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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792077/symptoms-of-ptsd-in-frontline-journalists-a-retrospective-examination-of-18-years-of-war-and-conflict
#1
Anthony Feinstein, Jonas Osmann, Viral Patel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to determine the frequency and severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in journalists covering conflict. METHODS: PTSD data (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) collected over an 18-year period from 684 conflict journalists were analyzed retrospectively for frequency and severity of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Conflicts covered were civil wars in the Balkans ( n = 140 journalists), 9/11 attack in New York City ( n = 46), Iraq war ( n = 84), Mexico drug wars ( n = 104), civil war in Syria ( n = 59), Kenya election violence/Al-Shabab terror ( n = 57), state-sanctioned media intimidation in Iran ( n = 114), and the current migration crisis in Europe ( n = 80)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783887/a-vision-for-global-heath-diplomacy-in-the-foreign-policy-process-using-smart-power-to-prevent-and-resolve-international-conflict
#2
Sebastian Kevany
In the twenty-first Century, the developed world attempts to provide global health assistance, to poorer countries - at least in part in the pursuit and maintenance of world order and stability. Rarely, however - and in most cases, then on an ad hoc basis - are related foreign policy tools deployed in combination with each other. Nonetheless, there is currently greater openness than ever before to such interdigitation. Not least this reflects the unprecedented challenges of modern political and security conditions - struggling to operate amidst a broader culture of global adverserialism, and conflict which conventional systems of intervention have struggled to successfully resolve...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780018/overview-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-turkey-the-one-health-concept-and-future-threats
#3
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764495/cancer-mortality-in-serbia-1991-2015-an-age-period-cohort-and-joinpoint-regression-analysis
#4
Milena Ilic, Irena Ilic
BACKGROUND: As the result of dramatic political changes, civil wars, and a long-term refugee crisis from the end of the last to beginning of this century, the population of Serbia has experienced significant health problems. The aim of this study was to assess cancer mortality trends in Serbia. METHODS: This nationwide study was carried out to analyze cancer mortality in Serbia during 1991-2015 using official data. The age-standardized mortality rates (per 100,000) were calculated by direct standardization, using the world standard population by Segi...
April 10, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753197/violence-selection-and-infant-mortality-in-congo
#5
Olivier Dagnelie, Giacomo Davide De Luca, Jean-François Maystadt
This paper documents the effects of the recent civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo on mortality both in utero and during the first year of life. It instruments for conflict intensity using a mineral price index, which exploits the exogenous variation in the potential value of mineral resources generated by changes in world mineral prices to predict the geographic distribution of the conflict. Using estimates of civil war exposure on mortality across male and female newborn to assess their relative health, it provides evidence of culling effect (in utero selection) as a consequence of in utero shocks...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749294/questioning-the-current-public-health-approach-to-countering-violent-extremism
#6
Neil Krishan Aggarwal
Since the start of the global War on Terror, governments have used the mental health system for counterintelligence purposes. A recent manifestation of this trend is the call from policymakers and mental health researchers to screen individuals at risk for violent extremism through the public health system. Civil rights organisations have raised alarms that Muslims are being disproportionately referred to law enforcement agencies and that Muslim communities are being selected for surveillance despite government assurances that violent extremism is not exclusive to any ideology...
May 11, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748652/the-contribution-of-swiss-scientists-to-the-assessment-of-energy-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Montani, Yves Schutz, Abdul G Dulloo
Although Switzerland is considered a small country, it has its share in discoveries, inventions and developments for the assessment of energy metabolism. This includes seminal contributions to respiratory and metabolic physiology and to devices for measuring energy expenditure by direct and indirect calorimetry in vivo in humans and small animals (as well as in vitro in organs/tissues), for the purpose of evaluating the basic nutritional requirements. A strong momentum came during World War II when it was necessary to evaluate the energy requirements of soldiers protecting the country by assessing their energy expenditure, as well as to determine the nutritional needs of the Swiss civil population in time of war when food rationing was necessary to ensure national neutrality and independence...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747641/the-syrian-conflict-a-case-study-of-the-challenges-and-acute-need-for-medical-humanitarian-operations-for-women-and-children-internally-displaced-persons
#8
Rahma Aburas, Amina Najeeb, Laila Baageel, Tim K Mackey
BACKGROUND: After 7 years of increasing conflict and violence, the Syrian civil war now constitutes the largest displacement crisis in the world, with more than 6 million people who have been internally displaced. Among this already-vulnerable population group, women and children face significant challenges associated with lack of adequate access to maternal and child health (MCH) services, threatening their lives along with their immediate and long-term health outcomes. DISCUSSION: While several health and humanitarian aid organizations are working to improve the health and welfare of internally displaced Syrian women and children, there is an immediate need for local medical humanitarian interventions...
May 11, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743889/oral-health-status-of-syrian-children-in-the-refugee-center-of-melilla-spain
#9
Sabrina Gonçalves Riatto, Javier Montero, David Ribas Pérez, Antonio Castaño-Séiquer, Abraham Dib
Introduction: Little is known about the state of oral health among immigrants from conflict zones, such as the refugee children from the Syrian Civil War. Aim: To determine the oral health status of Syrian immigrant children refugee at the Center for Temporary Stay of Immigrants in Melilla to plan prevention and care programs. Design: Using the criteria set by the World Health Organization, an exploration of the oral cavity of all Syrian children aged 5-13 living at that center was conducted in May 2015...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735907/the-frequency-of-mefv-gene-mutations-and-genotypes-in-sanliurfa-province-south-eastern-region-of-turkey-after-the-syrian-civil-war-by-using-next-generation-sequencing-and-report-of-a-novel-exon-4-mutation-i423t
#10
Evren Gumus
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene are localized on the p arm of chromosome 16. Over 333 MEFV sequence variants have been identified so far in FMF patients, which occur mostly in the 2nd and 10th exons of the gene. METHODS: In this study, 296 unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of FMF, which were admitted during January⁻December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed to identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations by using next generation sequencing...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713447/over-the-scope-clip-otsc%C3%A2-closure-of-a-recto-acetabular-fistula
#11
Tobias S Schiergens, Cord-Christian Becker, Patrick Weber, Alena Sint, Markus Albertsmeier, Bernhard W Renz, Maria Burian, Axel Kleespies, Angela Reichelt, Markus O Guba, Markus Rentsch, Jens Werner, Christian P Schneider
A 25-year-old male Syrian refugee presented in our hospital with recurrent hip infections after having undergone hip arthroplasty abroad following destruction of his right hip joint by shell splinters in the Syrian civil war. The patient underwent hip arthroplasty revision with implantation of a cement spacer. CT-scan with rectal contrast media filling revealed a recto-acetabular fistula. Consecutively, the patient underwent ileostomy formation. The fistula was then successfully closed by endoscopic over-the-scope clipping (OTSC® )...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706831/-vulnus-sclopetarium-gunshot-wound
#12
Clyde Partin
Fading from the vernacular, the Latin phrase vulnus sclopetarium is a quaint, mystifying, and fascinating term that is translated as gunshot wound . There is a fulminating paucity of published information regarding the meaning of this term and the etymology. Trauma surgeons, military surgeons, and scholars of the medical aspects of the civil war may be familiar with the term. Vulnus is easily deciphered from ancient Latin as wound , whereas the origin of sclopetarium proves more difficult to discern. No guns were present in ancient Rome because guns were not invented until around the 13th century; hence, no Latin word for them existed...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667736/commentary-advancing-an-implementation-science-agenda-on-mental-health-and-psychosocial-responses-in-war-affected-settings-comment-on-trials-of-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-youth-affected-by-the-syrian-crisis-by-panter-brick-et-al-2018
#13
Theresa S Betancourt, Mina Fazel
Syria's civil conflict has created the largest humanitarian disaster of our time, causing massive population displacement, tremendous exposure to trauma, and loss. Advancing the mental health and psychosocial responses of war-affected populations both during acute humanitarian emergencies and in post-conflict transition is imperative in forging a constructive implementation agenda. This study makes an important contribution in building evidence toward effective interventions to advance the mental health and well-being of those affected by the Syrian crisis...
May 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662694/from-the-battlefield-to-the-bedroom-a-multilevel-analysis-of-the-links-between-political-conflict-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-liberia
#14
Jocelyn T D Kelly, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Courtland Robinson, Michele R Decker
Objectives: Assess the link between levels of armed conflict and postconflict intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women in Liberia. Methods: Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project data were used to measure conflict-related fatalities in districts in Liberia during the country's civil war from 1999 to 2003. These data were linked to individual-level data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, including past-year IPV. Multilevel logistic models accounting for the clustering of women within districts evaluated the relationship of conflict fatalities with postconflict past-year IPV...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616572/science-reflects-history-as-society-influences-science-brief-history-of-race-race-correction-and-the-spirometer
#15
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spirometers are used globally to diagnose respiratory diseases, and most commercially available spirometers "correct" for race. "Race correction" is built into the software of spirometers. To evaluate pulmonary function and to make recordings, the operator must enter the subject's race. In fact, the Joint Working Party of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommends the use of race- and ethnic-specific reference values. In the United States, spirometers apply correction factors of 10-15% for individuals labeled "Black" and 4-6% for people labeled "Asian...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604358/trepanation-procedures-outcomes-comparison-of-prehistoric-peru-with-other-ancient-medieval-and-american-civil-war-cranial-surgery
#16
REVIEW
David S Kushner, John W Verano, Anne R Titelbaum
More prehistoric trepanned crania have been found in Peru than any other location worldwide. We examine trepanation practices and outcomes in Peru over nearly 2000 years from 400 BC to provide a perspective on the procedure with comparison to procedures/outcomes of other ancient, medieval and American-Civil-War cranial surgery. . Data on trepanation demographics, techniques, and survival rates were collected through the scientific analysis of more than 800 trepanned crania discovered in Peru, through field studies and the courtesy of museums and private collections in the U...
March 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590314/altruistic-decisions-following-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Rodrigo Basilio, Ivanei Edson Bramati, Barry Gordon, Geraldine Rodríguez-Nieto, Roland Zahn, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
The cerebral correlates of altruistic decisions have increasingly attracted the interest of neuroscientists. To date, investigations on the neural underpinnings of altruistic decisions have primarily been conducted in healthy adults undergoing functional neuroimaging as they engaged in decisions to punish third parties. The chief purpose of the present study was to investigate altruistic decisions following focal brain damage with a novel altruistic decision task. In contrast to studies that have focused either on altruistic punishment or donation, the Altruistic Decision Task allows players to anonymously punish or donate to 30 charitable organizations involved with salient societal issues such as abortion, nuclear energy and civil rights...
March 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566259/is-there-a-common-experience-somali-new-mothers-childbirth-experiences-in-norway-and-the-united-states
#18
Connie Lynn Clark, Kari Glavin, Bernita Eileen Missal, Berit Saeteren
BACKGROUND: Due to civil war, Somalis immigrants have settled in Norway and the United States. Large families are valued among Somalis and Somali women continue to give birth in their new countries. Research studies have been conducted with Somali immigrant new mothers in Norway and Minnesota, United States to understand perceptions of their childbirth experience. PURPOSE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the childbirth experiences of Somali immigrant mothers in the United States and Norway to make recommendations to improve health care practice...
March 22, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557331/yemen-in-a-time-of-cholera-current-situation-and-challenges
#19
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538387/poaching-and-human-encroachment-reverse-recovery-of-african-savannah-elephants-in-south-east-angola-despite-14-years-of-peace
#20
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
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