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Chelsea T Morales, LeeAnna I Muzquiz, Kevin Howlett, Bernie Azure, Brenda Bodnar, Vernon Finley, Tony Incashola, Cheryl Mathias, Cindi Laukes, Patrick Beatty, Wylie Burke, Mark A Pershouse, Elizabeth A Putnam, Susan Brown Trinidad, Rosalina James, Erica L Woodahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Jocelyn M Elliott, Rochelle E Cox, Amanda J Barnier
Fregoli delusion involves the belief that strangers are known people in disguise. We aimed to model aspects of this delusion for the first time using hypnosis. We informed hypnotised subjects that someone would enter the room (a confederate) and they would believe this person was someone they knew in disguise. After testing their reaction to the confederate, we challenged their delusion by directly contradicting their belief and then asking them to focus on the confederate's voice and gait. Finally, we indexed whether they could identify photographs of the confederate...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Mehmet K Mahmut, Louise Cridland, Richard J Stevenson
This study examined the helping behavior of participants with high (High-P; 15 males, 13 females) and low (Low-P; 14 males, 16 females) psychopathic traits without their awareness. In the first of three tests, we found Low-P participants offered more help to an apparently lost female confederate than High-P participants. In the second test, High-P compared to Low-P males offered more help to an "injured" female experimenter, the reverse was true for females. In the third test, High-P compared to Low-P females offered more help to a female confederate who had apparently dropped papers they were carrying; whereas the reverse was true for males...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Catherine Friend, Nicola Fox Hamilton
Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline...
September 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Hanneke A Teunissen, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Ron H J Scholte, Renske Spijkerman, Mitchell J Prinstein, Rutger C M E Engels
This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
Katherine Ledbetter-Cho, Russell Lang, Katy Davenport, Melissa Moore, Allyson Lee, Mark O'Reilly, Laci Watkins, Terry Falcomata
A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Vanessa Giannetti, Maurizio Boccacci Mariani, Paola Mannino
BACKGROUND: The lack of harmonized European legislation on food packaging led the Confederation of European Paper Industries to the proposal of a voluntary Industry Guideline for the compliance of paper and board materials for food contact applications. In our work, a previously established method for the simultaneous determination of contaminants commonly found in recycled paperboard was improved and its applicability as quality control tool in the paper industry was also assessed. The method involves a sample pre-treatment followed by GC-MS analysis...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
(no author information available yet)
A new health and integration toolkit has been launched by NHS Clinical Commissioners, in partnership with the Local Government Association, NHS Confederation and the Association of Directors of Adult Services. The self-assessment tool is designed to help local health and care leaders, through health and well-being boards, to assess their ambition, capability, capacity and readiness to integrate local health and social care services.
September 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Dong-Seon Chang, Franziska Burger, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior...
December 2015: I-Perception
Courtland S Hyatt, Danielle S Berke, Joshua D Miller, Amos Zeichner
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression...
August 16, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Massimo Lumaca, Giosuè Baggio
It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of variation observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on two successive days...
August 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Zeena Harakeh, Carolus H C J van Nijnatten
BACKGROUND: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. METHODS: Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence)...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Rebecca Robbins, Jeff Niederdeppe
Conversation about health messages and campaigns is common, and message-related conversations are increasingly recognized as a consequential factor in shaping message effects. The evidence base is limited, however, about the conditions under which conversation may help or hinder health communication efforts. In this study, college students (N = 301) first watched a short sleep video and were randomly assigned to either talk with a partner in an online chat conversation or proceed directly to a short survey...
August 5, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Carolina Figueiredo Freitas, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Kimberley Irene Shoaf, Raulino Sabino da Silva, Elaine Silva Miranda
Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature...
August 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Atsunori Ariga
People feel uncomfortable when someone else comes spatially near and thus encroaches on their personal space (PS). Although many social psychologists have explored characteristics of PS of/between/among individuals so far, there is currently no empirical research on whether the PS of individuals expands into space surrounding their belongings (or objects) that are away from their body. This study measured the spatial distance between bags which participants and confederates left behind, and thus demonstrated that the distance between bags was modulated in response to the interpersonal relationship of their owners...
June 2016: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
Andrew Whiten, Gillian Allan, Siobahn Devlin, Natalie Kseib, Nicola Raw, Nicola McGuigan
The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation-the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions-occurs in a real-world context in which participants are unaware of being in an experiment. We disguised a puzzle-box task as an interactive item available to the public within a science engagement zone of Edinburgh Zoo. As a member of the public approached, a confederate acting as a zoo visitor retrieved a reward from the box using a sequence of actions containing both causally relevant and irrelevant elements...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
In the United States, approximately 35,000 births (0.9%) per year occur in the home. Approximately one fourth of these births are unplanned or unattended. Although the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that hospitals and accredited birth centers are the safest settings for birth, each woman has the right to make a medically informed decision about delivery. Importantly, women should be informed that several factors are critical to reducing perinatal mortality rates and achieving favorable home birth outcomes...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Katharina Preuk, Eric Stemmler, Caroline Schießl, Meike Jipp
With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Eric L Stocks, Felicia Mirghassemi, Luis V Oceja
In 6 experiments, we manipulated the length of a communication message to assess reciprocity norm-following behaviour during conversational interaction. In Studies 1 and 2, scripts of different length were used in an online chat, and chat logs were analysed. In Studies 3 and 4, participants e-mailed scripts that varied in length to acquaintances, and replies were analysed. In Studies 5 and 6, a confederate initiated conversations with either strangers or acquaintances and recorded the amount of time the person responded...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
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