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Kinship testing

Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Nikhil Bose, Katie Carlberg, George Sensabaugh, Henry Erlich, Cassandra Calloway
DNA from biological forensic samples can be highly fragmented and present in limited quantity. When DNA is highly fragmented, conventional PCR based Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis may fail as primer binding sites may not be present on a single template molecule. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) can serve as an alternative type of genetic marker for analysis of degraded samples because the targeted variation is a single base. However, conventional PCR based SNP analysis methods still require intact primer binding sites for target amplification...
February 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Ruiyang Tao, Jiashuo Zhang, Yingnan Bian, Rixia Dong, Xiling Liu, Chao Jin, Ruxin Zhu, Suhua Zhang, Chengtao Li
Due to the unique inheritance pattern, X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have several advantages in complex kinship cases, such as deficiency cases or grandparent-grandchild and half-sisters testing. In our study, 541 unrelated individuals gathered from Mongolian and Eastern Chinese Han populations were successfully genotyped using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. We calculated allele/haplotype frequencies and other forensic parameters of the two populations and further explored their genetic distance with already published Chinese populations and six global populations...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jesica Carina Guzmán-Alberto, Gabriela Martínez-Cortes, Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
Atypical situations arise during the constant resolution of paternity cases, which constitute challenges requiring additional genetic systems and non-standard methods. We report a paternity case presenting three alleged father (AF)-child incompatibilities for the markers TPOX, D2S441, and the indel locus B02 (11/11 vs 8/8; 14/14 vs 10/10; 2/2 vs1/1, respectively). Considering the presence of mutations/null alleles, the residual paternity indexes (PI) obtained with 23 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and 38 indels suggest that the AF is the father (PI = 1...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shao-Kang Mo, Zi-Lin Ren, Ya-Ran Yang, Ya-Cheng Liu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Hui-Juan Wu, Zhen Li, Xiao-Chen Bo, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Ming Ni
Kinship testing based on genetic markers, as forensic short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has valuable practical applications. Paternity and first-degree relationship can be accurately identified by current commonly-used forensic STRs and reported SNP markers. However, second-degree and more distant relationships remain challenging. Although ∼105 -106 SNPs can be used to estimate relatedness of higher degrees, genome-wide genotyping and analysis may be impractical for forensic use...
March 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Shantel A Martinez, Jayfred Godoy, Meng Huang, Zhiwu Zhang, Arron H Carter, Kimberly A Garland Campbell, Camille M Steber
Preharvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain on the mother plant under cool and wet conditions, is a recurring problem for wheat farmers worldwide. α-amylase enzyme produced during PHS degrades starch resulting in baked good with poor end-use quality. The Hagberg-Perten Falling Number (FN) test is used to measure this problem in the wheat industry, and determines how much a farmer's wheat is discounted for PHS damage. PHS tolerance is associated with higher grain dormancy. Thus, breeding programs use germination-based assays such as the spike-wetting test to measure PHS susceptibility...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
José F Domínguez-Contreras, Adrian Munguia-Vega, Bertha P Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Francisco J García-Rodríguez, Melanie Culver, Hector Reyes-Bonilla
The fishery for octopus in Northwest Mexico has increased to over 2,000 tons annually, but to date the specific composition of the catch has been ignored. With at least three main species targeted by artisanal fisheries in the region with distinct life histories, the lack of basic biological information about the distribution, metapopulation size and structure of each species could impede effective fisheries management to avoid overexploitation. We tested if different life histories of three species of octopus could help predict observed patterns of genetic diversity, population dynamics, structure and connectivity and how this information could be relevant to the sustainable management of the fishery...
2018: PeerJ
Mamiko Fukuta, Mohammed Hassan Gaballah, Hideaki Kato, Yasuhiro Aoki
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are useful for personal identification and kinship tests. However, it has not yet been fully established how to incorporate linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) into the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR). In this paper, we describe a simple calculation method of LR for X-STRs that incorporated linkage, LD, and mutations. Initially, Japanese population data of 27 X-STRs (DXS6807, DXS9902, DXS6795, DXS6810, DXS10076, DXS10077, DXS10078, DXS10162, DXS10163, DXS10164, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS10103, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS8377, DXS10147, and DXS7423) were collected from 748 unrelated individuals to estimate the influence of LD...
February 12, 2018: Legal Medicine
Siobhan Mattison, Christina Moya, Adam Reynolds, Mary C Towner
Cultural evolutionary theory and human behavioural ecology offer different, but compatible approaches to understanding human demographic behaviour. For much of their 30 history, these approaches have been deployed in parallel, with few explicit attempts to integrate them empirically. In this paper, we test hypotheses drawn from both approaches to explore how reproductive behaviour responds to cultural changes among Mosuo agriculturalists of China. Specifically, we focus on how age at last birth (ALB) varies in association with temporal shifts in fertility policies, spatial variation and kinship ecologies...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
M E García-Aceves, O Romero Rentería, X X Díaz-Navarro, H Rangel-Villalobos
National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaogang Chen, Yuancun Zhao, Shu Zhang, Zehua Gao, Yiwen Yang, Yufang Wang, Ji Zhang
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels), which combine the advantages of both short tandem repeats and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are suitable for parentage testing. To overcome the limitations of the low polymorphism of di-allelic indels, we constructed a set of haplotypes with physically linked, multi-allelic indels. Candidate haplotypes were selected from the 1000 Genomes Project database, and were subject to the following criteria for inclusion: (i) each marker must have a minimum allele frequency (MAF) of ≥0...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Hacer Durmus, Xin-Ming Shen, Piraye Serdaroglu-Oflazer, Bulent Kara, Yesim Parman-Gulsen, Coskun Ozdemir, Joan Brengman, Feza Deymeer, Andrew G Engel
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of hereditary disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Here, we present clinical, electrophysiological and genetic findings of 69 patients from 51 unrelated kinships from Turkey. Genetic tests of 60 patients were performed at Mayo Clinic. Median follow-up time was 9.8 years (range 1-22 years). The most common CMS was primary acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency (31/51) and the most common mutations in AChR were c.1219 + 2T > G (12/51) and c...
November 28, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Yanjun Zan, Örjan Carlborg
The adaptation to a new habitat often results in a confounding between genome-wide genotype and beneficial alleles. When the confounding is strong, or the allelic effects weak, it is a major statistical challenge to detect the adaptive polymorphisms. We describe a novel approach to dissect polygenic traits in natural populations. First, candidate adaptive loci are identified by screening for loci directly associated with the adaptive trait or the expression of genes known to affect it. Then, a multi-locus genetic architecture is inferred using a backward elimination association analysis across all candidate loci with an adaptive false discovery rate based threshold...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Mohamed A Almarri, Reem A Lootah
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are used to complement autosomal and Y-STRs in complex kinship testing, and can be of potential value when determining trace female DNA in male background. We analyzed extracted and directly-amplified samples of 501 males from the United Arab Emirates and report the forensic statistical parameters of 12 X-STRs and haplotypes of the four previously defined linkage groups using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. Combined PDM, PDF, MEC Desmarais Trio and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele (and haplotype) frequencies were 0...
December 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Y T Song, L Li, L N Zhang, R X Zhu, Y Liu, Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the genetic polymorphisms of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome in Eastern Chinese Han population, and evaluate their values in forensic application. METHODS: Genotyping of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome was studied in 205 unrelated males of Eastern Chinese Han population by multiplex PCR combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The allele frequencies on the loci to be tested were calculated by direct counting method, and the gene diversity (GD) and haplotype diversity (HD) were calculated by corresponding formulas...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Xinxin Zhao, B Shaun Bushman, Xinquan Zhang, Matthew D Robbins, Steven R Larson, Joseph G Robins, Aaron Thomas
Flowering occurs in response to cues from both temperature and photoperiod elicitors in cool-season, long-day forage grasses, and genes involved in sensing the elicitors and inducing downstream flowering responses have been associated with heading date and flowering time in perennial forage grasses as well as cereal grasses. In this study we test for association between orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) heading date and polymorphisms in the CONSTANS (DgCO1), FLOWERING TIME (DgFT1), a VRN1 like MADS-box (DgMADS), and PHOTOPERIOD (DgPPD1-like) containing genes...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
C Robino, D Lacerenza, S Aneli, C Di Gaetano, G Matullo, R Robledo, C Calò
The analysis of clusters of tightly linked X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) markers can assist the interpretation of complex kinship cases. However, when linkage disequilibrium (LD) is present in the population of origin of tested individuals, haplotype rather than allele frequencies should be used in likelihood calculations. The diversity of twelve X-STRs arranged in four linkage groups (I: DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378; II: DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074; III: DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101; IV: DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423) was tested in a Sardinian population sample (n=516) including three open populations from the Northern, Central and Southern part of the island, and three isolates (Benetutti, Desulo, Carloforte)...
March 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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