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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437733/the-establishment-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-culture-and-drug-screening-systems-for-a-newly-isolated-strain-of-trypanosoma-equiperdum
#1
Keisuke Suganuma, Shino Yamasaki, Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe, Peter Simon Musinguzi, Batdorj Davaasuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Noboru Inoue
Dourine is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum via coitus with an infected horse. Although dourine is distributed in Equidae worldwide and is listed as an internationally important animal disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), no effective treatment strategies have been established. In addition, there are no reports on drug discovery, because no drug screening system exists for this parasite. A new T. equiperdum strain was recently isolated from the genital organ of a stallion that showed typical symptoms of dourine...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437629/design-and-development-of-benzoxazole-derivatives-with-toll-like-receptor-9-antagonism
#2
Swarnali Roy, Ayan Mukherjee, Barnali Paul, Oindrila Rahaman, Shounak Roy, Gundaram Maithri, Bandaru Ramya, Sourav Pal, Dipyaman Ganguly, Arindam Talukdar
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a major therapeutic target for numerous inflammatory disorders. Development of small molecule inhibitors for TLR9 remains largely empirical due to lack of structural understanding of potential TLR9 antagonism by small molecules and due to the unusual topology of the ligand binding surface of the receptor. To develop a structural model for rational design of small molecule TLR9 antagonists, an enhanced homology model of human TLR9 (hTLR9) was constructed. Binding mode analysis of a series of molecules having characteristic molecular geometry, flexibility and basicity was conducted based on crystal structure of the inhibitory DNA (iDNA) bound to horse and bovine TLR9...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437035/the-association-between-oral-examination-findings-and-the-computed-tomographic-appearance-of-the-equine-temporomandibular-joint
#3
J L Carmalt, H Simhofer, A Bienert-Zeit, J E Rawlinson, C L Waldner
BACKGROUND: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forms the junction between the maxilla and mandible. Movement of the jaw and resulting masticatory forces have been extensively studied in the horse; however, less is known about the inter-relationship between this joint and oral and dental pathology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between specific oral and dental pathologies and anatomical variations of the TMJ imaged with computed tomography (CT) in horses with asymptomatic TMJs...
April 24, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435532/x-ray-structure-of-the-carboplatin-loaded-apo-ferritin-nanocage
#4
Nicola Pontillo, Giarita Ferraro, John R Helliwell, Angela Amoresano, Antonello Merlino
The second-generation Pt anticancer agent carboplatin (CBDCA) was encapsulated within the apo horse spleen ferritin (AFt) nanocage, and the X-ray structure of the drug-loaded protein was refined at 1.49 Å resolution. Two Pt binding sites, different from the one observed in the cisplatin-encapsulated AFt, were identified in Ft subunits by inspection of anomalous electron density maps at two wavelengths and difference Fourier electron density maps, which provide the necessary sensitivity to discriminate between Pt from CBDCA and Cd ions that are present in the crystallization conditions...
April 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#5
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432750/effect-of-feeding-two-rrr-alpha-tocopherol-formulations-on-serum-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-muscle-alpha-tocopherol-concentrations-in-horses-with-subclinical-vitamin-e-deficiency
#6
J C Brown, S J Valberg, M Hogg, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: Alpha tocopherol (α-TP) supplementation is recommended for the prevention of various equine neuromuscular disorders. Formulations available include RRR-α-TP acetate powder and a more expensive but rapidly water-dispersible liquid RRR-α-TP (WD α-TP). A cost-effective means to rapidly increase serum and CSF α-TP with WD-α-TP and then sustain concentrations with RRR-α-TP acetate has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum, CSF and muscle α-TP concentrations in an 8-week dosing regimen where horses were transitioned from WD RRR-α-TP to RRR-α-TP acetate...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432741/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-two-omeprazole-formulations-on-stomach-ph-and-gastric-ulcer-scores
#7
S Raidal, F M Andrews, S G Nielsen, G Trope
REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Limited data are available on the relative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different omeprazole formulations. OBJECTIVES: To compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of a novel omeprazole formulation against a currently registered product. STUDY DESIGN: Masked two period, two treatment crossover. METHODS: Twelve clinically healthy horses were studied over two 6-day treatment periods...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432739/effect-of-a-4-week-elastic-resistance-band-training-regimen-on-back-kinematics-in-horses-trotting-in-hand-and-on-the-lunge
#8
T Pfau, V Simons, N Rombach, N Stubbs, R Weller
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training and rehabilitation techniques aiming at improving core muscle strength may result in increased dynamic stability of the equine vertebral column. A system of elastic resistance bands is suggested to provide proprioceptive feedback during motion to encourage recruitment of core abdominal and hindquarter musculature for improved dynamic stability. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of a specific resistance band system on back kinematics during trot in-hand and during lungeing at beginning and end of a 4-week exercise programme...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432484/complete-mitochondrial-genome-sequences-of-korean-native-horse-from-jeju-island-uncovering-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics
#9
Sook Hee Yoon, Jaemin Kim, Donghyun Shin, Seoae Cho, Woori Kwak, Hak-Kyo Lee, Kyoung-Do Park, Heebal Kim
The Korean native horse (Jeju horse) is one of the most important animals in Korean historical, cultural, and economical viewpoints. In the early 1980s, the Jeju horse was close to extinction. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogenomics of Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. We determined complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the first Korean native (n = 6) and additional Mongolian (n = 2) horses. Those sequences were analyzed together with 143 published ones using Bayesian coalescent approach as well as three different phylogenetic analysis methods, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430811/antimicrobial-resistance-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia-a-one-year-study
#10
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A Worthing, Jacqueline M Norris, Hui S Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430678/laboratory-animal-bite-anaphylaxis-a-national-survey-part-1-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Gregg M Stave, Edward H Lee, Dennis J Darcey
OBJECTIVE: This study documents previously unreported cases of laboratory animal bite anaphylaxis in animal laboratory facilities in the United States. METHODS: An online survey was e-mailed to designated institutional officials at laboratory animal facilities identified by the National Institutes of Health Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. RESULTS: One hundred ninety eight organizations responded and 15 organizations indicated that workers had experienced anaphylaxis following an animal bite...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429824/application-of-an-embryonated-chicken-egg-model-to-assess-the-vector-competence-of-australian-culicoides-midges-for-bluetongue-viruses
#12
M R VAN DER Saag, M P Ward, P D Kirkland
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of Australian Culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of BTV. A total of 7393 Culicoides brevitarsis were reared from bovine dung, and 3364 Culicoides were induced to feed from ECEs infected with different strains of BTV...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429732/long-term-stability-and-infectivity-of-herpesviruses-in-water
#13
Anisha Dayaram, Mathias Franz, Alexander Schattschneider, Armando M Damiani, Sebastian Bischofberger, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
For viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. There are many factors including pH, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. Equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. EHV-1 and recombinants of EHV-1 and EHV-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal species, particularly in captive settings...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425625/a-missense-mutation-in-damage-specific-dna-binding-protein-2-is-a-genetic-risk-factor-for-limbal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-horses
#14
Rebecca R Bellone, Jiayin Liu, Jessica L Petersen, Maura Mack, Moriel Singer-Berk, Cord Drögemüller, Julia Malvick, Barbara Wallner, Gottfried Brem, M Cecilia Penedo, Mary Lassaline
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of the equine eye, frequently originating at the limbus, with the potential to invade the cornea, cause visual impairment, and result in loss of the eye. Several breeds of horses have a high occurrence of limbal SCC implicating a genetic basis for limbal SCC predisposition. Pedigree analysis in the Haflinger breed supports a simple recessive mode of inheritance and a genome wide association study (N=23) identified a 1.5 Mb locus on ECA12 significantly associated with limbal SCC (Pcorrected = 0...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424664/spotted-fever-epidemiology-and-vector-rickettsia-host-relationship-in-rio-de-janeiro-state
#15
Diego C Montenegro, Karla Bitencourth, Stefan V de Oliveira, Ana P Borsoi, Karen M Cardoso, Maria S B Sousa, Cristina Giordano-Dias, Marinete Amorim, Nicolau M Serra-Freire, Gilberto S Gazêta, Reginaldo P Brazil
The eco-epidemiological scenario of spotted fever (SF), a tick-borne disease that affects humans and other animals in several countries around the world, was analyzed in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) State, Brazil. During the last 34 years, 990 SF cases were reported in RJ (the Brazilian state with the highest population density), including 116 cases confirmed by serology (RIFI) or PCR, among 42.39% of the municipalities with reported cases of SF. The epidemiologic dynamics of SF in RJ State are very heterogeneous in time and space, with outbreaks, high mortality rates and periods of epidemiological silence (no SF cases reported)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423874/the-relationship-between-the-variants-in-the-5-utr-of-ecg-genes-and-serum-ecg-levels
#16
ShuQin Liu, Song Lian, YunZhou Yang, ChunZheng Fu, HongYing Ma, ZhiYao Xiong, Yao Ling, ChunJiang Zhao
Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotrophic hormone secreted by endometrial cups of pregnant mare, which is used to induce follicular development. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) of eCG genes were screened across 10 horse breeds, including 7 Chinese indigenous breeds and 3 imported breeds. Four SNPs were identified in the 5'-UTR of the eCGα gene, and one of them was unique in the indigenous breeds. There were 2 SNPs detected at the 5' end of the eCGβ subunit gene, and one of them was only found in the Chinese breeds...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422370/leisure-riding-horses-research-topics-versus-the-needs-of-stakeholders
#17
REVIEW
Iwona Janczarek, Izabela Wilk
Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities...
April 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421276/erratum-to-the-laminar-organization-of-the-motor-cortex-in-monodactylous-mammals-a-comparative-assessment-based-on-horse-chimpanzee-and-macaque
#18
Bruno Cozzi, Andrea De Giorgio, A Peruffo, S Montelli, M Panin, C Bombardi, A Grandis, A Pirone, P Zambenedetti, L Corain, Alberto Granato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421046/horses-in-denmark-are-a-reservoir-of-diverse-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Md Zohorul Islam, Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Peter Damborg, Raphael N Sieber, Rikke Munk, Louise Husted, Arshnee Moodley, Robert Skov, Jesper Larsen, Luca Guardabassi
Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421038/bacteriophages-against-serratia-as-fish-spoilage-control-technology
#20
Igor Hernández
Bacteria of the genus Serratia, mainly S. proteamaculans and S. fonticola, are important spoilage agents in Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). In order to evaluate whether bacteriophages against Serratia could delay the spoilage process, 11 viral strains active against this genus were isolated from food and best candidate was applied to fresh mackerel filets. All the phages belong to the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families and were active at multiplicity of infection (MOI) levels below 1:1 in Long & Hammer broth...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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