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Civil war

Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Gabriel Gachelin, Paul Garner, Eliana Ferroni, Jan Peter Verhave, Annick Opinel
Public health strategies for malaria in endemic countries aim to prevent transmission of the disease and control the vector. This historical analysis considers the strategies for vector control developed during the first four decades of the twentieth century. In 1925, policies and technological advances were debated internationally for the first time after the outbreak of malaria in Europe which followed World War I. This dialogue had implications for policies in Europe, Russia and the Middle East, and influenced the broader international control agenda...
February 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Angie Ambers, Jitka Votrubova, Daniel Vanek, Antti Sajantila, Bruce Budowle
Bones are a valuable source of DNA in forensic, anthropological, and archaeological investigations. There are a number of scenarios in which the only samples available for testing are highly degraded and/or skeletonized. Often it is necessary to perform more than one type of marker analysis on such samples in order to compile sufficient data for identification. Lineage markers, such as Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), represent important systems to complement autosomal DNA markers and anthropological metadata in making associations between unidentified remains and living relatives or for characterization of the remains for historical and archaeological studies...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sidney H Schnoll
The abuse of opioids in the US is not a new problem. In 1973 David Musto published his book, The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, which described the problem as dating back to the time of the Civil War. Continued attempts to address it through legislation, law enforcement, prevention, treatment, and the development of less abuseable pain relievers have shown limited success.
February 21, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ali Osman Altıner, Sıdıka Tekeli Yeşil
Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. METHODS: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Kalina Yordanova
What psychological response does war and forced displacement evoke in victims? How do survivors of war communicate their experiences to their children? Finally, what culture does the psychological response to loss shape? Using data collected through interviews, psychological consultations, and children's drawings from two sources-the ongoing Syrian civil war and the Bosnian war of 1992-1995, this paper suggests that the experience of the war generation becomes the organizing axis of their identity and that of their children...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Joseph Yose, Ralph Kenna, Máirín MacCarron, Pádraig MacCarron
Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh ('The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill') is a medieval Irish text, telling how an army under the leadership of Brian Boru challenged Viking invaders and their allies in Ireland, culminating with the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Brian's victory is widely remembered for breaking Viking power in Ireland, although much modern scholarship disputes traditional perceptions. Instead of an international conflict between Irish and Viking, interpretations based on revisionist scholarship consider it a domestic feud or civil war...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez
With the appearance of Homo sapiens, the biological order was gradually replaced by the anthropocentric cultural order (CO), in which traditions, appreciations, preferences and desires for possession and domination guided their interactions with nature (predation or care), within the group (ranks, classes) and with others groups (commerce, wars). Current CO, characterized by unlimited profit interests, extreme wealth concentration and inequality where moral degradation hits rock bottom and planetary ecosystem is devastated, shows a collapsed civilization with a background of a global media controlled anesthetized societies...
November 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Mustafa Ugur, Erol Kilic, Yavuz Savas Koca, Ibrahim Yetim, Muhyittin Temiz, Onur Koyuncu
AIM: Colorectal injuries are one of the most common causes of mortality in war. Mainstay treatment of these injuries include primary repair or stoma creation. METHODS: Clinical data of the patients were evaluated retrospectively. Time from injury to hospital admission, method of treatment, the colorectal area affected, injury severity score ISS, hemodynamic instability, and mortality rate were determined. RESULTS: Of the 61 patients included in the study...
January 31, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Eranda Jayawickreme, Nuwan Jayawickreme, Corinne E Zachry, Michelle A Goonasekera
There has been growing interest in understanding the psychological and social-environmental factors that facilitate adaptive functioning in populations affected by ethnopolitical warfare. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a brief measure incorporating local idioms of positive need fulfilment would predict functioning in a war-affected Sri Lankan population above and beyond psychopathology when controlling for demographic variables and current life stressors. A brief measure of positive need fulfillment was derived from qualitative data and administered to a sample of 163 Sri Lankans affected by the civil war...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
William Collin Schenk, Thuy Bui
Background: The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to the health system in Sri Lanka. Rebuilding infrastructure and improving the mental health system were targets of recovery policies. Retrospective analyses of the post-tsunami health system recovery in Sri Lanka lack the perspectives of local stakeholders, including health care providers. Methods: In 2014 we interviewed 23 Sri Lankan physicians from the Eastern and Southern regions. Participants were recruited with snowball sampling...
January 12, 2018: International Health
Sharmila Devi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Lancet
S-Ali Khodaie, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Arman Zargaran, Mohsen Naseri
BACKGROUND: Wars and injuries have accompanied mankind throughout history. Physicians and surgeons from various civilizations made difficult attempts to manage wounds and injuries. Among various civilizations, the Persian Empires had great armies which were well equipped. One of the most important organizations in Persian troops was the military surgery. METHODS: This study presents a brief biography of Hakim Mohammad (a military surgeon in Safavid era) and introduces his book, Dhakhira-yi-Kamilah...
December 31, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Alicia Elaine Luedke, Hannah Faye Logan
One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence...
January 2018: Disasters
Liat Kozma
In the 1920s and 1930s, doctors stationed in the Middle East and North Africa debated whether bejel, a form of endemic syphilis, was an Arab version of syphilis, or a separate disease altogether. Using their clinical experience in the region, they tried to weave this unfamiliar phenomenon into a civilizational narrative, which placed European civilization at the top of a hierarchy. The assumption was that there was something inherent to Islamic societies and their hygienic habits that accounted for this difference...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Benjamin Gorbaty
The Civil War influenced all aspects of American society and culture, including the field of medicine and critical care. Union physician Lauramann Howe Russell's letter to his daughter, Ellen Howe, written on October 19, 1862, illustrates the changes in hospital construction, gender roles in healthcare and medical treatments which revolutionized healthcare during the Civil War. This letter offers a glimpse of the medical care of wounded soldiers during the early years of the Civil War. In describing his conversion hospital, he reveals the precursor to the new hospital construction which would greatly influence hospital design for decades to come...
October 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
Silvia Berger Ziauddin
In the 1960s Switzerland started to build the world's largest system of civil defense shelters. Ever since, the tiny country has represented the gold standard for bunker design and technology, attracting worldwide interest amongst scientists, political elites, and private consumers. This essay examines the development, forms, and global reach of Swiss bunker expertise. It emphasizes the knowledge transfer and the networks of cooperation with West Germany and the United States upon which the career of Swiss bunker research was founded...
2017: Technology and Culture
Jennifer Farquharson
During the First World War injured servicemen were constructed as a better class of patient than civilians, and their care was prioritized in social and political discourses. For the mentally disordered servicemen themselves, however, these distinctions were permeable and transient. This article will challenge the reality of the 'privileged' service patient in civil asylums in Scotland. By examining the impact of the war on asylum structures, economies and patient health, this study will explore exactly which patients were valued in these difficult years...
December 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
Aastha Nigam, Henry K Dambanemuya, Madhav Joshi, Nitesh V Chawla
Peace processes are complex, protracted, and contentious involving significant bargaining and compromising among various societal and political stakeholders. In civil war terminations, it is pertinent to measure the pulse of the nation to ensure that the peace process is responsive to citizens' concerns. Social media yields tremendous power as a tool for dialogue, debate, organization, and mobilization, thereby adding more complexity to the peace process. Using Colombia's final peace agreement and national referendum as a case study, we investigate the influence of two important indicators: intergroup polarization and public sentiment toward the peace process...
December 2017: Big Data
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