdokimov, Karin M Frei, Andrey Gromov, Alexander Goryachev, Hakon Hakonarson, Tatyana Hegay, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Ruslan Khaskhanov, Egor Kitov, Alina Kolbina, Tabaldiev Kubatbek, Alexey Kukushkin, Igor Kukushkin, Nina Lau, Ashot Margaryan, Inga Merkyte, Ilya V Mertz, Viktor K Mertz, Enkhbayar Mijiddorj, Vyacheslav Moiyesev, Gulmira Mukhtarova, Bekmukhanbet Nurmukhanbetov, Z Orozbekova, Irina Panyushkina, Karol Pieta, Václav Smrčka, Irina Shevnina, Andrey Logvin, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Tereza Štolcová, Kadicha Tashbaeva, Alexander Tkachev, Turaly Tulegenov, Dmitriy Voyakin, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Sainbileg Undrakhbold, Victor Varfolomeev, Andrzej Weber, Nikolay Kradin, Morten E Allentoft, Ludovic Orlando, Rasmus Nielsen, Martin Sikora, Evelyne Heyer, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev
For thousands of years the Eurasian steppes have been a centre of human migrations and cultural change. Here we sequence the genomes of 137 ancient humans (about 1× average coverage), covering a period of 4,000 years, to understand the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age migrations. We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age herders, European farmers and southern Siberian hunter-gatherers...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735015/the-causal-role-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-prosocial-behaviour
#17
Selene Gallo, Riccardo Paracampo, Laura Müller-Pinzler, Mario Carlo Severo, Laila Blömer, Carolina Fernandes-Henriques, Anna Henschel, Balint Kalista Lammes, Tatjana Maskaljunas, Judith Suttrup, Alessio Avenanti, Christian Keysers, Valeria Gazzola
Witnessing another person's suffering elicits vicarious brain activity in areas active when we ourselves are in pain. Whether this activity influences prosocial behavior remains debated. Here participants witnessed a confederate express pain via a reaction of the swatted hand or via a facial expression and could decide to reduce that pain by donating money. Participants donate more money on trials in which the confederate expressed more pain. EEG shows that activity of the SI hand region explains variance in donation; TMS shows that altering this activity interferes with the pain-donation coupling only when pain is expressed by the hand and HD-tDCS that altering SI activity also interferes with pain perception...
May 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692201/fluctuating-confidence-the-dynamic-consequences-of-true-false-affirmatives-and-denials-on-how-a-listener-appraises-their-personal-past
#18
Jolee Davis, Sharon Y Bayantemur, Sasha Seecharan, Leslie D Unger, Johanna Hellgren, Charles B Stone
The present study examined the mnemonic consequences of true/false denials and affirmatives on how a listener appraises their personal past. To this end, participants (listeners) rated the extent to which they were confident certain events occurred during their childhood. They rated these events both before and after a confederate (speaker) denied or affirmed the occurrence of four different childhood events each, for a total of eight "rehearsed" events. For each set (denials and affirmatives) of events, half were true and half were false...
August 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689459/the-midwifery-services-framework-lessons-learned-from-the-initial-stages-of-implementation-in-six-countries
#19
Shantanu Garg, Nester T Moyo, Andrea Nove, Martha Bokosi
In 2015, the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) launched the Midwifery Services Framework (MSF): an evidence-based tool to guide countries through the process of improving their sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health services through strengthening and developing the midwifery workforce. The MSF is aligned with key global architecture for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health and human resources for health. This third in a series of three papers describes the experience of starting to implement the MSF in the first six countries that requested ICM support to adopt the tool, and the lessons learned during these early stages of implementation...
July 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683078/is-sexual-objectification-and-victimization-of-females-in-video-games-associated-with-victim-blaming-or-victim-empathy
#20
Victoria Beck, Chris Rose
The goal of this study was to investigate whether the sexual objectification and virtual violence against females in video games increases negative attitudes toward females, when addressing a variety of noted methodological issues. Study participants were randomly assigned to a control group, where participants played Madden NFL 12, or an experimental group, where participants played Grand Theft Auto. In the experimental group, participants played the game with a confederate, who exposed participants to sexual objectification and violence against females...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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