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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346616/racial-differences-in-family-health-history-knowledge-of-type-2-diabetes-exploring-the-role-of-interpersonal-mechanisms
#1
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305242/allelic-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#2
Mohamed A Almarri, Reem A Lootah
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are used to complement autosomal and Y-STRs in complex kinship testing, and can be of potential value when determining trace female DNA in male background. We analyzed extracted and directly-amplified samples of 501 males from the United Arab Emirates and report the forensic statistical parameters of 12 X-STRs and haplotypes of the four previously defined linkage groups using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. Combined PDM, PDF, MEC Desmarais Trio and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele (and haplotype) frequencies were 0...
December 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230986/-sixty-six-biallelic-genetic-markers-on-y-chromosome-by-maldi-tof-ms
#3
Y T Song, L Li, L N Zhang, R X Zhu, Y Liu, Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the genetic polymorphisms of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome in Eastern Chinese Han population, and evaluate their values in forensic application. METHODS: Genotyping of 66 biallelic genetic markers on Y chromosome was studied in 205 unrelated males of Eastern Chinese Han population by multiplex PCR combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The allele frequencies on the loci to be tested were calculated by direct counting method, and the gene diversity (GD) and haplotype diversity (HD) were calculated by corresponding formulas...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223336/association-of-candidate-genes-with-heading-date-in-a-diverse-dactylis-glomerata-population
#4
Xinxin Zhao, B Shaun Bushman, Xinquan Zhang, Matthew D Robbins, Steven R Larson, Joseph G Robins, Aaron Thomas
Flowering occurs in response to cues from both temperature and photoperiod elicitors in cool-season, long-day forage grasses, and genes involved in sensing the elicitors and inducing downstream flowering responses have been associated with heading date and flowering time in perennial forage grasses as well as cereal grasses. In this study we test for association between orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) heading date and polymorphisms in the CONSTANS (DgCO1), FLOWERING TIME (DgFT1), a VRN1 like MADS-box (DgMADS), and PHOTOPERIOD (DgPPD1-like) containing genes...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221994/allele-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-sardinia
#5
C Robino, D Lacerenza, S Aneli, C Di Gaetano, G Matullo, R Robledo, C Calò
The analysis of clusters of tightly linked X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) markers can assist the interpretation of complex kinship cases. However, when linkage disequilibrium (LD) is present in the population of origin of tested individuals, haplotype rather than allele frequencies should be used in likelihood calculations. The diversity of twelve X-STRs arranged in four linkage groups (I: DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378; II: DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074; III: DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101; IV: DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423) was tested in a Sardinian population sample (n=516) including three open populations from the Northern, Central and Southern part of the island, and three isolates (Benetutti, Desulo, Carloforte)...
December 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181734/pleiotropy-of-cardiometabolic-syndrome-with-obesity-related-anthropometric-traits-determined-using-empirically-derived-kinships-from-the-busselton-health-study
#6
Gemma Cadby, Phillip E Melton, Nina S McCarthy, Marcio Almeida, Sarah Williams-Blangero, Joanne E Curran, John L VandeBerg, Jennie Hui, John Beilby, A W Musk, Alan L James, Joseph Hung, John Blangero, Eric K Moses
Over two billion adults are overweight or obese and therefore at an increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Obesity-related anthropometric traits genetically correlated with CMS may provide insight into CMS aetiology. The aim of this study was to utilise an empirically derived genetic relatedness matrix to calculate heritabilities and genetic correlations between CMS and anthropometric traits to determine whether they share genetic risk factors (pleiotropy). We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on 4671 Busselton Health Study participants...
November 27, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177801/methodological-challenges-to-the-evaluation-of-interventions-for-foster-kinship-carers-and-children-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Adam Dickes, Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs, John McAloon
Caregivers of children in alternative care face a complex range of challenges that can result in placement disruption and poor long-term outcomes. Interventions designed to help carers meet these challenges report positive outcomes. Nevertheless, several reviewers have reported these positive results may be mitigated by limitations in trial methodology. This review aims to systematically review these methodological challenges and limitations, to provide an analysis of the current state of the evidence base for these interventions...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073100/kinship-and-familiarity-mitigate-costs-of-social-conflict-between-seychelles-warbler-neighbors
#8
Kat Bebbington, Sjouke A Kingma, Eleanor A Fairfield, Hannah L Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, Lewis G Spurgin, David S Richardson
Because virtually all organisms compete with others in their social environment, mechanisms that reduce conflict between interacting individuals are crucial for the evolution of stable families, groups, and societies. Here, we tested whether costs of social conflict over territorial space between Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are mitigated by kin-selected (genetic relatedness) or mutualistic (social familiarity) mechanisms. By measuring longitudinal changes in individuals' body mass and telomere length, we demonstrated that the fitness costs of territoriality are driven by a complex interplay between relatedness, familiarity, local density, and sex...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048537/group-living-and-male-dispersal-predict-the-core-gut-microbiome-in-wild-baboons
#9
Laura E Grieneisen, Josh Livermore, Susan Alberts, Jenny Tung, Elizabeth A Archie
The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer between social groups (e...
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#10
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024923/a-ghep-isfg-collaborative-study-on-the-genetic-variation-of-38-autosomal-indels-for-human-identification-in-different-continental-populations
#11
R Pereira, C Alves, M Aler, A Amorim, C Arévalo, E Betancor, D Braganholi, M L Bravo, P Brito, J J Builes, G Burgos, E F Carvalho, A Castillo, C I Catanesi, R M B Cicarelli, P Coufalova, P Dario, M E D'Amato, S Davison, J Ferragut, M Fondevila, S Furfuro, O García, A Gaviria, I Gomes, E González, A Gonzalez-Liñan, T E Gross, A Hernández, Q Huang, S Jiménez, L F Jobim, A M López-Parra, M Marino, S Marques, G Martínez-Cortés, V Masciovecchio, D Parra, G Penacino, M F Pinheiro, M J Porto, Y Posada, C Restrepo, T Ribeiro, L Rubio, A Sala, A Santurtún, L S Solís, L Souto, E Streitemberger, A Torres, C Vilela-Lamego, J J Yunis, I Yurrebaso, L Gusmão
A collaborative effort was carried out by the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) to promote knowledge exchange between associate laboratories interested in the implementation of indel-based methodologies and build allele frequency databases of 38 indels for forensic applications. These databases include populations from different countries that are relevant for identification and kinship investigations undertaken by the participating laboratories...
September 22, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985730/clinical-utility-of-the-low-density-infinium-qc-genotyping-array-in-a-genomics-based-diagnostics-laboratory
#12
Petr Ponomarenko, Alex Ryutov, Dennis T Maglinte, Ancha Baranova, Tatiana V Tatarinova, Xiaowu Gai
BACKGROUND: With 15,949 markers, the low-density Infinium QC Array-24 BeadChip enables linkage analysis, HLA haplotyping, fingerprinting, ethnicity determination, mitochondrial genome variations, blood groups and pharmacogenomics. It represents an attractive independent QC option for NGS-based diagnostic laboratories, and provides cost-efficient means for determining gender, ethnic ancestry, and sample kinships, that are important for data interpretation of NGS-based genetic tests. METHODS: We evaluated accuracy and reproducibility of Infinium QC genotyping calls by comparing them with genotyping data of the same samples from other genotyping platforms, whole genome/exome sequencing...
October 6, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973747/anthropization-as-a-determinant-factor-in-the-genetic-structure-of-copernicia-prunifera-arecaceae
#13
L G Pinheiro, K P T Chagas, A S M Freire, M C Ferreira, C G Fajardo, F A Vieira
This study uses ISSR molecular markers to characterize the demographic pattern, and spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages of development (cohorts) in a natural population of Copernicia prunifera in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. All individuals were sampled and georeferenced in a 0.55-ha plot. The demographic analyses showed a clustered pattern in the first-distance classes and a random or segregated pattern at higher distance classes for all cohorts. Among the three studied life stages, juveniles showed the greatest value for Nei's genetic diversity index (HE = 0...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961250/estimation-of-kinship-coefficient-in-structured-and-admixed-populations-using-sparse-sequencing-data
#14
Jinzhuang Dou, Baoluo Sun, Xueling Sim, Jason D Hughes, Dermot F Reilly, E Shyong Tai, Jianjun Liu, Chaolong Wang
Knowledge of biological relatedness between samples is important for many genetic studies. In large-scale human genetic association studies, the estimated kinship is used to remove cryptic relatedness, control for family structure, and estimate trait heritability. However, estimation of kinship is challenging for sparse sequencing data, such as those from off-target regions in target sequencing studies, where genotypes are largely uncertain or missing. Existing methods often assume accurate genotypes at a large number of markers across the genome...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925528/relatedness-of-wildlife-and-livestock-avian-isolates-of-the-nosocomial-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii-to-lineages-spread-in-hospitals-worldwide
#15
Gottfried Wilharm, Evelyn Skiebe, Paul G Higgins, Marie T Poppel, Ulrike Blaschke, Sarah Leser, Christine Heider, Magdalena Heindorf, Paul Brauner, Udo Jäckel, Karin Böhland, Christiane Cuny, Andżelina Łopińska, Piotr Kaminski, Mariusz Kasprzak, Marcin Bochenski, Olaf Ciebiera, Marcin Tobółka, Katarzyna M Żołnierowicz, Joachim Siekiera, Harald Seifert, Stéphanie Gagné, Suzana P Salcedo, Michael Kaatz, Franziska Layer, Jennifer K Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Torsten Semmler, Yvonne Pfeifer, Leszek Jerzak
The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. Here, we put forth and tested the hypothesis of avian reservoirs of A. baumannii. We screened tracheal and rectal swab samples from livestock (chicken, geese) and wild birds (white stork nestlings) and isolated A. baumannii from 3% of sampled chicken (n = 220), 8% of geese (n = 40) and 25% of white stork nestlings (n = 661). Virulence of selected avian A. baumannii isolates was comparable to that of clinical isolates in the Galleria mellonella infection model...
October 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891385/trauma-informed-parenting-classes-delivered-to-rural-kinship-parents-a-pilot-study
#16
Karen J Foli, Stephanie Woodcox, Susan Kersey, Lingsong Zhang, Brooke Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Without an informed approach, kinship parents, often grandparents, may struggle to effectively interact with their children who have experienced trauma. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the overall impact and acceptability of a trauma-informed parenting curriculum delivered to 16 rural-dwelling kinship parents. Nursing faculty partnered with Cooperative Extension Educators to deliver this curriculum, developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868577/x-chromosomal-str-based-genetic-structure-of-sichuan-tibetan-minority-ethnicity-group-and-its-relationships-to-various-groups
#17
Guanglin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Ying Zhang, Hepei Li, Mengge Wang, Jin Wu
The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) with more informative than autosomal STRs in some complicated biological relationships identification due to its specific mode of genetic transmission can be used as a complementary tool in forensic case practices. In this study, we presented the population genetic data of 19 X-STRs, consisting of DXS10174, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS101, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, and HPRTB loci, in a sample of 235 individuals of Tibetan nationality from Sichuan province, Southwest China...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868569/genetic-analysis-of-12-x-str-loci-in-the-serbian-population-from-vojvodina-province
#18
Igor Veselinović, Dušan Vapa, Mihajla Djan, Nevena Veličković, Tanja Veljović, Galina Petrić
The analysis of 12 X-STR loci included in the Investigator® Argus X-12 kit was performed on a sample of 325 unrelated persons from Vojvodina Province, Republic of Serbia. No significant differences were observed in the allele frequencies in males and females. Heterozygosity values among the studied loci ranged from 67.62 to 94.28%. All loci in female individuals were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test. The combined power of discrimination values in male and female individuals was 0.9999999994 and 0...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858674/genetic-characterization-of-guinea-bissau-using-a-12-x-chromosomal-str-system-inferences-from-a-multiethnic-population
#19
Iva Gomes, Plácido J P Pereira, Sonja Harms, Andréa M Oliveira, Peter M Schneider, António Brehm
A male West African sample from Guinea-Bissau (West-African coast) was genetically analyzed using 12 X chromosomal short tandem repeats that are grouped into four haplotype groups. Linkage disequilibrium was tested (p≤0.0008) and association was detected for the majority of markers in three out of the four studied haplotype clusters. The sample of 332 unrelated individuals analyzed in this study belonged to several recognized ethnic groups (n=18) which were used to evaluate the genetic variation of Guinea-Bissau's population...
August 24, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854191/use-of-noninvasive-bug-eggs-to-enable-comparative-inferences-on-genetic-mating-system-with-and-without-parental-information-a-study-in-a-cattle-egret-colony
#20
Carolina Isabel Miño, Elaine Dantas de Souza, Emmanuel Moralez-Silva, Talita Alvarenga Valdes, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues, Sílvia Nassif Del Lama
Colonial waterbirds such as herons, egrets and spoonbills exhibit ecological characteristics that could have promoted the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism and extra-pair copulation. However, an adequate characterization of the genetic mating systems of this avian group has been hindered by the lack of samples of elusive candidate parents which precluded conducting conventional parentage allocation tests. Here, we investigate the genetic mating system of the invasive cattle egret using hematophagous insects contained in fake eggs to collect blood from incubating adults in a wild breeding colony...
2017: PloS One
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