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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351298/construction-of-an-infectious-horsepox-virus-vaccine-from-chemically-synthesized-dna-fragments
#1
Ryan S Noyce, Seth Lederman, David H Evans
Edward Jenner and his contemporaries believed that his variolae vaccinae originated in horses and molecular analyses show that modern vaccinia virus (VACV) strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we asked whether an HPXV-based vaccine might provide a superior alternative. Since HPXV may be extinct and the only specimen of HPXV that has been identified is unavailable for investigation, we explored whether HPXV could be obtained by large-scale gene synthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350763/molecular-allergen-profiling-in-horses-by-microarray-reveals-fag-e-2-from-buckwheat-as-a-frequent-sensitizer
#2
L Einhorn, G Hofstetter, S Brandt, E K Hainisch, I Fukuda, K Kusano, A Scheynius, I Mittermann, Y Resch-Marat, S Vrtala, R Valenta, E Marti, C Rhyner, R Crameri, R Satoh, R Teshima, A Tanaka, H Sato, H Matsuda, I Pali-Schöll, E Jensen-Jarolim
BACKGROUND: Companion animals are also affected by IgE-mediated allergies, but the eliciting molecules are largely unknown. We aimed at refining an allergen microarray to explore sensitization in horses and compare it to the human IgE reactivity profiles. METHODS: Custom-designed allergen microarray was produced on the basis of the IimmunoCAP ISAC technology containing 131 allergens. Sera from 51 horses derived from Europe or Japan were tested for specific IgE reactivity...
January 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350477/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-safety-of-topical-1-morphine-sulfate-application-on-the-healthy-equine-eye
#3
Emma Gordon, Bernadette V Stang, Jerry Heidel, Keith P Poulsen, Christopher K Cebra, John W Schlipf
OBJECTIVE: To determine if corneal epithelial cell integrity is detrimentally affected by short-term administration of 1.0% morphine sulfate. Additionally, we sought to determine if topical 1.0% morphine applied to the equine cornea would result in ocular or systemic absorption. ANIMAL STUDIED: Six healthy horses. PROCEDURE: Morphine sulfate (1.0%) was applied topically to one eye every four hours for 72 h before horses were euthanized. Serum samples were collected at varying time points during the study and aqueous and vitreous humor were collected immediately after euthanasia...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350412/surgical-repair-of-propagating-condylar-fractures-of-the-third-metacarpal-metatarsal-bones-with-cortical-screws-placed-in-lag-fashion-in-26-racehorses-2007-2015
#4
N Moulin, I François, N Coté, C Alford, O Cleary, M R Desjardins
BACKGROUND: Despite the recommendation of plate fixation for propagating condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or third metatarsal bone (MtIII), lag screw fixation can be a viable surgical option. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short-term outcome and long-term racing performance of horses that underwent lag screw fixation of long condylar fractures of the McIII/MtIII. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records, post-surgical racing performance and outcome of 26 horses with propagating fractures of the medial and/or lateral condyle of McIII/MtIII were reviewed...
January 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350162/new-parvovirus-associated-with-serum-hepatitis-in-horses-after-inoculation-of-common-biological-product
#5
Thomas J Divers, Bud C Tennant, Arvind Kumar, Sean McDonough, John Cullen, Nishit Bhuva, Komal Jain, Lokendra Singh Chauhan, Troels Kasper Høyer Scheel, W Ian Lipkin, Melissa Laverack, Sheetal Trivedi, Satyapramod Srinivasa, Laurie Beard, Charles M Rice, Peter D Burbelo, Randall W Renshaw, Edward Dubovi, Amit Kapoor
Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares <50% protein identity with its phylogenetic relatives of the genus Copiparvovirus. Next, we experimentally infected 2 horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349533/hendra-virus-spillover-is-a-bimodal-system-driven-by-climatic-factors
#6
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Raina K Plowright, Carla Chen, Billie Roberts, Lee F Skerratt
Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude - 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015...
January 18, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348330/complete-genome-sequence-of-escherichia-coli-bacteriophage-pgt2
#7
Alla K Golomidova, Eugene E Kulikov, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Andrey V Letarov
Bacteriophage PGT2 was isolated from horse feces by using an uncharacterized Escherichia coli strain, 7s, isolated from the same sample as the host. Bacteriophage PGT2 and a related phage, phiKT, which was previously isolated from the same source, are likely to represent a new genus within the Autographivirinae subfamily of the Podoviridae family of viruses.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347921/prospective-pre-and-post-race-evaluation-of-biochemical-electrophysiologic-and-echocardiographic-indices-in-30-racing-thoroughbred-horses-that-received-furosemide
#8
Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Rick Arthur, Krista Estell, Beatriz Martinez Lopez, Alexandra Sinnott, Eric Ontiveros, Anita Varga, Joshua A Stern
BACKGROUND: Exercise induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and cardiac dysrhythmias are well described conditions identified in high-level human athletes that increase in frequency with intensity and duration of exercise. Identification of these conditions requires an understanding of normal pre- and post-race cardiac assessment values. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize selected indices of cardiac function, electrophysiologic parameters, and biochemical markers of heart dysfunction prior to and immediately after high level racing in Thoroughbred horses receiving furosemide; and (2) create pre- and post-race reference values in order to make recommendations on possible screening practices for this population in the future...
January 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346439/interspecies-diversity-of-chloride-channel-regulators-calcium-activated-3-genes
#9
Lars Mundhenk, Nancy A Erickson, Nikolai Klymiuk, Achim D Gruber
Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across species boundaries and increasing evidence suggests that select CLCA genes are particularly prone to dynamic species-specific evolvements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346277/vaccinia-virus-in-blood-samples-of-humans-domestic-and-wild-mammals-in-brazil
#10
Marina G Peres, Thais S Bacchiega, Camila M Appolinário, Acácia F Vicente, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Bruna L D Ribeiro, Clóvis R S Fonseca, Vanessa C Pelícia, Fernando Ferreira, Graziele P Oliveira, Jonatas S Abrahão, Jane Megid
Outbreaks of Vaccinia virus (VACV) affecting cattle and humans have been reported in Brazil in the last 15 years, but the origin of outbreaks remains unknown. Although VACV DNA have been already detected in mice (Mus musculus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and dogs during VACV zoonotic outbreaks, no transmission to cattle or humans from any of these were reported during Brazilian outbreaks. In this work, we assessed the PCR positivity to VACV in blood samples of cows and other domestic mammals, wild rodents and other wild mammals, and humans from areas with or without VACV infection reports...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345075/genetic-analyses-of-linear-profiling-data-on-3-year-old-swedish-warmblood-horses
#11
Å Viklund, S Eriksson
A linear profiling protocol was introduced in 2013 at tests for 3-year-old Swedish Warmblood horses. In this protocol, traits are subjectively described on a nine-point linear scale from one biological extreme to the other. This complements the traditional scoring where horses are evaluated in relation to the breeding objective. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of the linear information for genetic evaluation. Data on 22 conformation traits, 17 movement traits, 14 jumping traits and one temperament trait from 3,410 horses tested between 2013 and 2016 were analysed using an animal model...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345072/genetic-monitoring-of-horses-in-the-czech-republic-a-large-scale-study-with-a-focus-on-the-czech-autochthonous-breeds
#12
L Putnová, R Štohl, I Vrtková
We propose the first comprehensive in-depth study monitoring horses in the Czech Republic. We scanned 9,289 animals from 44 populations for 17 equine STRs. Other equids analysed involved Equus przewalskii and Equus asinus. The total of 228 different alleles were detected, with the mean number of 13.4 per locus. The highest allelic richness (AR) was found in the Welsh Part Bred (6.01), followed by the Camargue (5.93) and Czech Sport Pony (5.91), whereas the Friesian exhibited the lowest AR (3.06). Interpopulation differences explained approximately nine per cent of the total genetic diversity...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345071/detecting-selection-signatures-on-the-x-chromosome-of-the-chinese-debao-pony
#13
X-X Liu, J-F Pan, Q-J Zhao, X-H He, Y-B Pu, J-L Han, Y-H Ma, L Jiang
The X chromosome shows a special interaction between demographic factors and genetic variation, and the analysis of X-linked genomic variation can therefore provide insights into the unique effects of demography and selection on the horse genome that cannot be readily detected by autosomal markers. Debao (DB) ponies have experienced intense selective pressure for the development of their small stature (<106 cm at adult height). To identify selective sweeps on the X chromosome of the DB pony, we performed a genome-wide scan of three Chinese horse breeds using an Equine SNP70 BeadChip...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344988/recent-advances-in-articular-cartilage-evaluation-using-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
REVIEW
B B Nelson, C E Kawcak, M F Barrett, C W McIlwraith, M W Grinstaff, L R Goodrich
Articular cartilage is a critical joint tissue and its evaluation remains a diagnostic challenge in horses. Coupled with a poor capacity for healing, early degenerative changes in articular cartilage are difficult to characterise using routine diagnostic imaging evaluations. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both provide volumetric joint assessment and highlight morphologic and quantitative properties of articular cartilage, improving assessment of this essential tissue. While the use of CT and MRI for joint evaluation is not new, there still remains a shortage of literature and scientific studies on the ability of these methods to evaluate articular cartilage in the horse...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344980/analytical-validation-of-a-new-point-of-care-assay-for-serum-amyloid-a-in-horses
#15
D Schwartz, N Pusterla, S Jacobsen, M M Christopher
BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in horses. A new point-of-care (POC) test for SAA (Stablelab) is available, but studies evaluating its analytical accuracy are lacking. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the analytical performance of the SAA POC test by: (1) determining linearity and imprecision, (2) comparing results in whole blood with those in serum or plasma, and (3) comparing POC results with those obtained using a previously validated turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA)...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344956/dispersal-capacity-of-haematopota-spp-and-stomoxys-calcitrans-using-a-mark-release-recapture-approach-in-belgium
#16
L Lempereur, C Sohier, F Smeets, F Maréchal, D Berkvens, M Madder, F Francis, B Losson
The dispersion potential of mechanical vectors is an important factor in the dissemination of pathogens. A mark-release-recapture experiment was implemented using two groups (unfed and partially fed) of the Tabanidae (Diptera) (Haematopota spp.) and biting Muscidae (Diptera) (Stomoxys calcitrans) most frequently collected in Belgium in order to evaluate their dispersion potential. In total, 2104 specimens of Haematopota spp. were collected directly from horses and 5396 S. calcitrans were collected in a cattle farm using hand-nets...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344364/novel-dry-cryotherapy-system-for-cooling-the-equine-digit
#17
Jessica Morgan, Darko Stefanovski, Margret Lenfest, Sraboni Chatterjee, James Orsini
Objectives: Digital cryotherapy is commonly used for laminitis prophylaxis and treatment. Currently validated methods for distal limb cryotherapy involve wet application or compression technology. There is a need for a practical, affordable, dry cryotherapy method that effectively cools the digit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hoof wall surface temperatures (HWSTs) achieved with a novel dry cryotherapy technology. Design: Repeated-measures in vivo experimental study...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343570/roles-of-the-5-untranslated-region-of-non-primate-hepacivirus-in-translation-initiation-and-viral-replication
#18
Tomohisa Tanaka, Teruhime Otoguro, Atsuya Yamashita, Hirotake Kasai, Takasuke Fukuhara, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Kohji Moriishi
The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is composed of four domains (I, II, III and IV) and a pseudoknot, is essential for translation and viral replication. Equine non-primate hepacivirus (EHcV) harbors a 5' UTR consisting of a large 5' -terminal domain (I), three additional domains (I', II and III), which are homologous to domains I, II and III, respectively, of HCV, and a pseudoknot, in the order listed. In this study, we investigated the roles of the EHcV 5' UTR in translation and viral replication...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343270/isolation-and-characterization-of-olfactory-ecto-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-eight-mammalian-genera
#19
Antoine D Veron, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, François Feron, Elisa Codecasa, Arnaud Deveze, Dany Royer, Paul Watelet, Pietro Asproni, Kevin Sadelli, Camille Chabaud, Jean-Claude Stamegna, Joël Fagot, Michel Khrestchatisky, Alessandro Cozzi, François S Roman, Patrick Pageat, Manuel Mengoli, Stéphane D Girard
BACKGROUND: Stem cell-based therapies are an attractive option to promote regeneration and repair defective tissues and organs. Thanks to their multipotency, high proliferation rate and the lack of major ethical limitations, "olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells" (OE-MSCs) have been described as a promising candidate to treat a variety of damaged tissues. Easily accessible in the nasal cavity of most mammals, these cells are highly suitable for autologous cell-based therapies and do not face issues associated with other stem cells...
January 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342064/minimally-manipulated-bone-marrow-concentrate-compared-with-microfracture-treatment-of-full-thickness-chondral-defects-a-one-year-study-in-an-equine-model
#20
Constance R Chu, Lisa A Fortier, Ashley Williams, Karin A Payne, Taralyn M McCarrel, Megan E Bowers, Diego Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. METHODS: Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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