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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808816/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-cognitive-function-in-chinese-adult-twins
#1
Chunsheng Xu, Dongfeng Zhang, Yili Wu, Xiaocao Tian, Zengchang Pang, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Multiple loci or genes have been identified using genome-wide association studies mainly in western countries but with inconsistent results. No similar studies have been conducted in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. The paper aimed to identify the specific genetic variants associated with cognitive function in middle and old-aged Chinese dizygotic twins (DZ). Cognitive function was measured on 139 pairs of DZ by Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The subjects were genotyped at 1048575 SNP positions...
August 14, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730502/establishment-of-11-linked-x-str-loci-within-1-1-mb-to-assist-with-kinship-testing
#2
James Chun-I Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Li-Chin Tsai, Yu-Jen Yu, Keng-Hsien Liao, Adrian Linacre, Hsing-Mei Hsieh
This report identifies and characterizes 10 novel short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome, all of which are within a range of 1.1 Mb. These newly characterized loci were developed to aid in kinship assignment when the X chromosome is specifically required. The repeat DNA sequences were identified initially using data in GenBank and are located immediately upstream and downstream from the previously described locus DXS6807. Only those loci with seven or more observed alleles were used for further study resulting in the identification of 10 new loci...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709755/validity-and-usefulness-of-the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale-in-carers-of-people-with-dementia-evidence-from-confirmatory-factor-analysis-concurrent-validity-and-measurement-invariance-in-a-large-sample
#3
Joshua Stott, Martin Orrell, Georgina Charlesworth
OBJECTIVE: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a self-report measure of anxiety and depression. It is recommended for clinical assessment and has been used as the primary outcome in large clinical trials with carers of people with dementia. Its validity and utility have never been examined in this population. The current study addresses this. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of baseline data from a recent intervention trial (N = 284) with cross-validation in baseline data from a second trial (N = 230), the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a one-, two-, or three-factor structure best fit the data and used indices of model misspecification to respecify...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627836/dna-based-identification-of-a-carbonized-victim-by-kinship-analysis
#4
Raluca Dumache, Alexandru F Rogobete, Veronica Ciocan, Camelia O Muresan, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Our study will present the DNA identification of a carbonized victim using the DNA genotyping and by comparing the victim's DNA genotype with his parents' genotypes. METHODS: Blood obtained from the heart chambers was used for the identification of the carbonized body's genotype. Biological samples were also obtained by buccal swabs from his biological parents. We used an ABI 7500 real-time PCR system for quantification and a ProFlex PCR System to amplify...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614352/a-novel-iterative-mixed-model-to-remap-three-complex-orthopedic-traits-in-dogs
#5
Meng Huang, Jessica J Hayward, Elizabeth Corey, Susan J Garrison, Gabriela R Wagner, Ursula Krotscheck, Kei Hayashi, Peter A Schweitzer, George Lust, Adam R Boyko, Rory J Todhunter
Hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), and rupture of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament (RCCL) are the most common complex orthopedic traits of dogs and all result in debilitating osteoarthritis. We reanalyzed previously reported data: the Norberg angle (a quantitative measure of HD) in 921 dogs, ED in 113 cases and 633 controls, and RCCL in 271 cases and 399 controls and their genotypes at ~185,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. A novel fixed and random model with a circulating probability unification (FarmCPU) function, with marker-based principal components and a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification, was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547630/distinguishing-family-from-friends-implicit-cognitive-differences-regarding-general-dispositions-attitude-similarity-and-group-membership
#6
Rick O'Gorman, Ruth Roberts
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508743/mycobacterium-kansasii-isolated-from-tuberculinpositive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-in-the-absence-of-disease
#7
Steven T Shipley, David K Johnson, Morteza Roodgar, David Glenn Smith, Charles A Montgomery, Steven M Lloyd, James A Higgins, Edwin H Kriel, Hilton J Klein, William P Porter, Jerome B Nazareno, Paul W Houghton, Aruna Panda, Louis J DeTolla
Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitoredand screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii thatexhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes;the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease...
May 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441879/willingness-to-invest-in-children-psychological-kinship-estimates-and-emotional-closeness
#8
Jan Antfolk, Linda C Karlsson, Johanna Söderlund, Anna Szala
In general, adults invest more in related children compared to unrelated children. To test whether this pattern reflects variations in psychological kinship estimates (i.e., putative relatedness weighted by certainty in relatedness), willingness to invest in children belonging to different categories (direct offspring, nieces/nephews, stepchildren, and friends' children) was measured in a population-based sample of 1,012 adults. Respondents reported more willingness to invest in their own biological children, than in other related children (nieces and nephews), or in stepchildren and friends' children...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395866/cardiac-amyloidosis-phenotype-associated-with-a-glu89lys-transthyretin-mutation
#9
Pierre R Bourque, Arleigh R McCurdy, Lisa M Mielniczuk, Carole Dennie, John P Veinot, Jodi Warman Chardon
We report a 45-year-old man with rapidly progressive cardiac amyloidosis, who required heart transplantation within 2 years of symptomatic onset. Hematologic testing and initial tissue biopsy results confirmed amyloid infiltration but were inconclusive for the amyloidogenic protein source. Mass spectroscopy and transthyretin (TTR) sequencing were required to reach a diagnosis of TTR amyloidosis resulting from a Glu89Lys mutation. Although a predominantly neuropathic phenotype has previously been described with this mutation, the present kinship documents a primarily cardiac presentation...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386691/identification-of-a-common-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-at-the-primer-binding-site-of-d2s1360-that-causes-heterozygote-peak-imbalance-when-using-the-investigator-hdplex-kit
#10
Shota Inokuchi, Yasuhiro Yamashita, Kazuma Nishimura, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Kazuyuki Saito
Phenomena known as null alleles and peak imbalance can occur because of mutations in the primer binding sites used for DNA typing. In these cases, an accurate statistical evaluation of DNA typing is difficult. The estimated likelihood ratio is incorrectly calculated because of the null allele and allele dropout caused by mutation-induced peak imbalance. Although a number of studies have attempted to uncover examples of these phenomena, few reports are available on the human identification kit manufactured by Qiagen...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380400/key-individuals-for-discerning-pedigrees-belonging-to-the-same-autosomal-kinship-class
#11
Joana Gonçalves, Eduardo Conde-Sousa, Thore Egeland, António Amorim, Nadia Pinto
The existence of pedigrees belonging to the same kinship class (i.e. indistinguishable through independent markers) is well known in the forensic community, and theoretical frameworks for autosomal and X-chromosomal markers were already developed for a pair of individuals. Nevertheless, studies for the cases where a greater number of individuals is available for testing are still lacking. With this work, we intend to pave the way for a theoretical and general framework, identifying the individuals/relatives that should be chosen to distinguish autosomal analyses between such pedigrees...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350248/impact-of-life-stories-on-college-students-positive-and-negative-attitudes-toward-older-adults
#12
Takashi Yamashita, Sarah J Hahn, Jennifer M Kinney, Leonard W Poon
Gerontological educators are increasingly interested in reducing college students' negative, and promoting their positive, attitudes toward older adults. Over the course of a semester, students from six 4-year institutions viewed three life story videos (documentaries) of older adults and completed pre- and posttest surveys that assessed their positive (Allophilia Scale) and negative (Fraboni Scale of Ageism) attitudes. The authors assessed changes in attitudinal scales between treatment (with videos, n = 80) and control (no video, n = 40) groups...
March 28, 2017: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342368/set-up-of-cutoff-thresholds-for-kinship-determination-using-snp-loci
#13
Sohee Cho, Eun Soon Shin, Hyung Jin Yu, Ji Hyun Lee, Hee Jin Seo, Moon Young Kim, Soong Deok Lee
The usefulness of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for kinship testing has been demonstrated in many case works, and suggested as a promising marker for relationship identification. For interpreting results based on the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR) in kinship testing, it is important to prepare cutoffs for respective relatives which are dependent on genetic relatedness. For this, analysis using true pedigree data is significant and reliable as it reflects the actual frequencies of markers in the population...
July 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334007/a-functional-variant-in-neph3-gene-confers-high-risk-of-renal-failure-in-primary-hematuric-glomerulopathies-evidence-for-predisposition-to-microalbuminuria-in-the-general-population
#14
Konstantinos Voskarides, Charalambos Stefanou, Myrtani Pieri, Panayiota Demosthenous, Kyriakos Felekkis, Maria Arsali, Yiannis Athanasiou, Dimitris Xydakis, Kostas Stylianou, Eugenios Daphnis, Giorgos Goulielmos, Petros Loizou, Judith Savige, Martin Höhne, Linus A Völker, Thomas Benzing, Patrick H Maxwell, Daniel P Gale, Mathias Gorski, Carsten Böger, Barbara Kollerits, Florian Kronenberg, Bernhard Paulweber, Michalis Zavros, Alkis Pierides, Constantinos Deltas
BACKGROUND: Recent data emphasize that thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) should not be viewed as a form of benign familial hematuria since chronic renal failure (CRF) and even end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a possible development for a subset of patients on long-term follow-up, through the onset of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We hypothesize that genetic modifiers may explain this variability of symptoms. METHODS: We looked in silico for potentially deleterious functional SNPs, using very strict criteria, in all the genes significantly expressed in the slit diaphragm (SD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#15
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
May 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295030/plarmeb-integration-of-least-angle-regression-with-empirical-bayes-for-multilocus-genome-wide-association-studies
#16
J Zhang, J-Y Feng, Y-L Ni, Y-J Wen, Y Niu, C L Tamba, C Yue, Q Song, Y-M Zhang
Multilocus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with complex traits. However, implementation of multilocus model in GWAS is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical Bayes to perform multilocus GWAS under polygenic background control. We used an algorithm of model transformation that whitened the covariance matrix of the polygenic matrix K and environmental noise...
June 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281323/demerelate-calculating-inter-individual-relatedness-for-kinship-analysis-based-on-co-dominant-diploid-genetic-markers-using-r
#17
Philipp Kraemer, Gabriele Gerlach
The Demerelate package offers algorithms to calculate different inter-individual relatedness measurements. Three different allele sharing indices, five pairwise weighted estimates of relatedness and four pairwise weighted estimates with sample size correction are implemented to analyze kinship structures within populations. Statistics are based on randomization tests; modeling relatedness coefficients by logistic regression, modeling relatedness with geographic distance by mantel correlation and comparing mean relatedness between populations using pairwise t-tests...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276048/stable-and-fluctuating-social-preferences-and-implications-for-cooperation-among-female-bonobos-at-luikotale-salonga-national-park-drc
#18
Liza R Moscovice, Pamela Heidi Douglas, Laura Martinez-Iñigo, Martin Surbeck, Linda Vigilant, Gottfried Hohmann
OBJECTIVES: Female bonobos (Pan paniscus) are characterized as highly affiliative and cooperative, but few studies have quantified the strength and stability of female intra-sexual relationships or explored how variation in social relationships influences cooperation. We measure female social preferences, identify causes of variation in preferences, and test whether variation in social preferences predicts food sharing or coalitionary support. METHODS: Data were collected over 3 years from females in the Bompusa community at LuiKotale, DRC...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246934/forensic-characteristics-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-chinese-yi-population-via-19-x-chromosomal-str-loci
#19
GuangLin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Ping Li, PengYu Chen, Feng Song, Tianzhen Gao, Miao Liao, Jing Yan, Jin Wu
The demographic characteristics and genetic polymorphism data of 56 Chinese nationalities or 31 administrative divisions in Chinese mainland have repeatedly been the genetic research hotspots. While most genetic studies focused on some particular Chinese populations based on autosomal or Y-chromosomal genetic markers, the forensic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the seventh largest Chinese population (Yi ethnicity) on the X-chromosomal genetic markers are scarce. Here, allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters for 19 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (DXS7424-DXS101, DXS6789-DXS6809, DXS7423-DXS10134, DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101, DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164, DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, and DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075) of 331 Chinese Yi individuals were obtained...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243771/analysis-of-four-novel-x-chromosomal-short-tandem-repeats-within-71%C3%A2-kb-of-the-xp22-3-region
#20
Takeki Nishi, Kenji Fukui, Kimiharu Iwadate
DNA testing using X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) polymorphisms has been used in maternity/paternity and complex kinship cases. Analyses of repeat sequences, surveys on racial statistics, and development of practical applications for DNA testing continue to be reported. In this study, we identified four novel tetranucleotide STR loci located in the X chromosome, which is the basis of X-STR research. These four tetranucleotide STRs were located within 71 kb of the chromosome Xp22.3 region. Using sequence analysis of the structure of repeat sequences, we identified simple repeat sequences of TAAA, CTTT, TATC, and GATA with rare insertions...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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