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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335576/genome-wide-identification-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-sarcocystis-neurona-protein-kinases
#1
Edwin K Murungi, Henry M Kariithi
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans...
March 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335458/in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-in-vivo-anti-fatigue-effect-of-sea-horse-hippocampus-peptides
#2
Zebin Guo, Duanquan Lin, Juanjuan Guo, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng
This study investigated changes the in vitro antioxidant activity of Hippocampus polypeptides during enzymatic hydrolysis, including the effects of enzyme species, enzyme concentration, material-liquid ratio, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature of the reaction system. Its in vivo anti-fatigue activity was also studied. Hippocampus peptide prepared by papain digestion exhibited the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging rate (71.89% ± 1.50%) and strong hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (75...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334479/signal-induced-release-of-guests-from-a-photolatent-metal-phenolic-supramolecular-cage-and-its-hybrid-assemblies
#3
Chiyoung Park, Beom Joo Yang, Ki Beom Jeong, Chae Bin Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Bon-Cheol Ku
The coordination chemistry of plant polyphenols and metal ions can be used for coating various substrates and for creating modular superstructures. We herein explored this chemistry for the controlled release of guests from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). The selective adsorption of tannic acids (TAs) on MSN silica walls opens the MSN mesoporous channels without disturbing mass transport. The channel may be closed by the coordination of TA with Cu(II) ions. Upon exposure to light, photolysis of Trojan horse guests (photoacid generators, PAGs) leads to acid generation, which enables the release of payloads by decomposing the outer coordination shell consisting of TA and Cu(II) ...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334403/cognitive-estimation-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Federica Scarpina, Alessandro Mauro, Guido E D'Aniello, Giovani Albani, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Erika Ambiel, Sarah E MacPherson
Objective: The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used in clinical and research settings to assess the ability to produce reasonable estimates to items that individuals would not know that the exact answer (e.g., "How fast do race horses run?"). We examined the performance of non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients on the CET, because previous studies reported heterogeneous results about possible cognitive estimation impairments in PD. We also examined whether PD patients improve their performance if given the chance to reconsider their initial CET responses...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333983/alterations-in-amino-acid-status-in-cats-with-feline-dysautonomia
#5
Bruce C McGorum, Herb W Symonds, Clare Knottenbelt, Tom A Cave, Susan J MacDonald, Joanna Stratton, Irene Leon, Judith A Turner, R Scott Pirie
Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333298/occurrence-and-molecular-characteristics-of-esbl-ampc-producing-escherichia-coli-in-faecal-samples-from-horses-in-an-equine-clinic
#6
Ilias Apostolakos, Eelco Franz, Angela H A M van Hoek, Alice Florijn, Christiaan Veenman, Marianne M Sloet-van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Cindy Dierikx, Engeline van Duijkeren
Objectives: To investigate the occurrence and characteristics of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in faecal samples from horses at one equine clinic in the Netherlands. Methods: A total of 91 horses, including residents and patients, were sampled. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were identified by a combination disc diffusion test. Phylogenetic groups and MLST were determined. ESBL/AmpC genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by transformation and PCR-based replicon typing...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332648/west-nile-virus-epizootics-in-the-camargue-france-in-2015-and-reinforcement-of-surveillance-and-control-networks
#7
C Bahuon, C Marcillaud-Pitel, L Bournez, A Leblond, C Beck, J Hars, I Leparc-Goffart, G L'Ambert, M-C Paty, L Cavalerie, C Daix, P Tritz, B Durand, S Zientara, S Lecollinet
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a non-contagious disease mainly transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes from the genus Culex. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle, and can accidentally be transmitted to mammalian hosts. Among mammalian hosts, equines and humans are the most sensitive to WNV infection and can develop severe meningoencephalitis. As WNV infections are zoonotic and can be severe in humans and equines, West Nile fever is considered to be a public and animal health concern...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332640/leptospirosis-in-domestic-animals-in-france-serological-results-from-1988-to-2007
#8
G André-Fontaine
Leptospirosis is a common infection in domestic animals. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is used for serological diagnosis. From 1988 to 2007, the Leptospira Medical and Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory at the Nantes National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering used the MAT to test serum samples from more than 40,000 cattle, 40,000 pigs, 20,000 horses and 9,500 dogs. Five Leptospira serogroups were prominent, with specific variations within the four animal species: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroë, Grippotyphosa and Autumnalis...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332242/bilateral-oblique-facial-clefts-rudimentary-eyes-and-hydrocephalus-in-an-aborted-equine-foetus
#9
J S Agerholm, H G Pedersen, F J McEvoy, S Heegaard
Knowledge of congenital malformations and their causes in horses is generally sparse. Such conditions require more scientific attention to improve their diagnostics and inform prevention strategies. Here, a unique syndrome of bilateral oblique facial clefts (meloschisis), rudimentary eyes and hydrocephalus is reported in an equine foetus spontaneously aborted at gestation day 224. The cause of abortion was considered to be intrauterine death caused by umbilical cord torsions and subsequent compromised blood flow, but the aetiology of the malformation could not be determined...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331549/dynamics-of-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-during-pronuclear-development-in-equine-zygotes-produced-by-icsi
#10
Sonia Heras, Katrien Smits, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
BACKGROUND: Global epigenetic reprogramming is considered to be essential during embryo development to establish totipotency. In the classic model first described in the mouse, the genome-wide DNA demethylation is asymmetric between the paternal and the maternal genome. The paternal genome undergoes ten-eleven translocation (TET)-mediated active DNA demethylation, which is completed before the end of the first cell cycle. Since TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, the latter is postulated to be an intermediate stage toward DNA demethylation...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330916/climate-warming-and-humans-played-different-roles-in-triggering-late-quaternary-extinctions-in-east-and-west-eurasia
#11
Xinru Wan, Zhibin Zhang
Climate change and humans are proposed as the two key drivers of total extinction of many large mammals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, but disentangling their relative roles remains challenging owing to a lack of quantitative evaluation of human impact and climate-driven distribution changes on the extinctions of these large mammals in a continuous temporal-spatial dimension. Here, our analyses showed that temperature change had significant effects on mammoth (genus Mammuthus), rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), horse (Equidae) and deer (Cervidae)...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328166/treatment-of-subchondral-lucencies-in-the-medial-proximal-radius-with-a-bone-screw-in-8-horses
#12
Imma Roquet, J Lane Easter, Richard P C Coomer, Luis J Ezquerra, Chad A Marsh, Steve S Trostle, Elizabeth M Santschi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of screw placement through subchondral lucencies (SCL) of the proximal radius in 8 horses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. ANIMALS: Horses with cubital SCL causing lameness (n=8). METHODS: Medical record review and clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Eight horses with SCL in the proximal radius causing lameness were treated with a screw placed across the lucency...
March 22, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#13
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328147/effect-of-needle-diameter-on-the-viability-of-equine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Hayley M Lang, Lauren V Schnabel, Jennifer M Cassano, Lisa A Fortier
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently delivered via needle injection for treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle diameter on the viability of MSCs. METHODS: Equine bone marrow-derived MSCs from 5 horses were suspended in PBS, and held at room temperature for 7 hours to mimic shipping conditions. Two replicate samples for each needle size (20, 22, 23, or 25-gauge [ga]) were aspirated into a 3 mL syringe and re-injected into the holding vial 3 times, to reproduce the resuspension of cells prior to injection in clinical cases...
March 22, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327879/antibodies-against-apicomplexa-protozoa-and-absence-sarcocysts-in-heart-tissues-from-horses-in-southern-brazil
#15
Luiza Pires Portella, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Luis Antonio Sangioni, Luiz Fernando Vilani Pellegrini, Rafael Fighera, Fernanda Ramos, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are Apicomplexa protozoa that can infect horses. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and T. gondii in horses slaughtered in southern Brazil. The presence of histological lesions, tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis spp. DNA in the hearts of these horses was also investigated. A total of 197 paired serum and heart samples were evaluated by serology and direct microscopic examination; 50 of these samples were subjected to histopathological and PCR analyses...
March 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327557/deterministic-secure-quantum-communication-using-a-single-d-level-system
#16
Dong Jiang, Yuanyuan Chen, Xuemei Gu, Ling Xie, Lijun Chen
Deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) can transmit secret messages between two parties without first generating a shared secret key. Compared with quantum key distribution (QKD), DSQC avoids the waste of qubits arising from basis reconciliation and thus reaches higher efficiency. In this paper, based on data block transmission and order rearrangement technologies, we propose a DSQC protocol. It utilizes a set of single d-level systems as message carriers, which are used to directly encode the secret message in one communication process...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326309/space-allowance-of-the-littered-area-affects-lying-behavior-in-group-housed-horses
#17
Joan-Bryce Burla, Christina Rufener, Iris Bachmann, Lorenz Gygax, Antonia Patt, Edna Hillmann
Horses can sleep while standing; however, recumbency is required for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore essential. Previous research indicated a minimal duration of recumbency of 30 min per 24 h to perform a minimal duration of REM sleep. For group-housed horses, suitable lying area represents a potentially limited resource. In Switzerland, minimal dimensions for the space allowance of the littered area are therefore legally required. To assess the effect of different space allowances of the littered area on lying behavior, 38 horses in 8 groups were exposed to 4 treatments for 11 days each; T0: no litter provided, T0...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325183/antiherpetic-drugs-in-equine-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Lara K Maxwell
Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325182/antimicrobial-pharmacology-for-the-neonatal-foal
#19
REVIEW
K Gary Magdesian
Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325181/inhalation-therapy-in-horses
#20
REVIEW
Mandy L Cha, Lais R R Costa
This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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