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Kinship testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765670/family-ties-the-multilevel-effects-of-households-and-kinship-on-the-networks-of-individuals
#1
Jeremy Koster
Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761484/inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-and-infidelity-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-bird
#2
Gabriela K Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Nicolas Margraf, Helen L Osmond, Craig A Walling, Loeske E B Kruuk
Inbreeding depression plays a major role in shaping mating systems: in particular, inbreeding avoidance is often proposed as a mechanism explaining extra-pair reproduction in socially-monogamous species. This suggestion relies on assumptions which are rarely comprehensively tested: that inbreeding depression is present, that higher kinship between social partners increases infidelity, and that infidelity reduces the frequency of inbreeding. Here, we test these assumptions using 26 years of data for a cooperatively-breeding, socially-monogamous bird with high female infidelity, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus)...
May 15, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757125/cross-cultural-comparison-of-genetic-and-cultural-transmission-of-smoking-initiation-using-an-extended-twin-kinship-model
#3
Hermine H Maes, Kate Morley, Michael C Neale, Kenneth S Kendler, Andrew C Heath, Lindon J Eaves, Nicholas G Martin
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. METHODS: We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design...
May 14, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739989/haplotypic-polymorphisms-and-mutation-rate-estimates-of-22-y-chromosome-strs-in-the-northern-chinese-han-father-son-pairs
#4
Yaran Yang, Weini Wang, Feng Cheng, Man Chen, Tong Chen, Jing Zhao, Chong Chen, Yan Shi, Chen Li, Chuguang Chen, Yacheng Liu, Jiangwei Yan
Y chromosome Short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) analysis has been widely used in forensic identification, kinship testing, and population evolution. An accurate understanding of haplotype and mutation rate will benefit these applications. In this work, we analyzed 1123 male samples from Northern Chinese Han population which including 578 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs at 22 Y-STRs loci. A total of 537 haplotypes were observed and the overall haplotype diversity was calculated as 1.0000 ± 0.0001. Except that only two haplotypes were observed twice, all the rest of the 535 were unique...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706796/measuring-extended-families-over-time-in-informal-settlements-in-nairobi-kenya-retention-and-data-consistency-in-a-two-round-survey
#5
Sangeetha Madhavan, Donatien Beguy, Shelley Clark, Caroline Kabiru
BACKGROUND: Researchers have increasingly turned to longitudinal data to understand how the family environment of children changes over time and how this change affects their well-being. While the value of such efforts is clear, the inherent challenges of collecting robust data over time may limit or bias our understanding of family complexity. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on data from an exploratory study on kinship structure and support for low income single mothers and their young children in Nairobi, Kenya, this paper aims to (1) assess the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in reflecting the complexities of kinship dynamics and (2) analyze how methodological issues such as selection and reporting inconsistency can influence our understanding of the role of kin in children's lives...
January 2018: Demographic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671163/the-influence-of-kinship-and-dominance-hierarchy-on-grooming-partner-choice-in-free-ranging-macaca-mulatta-brevicaudus
#6
Cheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Jie Liao, Cedric Sueur, John Chih Mun Sha, Jie Zhang, Peng Zhang
In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships...
April 18, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627917/autosomal-short-tandem-repeat-variations-and-population-genetic-data-on-23-systems-in-seven-major-subpopulations-from-lebanon
#7
Ansar El Andari, Mira Khazzouh, Issam Mansour
Population allele frequency is an indicator of population genetic diversity and plays significant roles in DNA profiling interpretation in human identification, kinship, and forensic testing. The Lebanese population is a mosaic of 18 religious communities with high rates of consanguinity and endogamy. Allele frequencies for 23 STR loci were estimated and analyzed in the seven major Lebanese religious subcommunities (Muslims Shiaa, Sunni, and Druze, and Christians Orthodox, Maronite, and Catholics), to assess possible significant differences among their STR allele frequencies...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625275/mutation-analysis-of-19-commonly-used-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-guangdong-han-population
#8
Cheng Xiao, Zhiyong Peng, Feilong Chen, Hui Yan, Bofeng Zhu, Yunchun Tai, Pingming Qiu, Chao Liu, Xuheng Song, Zihao Wu, Ling Chen
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most widely used genetic markers in current forensic practice. However, STR mutations have troubled paternity test all the time. To ensure the accuracy in parentage testing, it is important to obtain population mutation data and identify factors that affect STR mutation rates. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on 322 mutation events in 19 autosomal STR loci from 12,752 meiotic events in 9,626 parentage test cases. The average mutation rate for the 19 STR loci was estimated at 1...
March 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588179/assessment-of-a-subset-of-slowly-mutating-y-strs-for-forensic-and-evolutionary-studies
#9
Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Patricia Villaescusa, Urko Ortueta, Nerea Ibarbia, Rene J Herrera, José Luis Blazquez-Caeiro, Juan José Builes, Susana Jiménez-Moreno, Begoña Martínez-Jarreta, Marian M de Pancorbo
Y-specific short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci display different mutation rates and consequently are suitable for forensic, genealogical, and evolutionary studies that require different levels of timelines and resolution. Recent efforts have focused on implementing Rapidly Mutating (RM) Y-STRs to assess male specific profiles. However, due to their high mutation rate their use in kinship testing or in phylogenetic studies may be less reliable. In the present study, a novel Slowly Mutating Y-STR (SM) panel, including DYS388, DYS426, DYS461 (Y-GATA-A7...
March 20, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566001/migratory-culture-population-structure-and-stock-identity-in-north-pacific-beluga-whales-delphinapterus-leucas
#10
Greg O'Corry-Crowe, Robert Suydam, Lori Quakenbush, Brooke Potgieter, Lois Harwood, Dennis Litovka, Tatiana Ferrer, John Citta, Vladimir Burkanov, Kathy Frost, Barbara Mahoney
The annual return of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, to traditional seasonal locations across the Arctic may involve migratory culture, while the convergence of discrete summering aggregations on common wintering grounds may facilitate outbreeding. Natal philopatry and cultural inheritance, however, has been difficult to assess as earlier studies were of too short a duration, while genetic analyses of breeding patterns, especially across the beluga's Pacific range, have been hampered by inadequate sampling and sparse information on wintering areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542801/new-technique-in-facial-reconstruction-the-case-of-giovanni-battista-morgagni
#11
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
May 1, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524767/target-capture-enrichment-of-nuclear-snp-markers-for-massively-parallel-sequencing-of-degraded-and-mixed-samples
#12
Nikhil Bose, Katie Carlberg, George Sensabaugh, Henry Erlich, Cassandra Calloway
DNA from biological forensic samples can be highly fragmented and present in limited quantity. When DNA is highly fragmented, conventional PCR based Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis may fail as primer binding sites may not be present on a single template molecule. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) can serve as an alternative type of genetic marker for analysis of degraded samples because the targeted variation is a single base. However, conventional PCR based SNP analysis methods still require intact primer binding sites for target amplification...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523825/investigation-of-12-x-str-loci-in-mongolian-and-eastern-han-populations-of-china-with-comparison-to-other-populations
#13
Ruiyang Tao, Jiashuo Zhang, Yingnan Bian, Rixia Dong, Xiling Liu, Chao Jin, Ruxin Zhu, Suhua Zhang, Chengtao Li
Due to the unique inheritance pattern, X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have several advantages in complex kinship cases, such as deficiency cases or grandparent-grandchild and half-sisters testing. In our study, 541 unrelated individuals gathered from Mongolian and Eastern Chinese Han populations were successfully genotyped using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. We calculated allele/haplotype frequencies and other forensic parameters of the two populations and further explored their genetic distance with already published Chinese populations and six global populations...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515868/kinship-underlies-costly-cooperation-in-mosuo-villages
#14
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514963/relatedness-decreases-and-reciprocity-increases-cooperation-in-norway-rats
#15
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511852/inference-of-maternal-uniparental-disomy-of-the-entire-chromosome-2-from-a-paternity-test
#16
Jesica Carina Guzmán-Alberto, Gabriela Martínez-Cortes, Héctor Rangel-Villalobos
Atypical situations arise during the constant resolution of paternity cases, which constitute challenges requiring additional genetic systems and non-standard methods. We report a paternity case presenting three alleged father (AF)-child incompatibilities for the markers TPOX, D2S441, and the indel locus B02 (11/11 vs 8/8; 14/14 vs 10/10; 2/2 vs1/1, respectively). Considering the presence of mutations/null alleles, the residual paternity indexes (PI) obtained with 23 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and 38 indels suggest that the AF is the father (PI = 1...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510334/a-472-snp-panel-for-pairwise-kinship-testing-of-second-degree-relatives
#17
Shao-Kang Mo, Zi-Lin Ren, Ya-Ran Yang, Ya-Cheng Liu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Hui-Juan Wu, Zhen Li, Xiao-Chen Bo, Sheng-Qi Wang, Jiang-Wei Yan, Ming Ni
Kinship testing based on genetic markers, as forensic short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has valuable practical applications. Paternity and first-degree relationship can be accurately identified by current commonly-used forensic STRs and reported SNP markers. However, second-degree and more distant relationships remain challenging. Although ∼105 -106 SNPs can be used to estimate relatedness of higher degrees, genome-wide genotyping and analysis may be impractical for forensic use...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491876/genome-wide-association-mapping-for-tolerance-to-preharvest-sprouting-and-low-falling-numbers-in-wheat
#18
Shantel A Martinez, Jayfred Godoy, Meng Huang, Zhiwu Zhang, Arron H Carter, Kimberly A Garland Campbell, Camille M Steber
Preharvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain on the mother plant under cool and wet conditions, is a recurring problem for wheat farmers worldwide. α-amylase enzyme produced during PHS degrades starch resulting in baked good with poor end-use quality. The Hagberg-Perten Falling Number (FN) test is used to measure this problem in the wheat industry, and determines how much a farmer's wheat is discounted for PHS damage. PHS tolerance is associated with higher grain dormancy. Thus, breeding programs use germination-based assays such as the spike-wetting test to measure PHS susceptibility...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472993/life-histories-predict-genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-within-three-species-of-octopus-targeted-by-small-scale-fisheries-in-northwest-mexico
#19
José F Domínguez-Contreras, Adrian Munguia-Vega, Bertha P Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Francisco J García-Rodríguez, Melanie Culver, Hector Reyes-Bonilla
The fishery for octopus in Northwest Mexico has increased to over 2,000 tons annually, but to date the specific composition of the catch has been ignored. With at least three main species targeted by artisanal fisheries in the region with distinct life histories, the lack of basic biological information about the distribution, metapopulation size and structure of each species could impede effective fisheries management to avoid overexploitation. We tested if different life histories of three species of octopus could help predict observed patterns of genetic diversity, population dynamics, structure and connectivity and how this information could be relevant to the sustainable management of the fishery...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455040/a-simple-method-for-calculating-the-likelihood-ratio-in-a-kinship-test-using-x-chromosomal-markers-incorporating-linkage-linkage-disequilibrium-and-mutation
#20
Mamiko Fukuta, Mohammed Hassan Gaballah, Hideaki Kato, Yasuhiro Aoki
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are useful for personal identification and kinship tests. However, it has not yet been fully established how to incorporate linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) into the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR). In this paper, we describe a simple calculation method of LR for X-STRs that incorporated linkage, LD, and mutations. Initially, Japanese population data of 27 X-STRs (DXS6807, DXS9902, DXS6795, DXS6810, DXS10076, DXS10077, DXS10078, DXS10162, DXS10163, DXS10164, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA172D05, DXS10103, HPRTB, GATA31E08, DXS8377, DXS10147, and DXS7423) were collected from 748 unrelated individuals to estimate the influence of LD...
February 12, 2018: Legal Medicine
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