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Kinship testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150355/evaluation-of-systematic-position-of-helicoprorodontids-and-chaeneids-ciliophora-litostomatea-an-attempt-to-break-long-branches-in-18s-rrna-gene-phylogenies
#1
Peter Vďačný, Matej Rataj
Phylogenetic position of some free-living litostomatean taxa has not been correctly determined because of long-branch artifacts in 18S rRNA gene trees. The main aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various masking algorithms, tree-building techniques, binarization of DNA data as well as combining morphological and molecular data to eliminate long-branch attraction of two problematic groups, helicoprorodontids and chaeneids. Guidance and SlowFaster masking in a combination with PhyloBayesian tree construction erased the artifactual positions of helicoprorodontids and chaeneids...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139166/moving-beyond-the-household-innovations-in-data-collection-on-kinship
#2
Sangeetha Madhavan, Shelley Clark, Donatien Beguy, Caroline W Kabiru, Mark Gross
Across settings, it has been shown that the co-residential household is an insufficient measure of family structure and support. However, it continues to be the primary means of population data collection. To address this problem, we developed a new instrument, the Kinship Support Tree (KST), to collect kinship structure and support data on co-residential and non-residential kin and tested it on a sample of 462 single mothers and their children in a slum community in Nairobi, Kenya. This instrument is unique in four important ways: (1) it is not limited to the co-residential household; (2) it distinguishes potential from functional kin; (3) it incorporates multiple geospatial measures; and (4) it collects data on kin relationships specifically for children...
March 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101915/early-medieval-stone-lined-graves-in-southern-germany-analysis-of-an-emerging-noble-class
#3
Andreas Rott, Nils Turner, Ulrike Scholz, Kristin von Heyking, Franziska Immler, Joris Peters, Jochen Haberstroh, Michaela Harbeck
OBJECTIVES: Stone-lined graves, which first appear in Bavarian territory during the 7(th) century AD, are assumed to be tombs of emerging nobility. While previous research on stone-lined grave goods supports their status as elite burials, an important factor defining nobility-kinship-has not been examined so far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of the commingled skeletal remains of 21 individuals from three archaeological sites was carried out. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on these individuals to gain information on usage intervals of these graves...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101646/pedigree-based-relationship-inference-from-complex-dna-mixtures
#4
Guro Dørum, Navreet Kaur, Mario Gysi
We present a general method for analysing DNA mixtures involving relatives that accounts for dropout and drop-in, mutations, silent alleles and population substructure. Whether the aim is to identify the contributors to a mixture who may be related, or to determine the relationship between individuals based on a DNA mixture, both types of problems can be handled by the method and software presented here. We focus on the latter scenario, motivated by non-invasive prenatal paternity testing where the profile of the child is available only in the form of a mixture with the mother's profile...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101645/forensic-parameters-of-19-x-str-polymorphisms-in-two-chinese-populations
#5
Chuncao Deng, Feng Song, Jienan Li, Yi Ye, Lushun Zhang, Weibo Liang, Haibo Luo, Yingbi Li
Application of X-STRs as complements of autosomal STR application in the forensic genetics has become a tendency for kinship testing, especially in deficiency paternity cases. Recently, a novel kit of 19 X-STR loci was developed, which permitted the analysis of 19 STR in the same PCR reaction, and these markers can be clustered into seven groups for the physical linkage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allele and haplotype diversity of 19 X-STR loci in the Uygur (n = 220) and Tibetan nationality (n = 270) and to estimate the usefulness for complex kinship analysis...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#6
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089226/-coping-and-subjective-burden-in-primary-caregivers-of-dependent-elderly-relatives-in-andalusia-spain
#7
Margarita Pérez-Cruz, M Ángeles Muñoz-Martínez, Laura Parra-Anguita, Rafael Del-Pino-Casado
PURPOSE: To analyse the relationship between the type of coping and subjective burden in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia (Spain). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LOCATION: Primary Health Care (autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain). PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 198 primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. KEY MEASUREMENTS: Coping (Brief COPE), subjective burden (caregiver stress index), objective burden (functional capacity [Barthel Index], cognitive impairment [Pfeiffer Test], behavioural problems of the care recipient [Neuropsychiatric Inventory], and caregivers' dedication to caring), gender and kinship...
January 11, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050399/the-effect-of-consanguineous-marriage-on-mental-health-among-the-students-of-the-shahrekord-university-of-medical-sciences
#8
Maryam Hosseinpour, Fatemeh Deris, Kamal Solati-Dehkordi, Sheida Heidari-Soreshjani, Negar Karimi, Hossein Teimori
INTRODUCTION: In Iran, after unintentional accidents, mental health problems are the second leading burden of disease. Consanguineous marriage is very common in Iran and the association between parental consanguinity and mental health is an important issue that has not yet been studied sufficiently in Iran. AIM: To investigate the effect of consanguinity and the degree of relationship on different levels of mental health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, two groups of students were enrolled...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035273/does-cooperation-mean-kinship-between-spatially-discrete-ant-nests
#9
Duncan S Procter, Joan E Cottrell, Kevin Watts, Stuart W A'Hara, Michael Hofreiter, Elva J H Robinson
Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027654/self-resemblance-and-social-rejection
#10
Carly A Parsons, Jill A Jacobson, D B Krupp
Humans perceive and treat self-resembling others in ways that suggest that self-resemblance is a cue of kinship. However, we know little about how individuals respond to treatment by self-resembling others. Here we approach this problem by connecting facial self-resemblance to social rejection. Given that individuals should expect to cooperate with kin, we hypothesized that (1) social inclusion by perceived kin should elicit lesser feelings of rejection and (2) social exclusion by perceived kin should elicit greater feelings of rejection relative to inclusion or exclusion, respectively, by nonkin...
October 2016: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024842/congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-in-israel-genetic-and-clinical-characterization
#11
Sharon Aharoni, Menachem Sadeh, Yehuda Shapira, Simon Edvardson, Muhannad Daana, Talia Dor-Wollman, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Ayelet Halevy, Rony Cohen, Liora Sagie, Zohar Argov, Malcolm Rabie, Ronen Spiegel, Ilana Chervinsky, Naama Orenstein, Andrew G Engel, Yoram Nevo
The objective of the study was to evaluate the epidemiology of patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in Israel. Targeted mutation analysis was performed based on the clinical symptoms and electrophysiological findings for known CMS. Additional specific tests were performed in patients of Iranian and/or Iraqi Jewish origin. All medical records were reviewed and clinical data, genetic mutations and outcomes were recorded. Forty-five patients with genetic mutations in known CMS genes from 35 families were identified...
February 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994531/kinship-testing-based-on-snps-using-microarray-system
#12
Sohee Cho, Hee Jin Seo, Jihyun Lee, Hyung Jin Yu, Soong Deok Lee
BACKGROUND: Kinship testing using biallelic SNP markers has been demonstrated to be a promising approach as a supplement to standard STR typing, and several systems, such as pyrosequencing and microarray, have been introduced and utilized in real forensic cases. The Affymetrix microarray containing 169 autosomal SNPs developed for forensic application was applied to our practical case for kinship analysis that had remained inconclusive due to partial STR profiles of degraded DNA and possibility of inbreeding within the population...
November 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990039/foster-care-placement-change-the-role-of-family-dynamics-and-household-composition
#13
Jeffrey Waid, Brianne H Kothari, Lew Bank, Bowen McBeath
Sibling co-placement and kinship care have each been shown to protect against the occurrence of placement change for youth in substitute care. However, little is known about the effects of different combinations of sibling placement and relative caregiver status on placement change. Nor does the field fully understand how family dynamics may differ in these households. Utilizing data from the Supporting Siblings in Foster Care study, this paper examines family dynamics across four typologies of living composition, and tests the effects of living composition membership on the odds of experiencing a placement change over an 18-month period of time...
September 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978606/level-of-genetic-differentiation-affects-relative-performances-of-expressed-sequence-tag-and-genomic-ssrs
#14
Aurélie Khimoun, Anthony Ollivier, Bruno Faivre, Stéphane Garnier
Microsatellites, also called simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are markers of choice to estimate relevant parameters for conservation genetics, such as migration rates, effective population size and kinship. Cross-amplification of SSRs is the simplest way to obtain sets of markers, and highly conserved SSRs have recently been developed from expressed sequence tags (EST) to improve SSR cross-species utility. As EST-SSRs are located in coding regions, the higher stability of their flanking regions reduces the frequency of null alleles and improves cross-species amplification...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951431/developmental-validation-of-a-custom-panel-including-273-snps-for-forensic-application-using-ion-torrent-pgm
#15
Suhua Zhang, Yingnan Bian, Anqi Chen, Hancheng Zheng, Yuzhen Gao, Yiping Hou, Chengtao Li
Utilizing massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology for SNP testing in forensic genetics is becoming attractive because of the shortcomings of STR markers, such as their high mutation rates and disadvantages associated with the current PCR-CE method as well as its limitations regarding multiplex capabilities. MPS offers the potential to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples in a single experimental run. In this study, we designed a customized SNP panel that includes 273 forensically relevant identity SNPs chosen from SNPforID, IISNP, and the HapMap database as well as previously related studies and evaluated the levels of genotyping precision, sequence coverage, sensitivity and SNP performance using the Ion Torrent PGM...
December 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943406/fast-genome-wide-qtl-association-mapping-on-pedigree-and-population-data
#16
Hua Zhou, John Blangero, Thomas D Dyer, Kei-Hang K Chan, Kenneth Lange, Eric M Sobel
Since most analysis software for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) currently exploit only unrelated individuals, there is a need for efficient applications that can handle general pedigree data or mixtures of both population and pedigree data. Even datasets thought to consist of only unrelated individuals may include cryptic relationships that can lead to false positives if not discovered and controlled for. In addition, family designs possess compelling advantages. They are better equipped to detect rare variants, control for population stratification, and facilitate the study of parent-of-origin effects...
December 12, 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942375/coping-with-potential-bi-parental-inbreeding-limited-pollen-and-seed-dispersal-and-large-genets-in-the-dioecious-marine-angiosperm-thalassia-testudinum
#17
Brigitta Ine Van Tussenbroek, Tania Valdivia-Carrillo, Irene Teresa Rodríguez-Virgen, Sylvia Nashieli Marisela Sanabria-Alcaraz, Karina Jiménez-Durán, Kor Jent Van Dijk, Guadalupe Judith Marquez-Guzmán
The high prevalence of dioecy in marine angiosperms or seagrasses (>50% of all species) is thought to enforce cross-fertilization. However, seagrasses are clonal plants, and they may still be subject to sibling-mating or bi-parental inbreeding if the genetic neighborhood is smaller than the size of the genets. We tested this by determining the genetic neighborhoods of the dioecious seagrass Thalassia testudinum at two sites (Back-Reef and Mid-Lagoon) in Puerto Morelos Reef Lagoon, Mexico, by measuring dispersal of pollen and seeds in situ, and by fine-scale spatial autocorrelation analysis with eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940613/evaluation-of-possible-proximate-mechanisms-underlying-the-kinship-theory-of-intragenomic-conflict-in-social-insects
#18
David A Galbraith, Soojin V Yi, Christina M Grozinger
Kinship theory provides a universal framework in which to understand the evolution of altruism, but there are many molecular and genetic mechanisms that can generate altruistic behaviors. Interestingly, kinship theory specifically predicts intragenomic conflict between maternally-derived alleles (matrigenes) and paternally-derived alleles (patrigenes) over the generation of altruistic behavior in cases where the interests of the matrigenes and patrigenes are not aligned. Under these conditions, individual differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior are predicted to arise from differential expression of the matrigenes and patrigenes (parent-specific gene expression or PSGE) that regulate selfish versus altruistic behaviors...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933412/genetic-diversity-study-on-12-x-str-loci-of-investigator%C3%A2-argus-x-str-kit-in-bangladeshi-population
#19
Abu Sufian, Md Ismail Hosen, Kaniz Fatema, Tania Hossain, Md Mahamud Hasan, Ashish Kumar Mazumder, Sharif Akhteruzzaman
The X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci are of particular interest for solving complex kinship and paternity cases. Here, we report the genetic data from 209 unrelated Bangladeshi individuals (102 males and 107 females) that were genotyped using the 12 X-chromosomal STR markers included in the Investigator® Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen). The 12 X-STR markers are located in four linkage groups (linkage group I: DXS10135, DXS10148, and DXS8378; linkage group II: DXS7132, DXS10079, and DXS10074; linkage group III: DXS10103, HPRTB, and DXS10101; and linkage group IV: DXS10146, DXS10134, and DXS7423)...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931869/a-genetic-overview-of-atlantic-coastal-populations-from-europe-and-north-west-africa-based-on-a-17-x-str-panel
#20
Endika Prieto-Fernández, Ana Díaz-de Usera, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Faiza Chbel, Sellama Nadifi, Karen Rouault, Claude Férec, Orla Hardiman, Fátima Pinheiro, Marian M de Pancorbo
The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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