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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213940/estimating-mating-rates-in-wild-drosophila-melanogaster-females-by-decay-rates-of-male-reproductive-proteins-in-their-reproductive-tracts
#1
Thomas J Giardina, Andrew G Clark, Anthony C Fiumera
Female Drosophila melanogaster frequently mate with multiple males in nature as shown through parentage analysis. Although polyandry is well documented, we know little about the timing between mating events in wild Drosophila populations due to the challenge of following behaviors of individual females. In this study we used the presence of a male reproductive protein that is transferred to the female during mating (Sex Peptide, SP) to determine whether she had recently mated. We sampled females throughout the day, conducted control matings to determine the decay rate of SP within the female reproductive tract and performed computer simulations to fit the observed proportion of mated females to a non-homogenous Poisson process that defined the expected time between successive matings for a given female...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170027/snp-discovery-and-characterisation-in-white-rhino-ceratotherium-simum-with-application-to-parentage-assignment
#2
Christiaan Labuschagne, Desiré L Dalton, J Paul Grobler, Antoinette Kotzé
The white rhino is one of the great success stories of modern wildlife conservation, growing from as few as 50-100 animals in the 1880s, to approximately 20,000 white rhinoceros remaining today. However, illegal trade in conservational rhinoceros horns is adding constant pressure on remaining populations. Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species using molecular methods can contribute to improving the management of the species. Here we compare for the first time the utility of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine microsatellites (MS) in isolation and in combination for assigning parentage in captive White Rhinoceros...
February 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095776/genetic-and-economic-benefits-of-selection-based-on-performance-recording-and-genotyping-in-lower-tiers-of-multi-tiered-sheep-breeding-schemes
#3
Bruno F S Santos, Julius H J van der Werf, John P Gibson, Timothy J Byrne, Peter R Amer
BACKGROUND: Performance recording and genotyping in the multiplier tier of multi-tiered sheep breeding schemes could potentially reduce the difference in the average genetic merit between nucleus and commercial flocks, and create additional economic benefits for the breeding structure. METHODS: The genetic change in a multiple-trait breeding objective was predicted for various selection strategies that included performance recording, parentage testing and genomic selection...
January 17, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049866/genetic-diversity-of-the-yonaguni-horse-based-on-polymorphisms-in-microsatellites-and-mitochondrial-dna
#4
Natsuko Senju, Teruaki Tozaki, Hironaga Kakoi, Akihisa Shinjo, Ryota Matsuyama, Julio Almunia, Masaki Takasu
Thirty-two microsatellites and a mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of endangered Yonaguni horses were analyzed to establish a pedigree registration system and to understand their genetic diversity for planning effective conservation. Blood samples were collected from 78 of the 130 horses in existence, and DNA was extracted and genotyped. There were two major findings. One is that it is possible to use microsatellites for Yonaguni horse pedigree registration in the future because the power of exclusion of parentage testing is reliable at 0...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018637/from-resource-to-female-defence-the-impact-of-roosting-ecology-on-a-bat-s-mating-strategy
#5
Linus Günther, Marlena D Lopez, Mirjam Knörnschild, Kyle Reid, Martina Nagy, Frieder Mayer
With their extraordinary species richness and diversity in ecological traits and social systems, bats are a promising taxon for testing socio-ecological hypotheses in order to get new insights into the evolution of animal social systems. Regarding its roosting habits, proboscis bats form an extreme by occupying sites which are usually completely exposed to daylight (e.g. tree trunks, vines or rocks). This is accompanied by morphological and behavioural adaptations to remain cryptic in exposed day roosts. With long-term behavioural observations and genetic parentage analyses of individually marked proboscis bats, we assessed its social dispersion and male mating strategy during day and night...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992828/validation-of-the-microreader%C3%A2-23sp-id-system-a-new-str-23-plex-system-for-forensic-application
#6
Jienan Li, Haibo Luo, Feng Song, Lushun Zhang, Chuncao Deng, Zailiang Yu, Tianzhen Gao, Miao Liao, Yiping Hou
Microreader™ 23sp ID system is a new 23-plex STR genotyping system that amplified 21 non-CODIS STR loci (D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D7S3048, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D12S391, D2S1338, D17S1290 and D5S2500), one CODIS STR locus (D16S539) and the amelogenin locus in one reaction. Microreader™ 23sp ID system was validated according to the guidelines of "Validation Guidelines for DNA Analysis Methods (2012)" described by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), including PCR-based studies, sensitivity study, precision and accuracy evaluation, stutter percentage and peak height ratio, inhibitors, species specificity and DNA mixture studies...
December 12, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902727/hybrid-origins-of-citrus-varieties-inferred-from-dna-marker-analysis-of-nuclear-and-organelle-genomes
#7
Tokurou Shimizu, Akira Kitajima, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, Satoshi Ohta, Shingo Goto, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takako Mochizuki, Hideki Nagasaki, Eli Kaminuma, Yasukazu Nakamura
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890101/genetic-polymorphism-studies-on-22-autosomal-str-loci-of-the-powerplex-fusion-system-in-bangladeshi-population
#8
Tania Hossain, Mahamud Hasan, Ashish K Mazumder, Pilu Momtaz, Abu Sufian, Jabedul Alam Khandaker, Sharif Akhteruzzaman
Genetic polymorphism of 22 autosomal STR loci included in PowerPlex® Fusion System (D3S1358, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, FGA and D22S1045) was studied in 188 unrelated Bangladeshi Bengali individuals. Allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters such as, the power of discrimination (PD), observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho & He), polymorphism information content (PIC), probability of match (PM), power of exclusion (PE) and typical paternity index was calculated for the loci...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864914/the-lek-mating-system-of-the-worm-pipefish-nerophis-lumbriciformis-a-molecular-maternity-analysis-and-test-of-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis
#9
N M Monteiro, D Carneiro, A Antunes, N Queiroz, M N Vieira, A G Jones
The origin and maintenance of mating preferences continues to be an important and controversial topic in sexual selection research. Leks and lek-like mating systems, where individuals gather in particular spots for the sole purpose of mate choice, are particularly puzzling, because the strong directional selection imposed by mate choice should erode genetic variation among competing individuals and negate any benefit for the choosing sex. Here, we take advantage of the lek-like mating system of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) to test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis for the maintenance of mating preferences...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851802/str-profiling-for-discrimination-between-wild-and-domestic-swine-specimens-and-between-main-breeds-of-domestic-pigs-reared-in-belarus
#10
Krzysztof Rębała, Alina A Rabtsava, Svetlana A Kotova, Viachaslau N Kipen, Natalja V Zhurina, Alla I Gandzha, Iosif S Tsybovsky
A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851753/nature-vs-nurture-evidence-for-social-learning-of-conflict-behaviour-in-grizzly-bears
#11
Andrea T Morehouse, Tabitha A Graves, Nate Mikle, Mark S Boyce
The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822853/genetic-fingerprinting-using-microsatellite-markers-in-a-multiplex-pcr-reaction-a-compilation-of-methodological-approaches-from-primer-design-to-detection-systems
#12
Jacqueline Krüger, Dorit Schleinitz
Microsatellites are polymorphic DNA loci comprising repeated sequence motifs of two to five base pairs which are dispersed throughout the genome. Genotyping of microsatellites is a widely accepted tool for diagnostic and research purposes such as forensic investigations and parentage testing, but also in clinics (e.g. monitoring of bone marrow transplantation), as well as for the agriculture and food industries. The co-amplification of several short tandem repeat (STR) systems in a multiplex reaction with simultaneous detection helps to obtain more information from a DNA sample where its availability may be limited...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816851/investigator-%C3%A2-hdplex-qiagen-reference-population-database-for-forensic-use-in-argentina
#13
Gustavo Martínez, Alicia Borosky, Daniel Corach, Cintia Llull, Laura Locarno, Mercedes Lojo, Miguel Marino, María Cecilia Miozzo, Nidia Modesti, Carla Pacharoni, Juan Pablo Pilili, María Isabel Ramella, Andrea Sala, Cecilia Schaller, Carlos Vullo, Ulises Toscanini
Currently, autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers represent the method of election in forensic human identification. Commercial kits of most common use nowadays -e.g. PowerPlex(®)Fusion, Promega Corp.; AmpFlSTR GlobalFiler, Thermofisher scientific; Investigator 24Plex QS,Qiagen-, allow the co-amplification of 23 highly polymorphic STR loci providing a high discrimination power in human identity testing. However, in complex kinship analysis and familial database searches involving distant relationships, additional DNA typing is often required in order to achieve well-founded conclusions...
January 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795462/genetic-characterization-of-the-miyako-horse-based-on-polymorphisms-of-microsatellites-and-mitochondrial-dna
#14
Natsuko Senju, Teruaki Tozaki, Hironaga Kakoi, Julio Almunia, Masami Maeda, Ryota Matsuyama, Masaki Takasu
To help plan conservation of the endangered Miyako horse, a biological resource of the Miyako Islands in Japan, we characterized the genetics of the breed by genotyping 32 microsatellites and identifying mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. We also calculated genetic distances between individuals based on the proportion of shared alleles and visualized the genetic relationships with a phylogenetic tree. Two important results were obtained. One is that accurate pedigree registration of the horse by using microsatellites is possible, as the exclusion power of parentage testing is 0...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785383/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-the-clonal-shrub-orixa-japonica-rutaceae-using-454-sequencing
#15
Ichiro Tamaki, Suzuki Setsuko, Kyoko Sugai, Nao Yanagisawa
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0...
October 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777746/dermatosparaxis-in-two-limousin-calves
#16
Catherine I Carty, Alison M Lee, Nathan A E Wienandt, Edward L Stevens, Derron A Alves, John A Browne, Jill Bryan, Eoin G Ryan, Joseph P Cassidy
BACKGROUND: An unusual presentation of skin disease was identified in two related neonatal Pedigree Limousin calves presented to University Veterinary Hospital, University College Dublin, following detailed post mortem examination a diagnosis of dermatosparaxis was made. Dermatosparaxis in animals or Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, which is the analogous condition seen in humans, is a connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme skin fragility. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such a diagnosis in the Limousin breed and the features of this lethal phenotype were severe in comparison to previous reports of the condition...
2016: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764130/first-results-in-the-use-of-bovine-ear-notch-tag-for-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-detection-and-genetic-analysis
#17
Christian Quinet, Guy Czaplicki, Elise Dion, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, Anke Kurz, Claude Saegerman
BACKGROUND: Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688959/polymorphic-dna-microsatellite-markers-for-forensic-individual-identification-and-parentage-analyses-of-seven-threatened-species-of-parrots-family-psittacidae
#18
Catherine Jan, Luca Fumagalli
The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557731/spatial-patterns-of-self-recruitment-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-relation-to-island-scale-retention-mechanisms
#19
Ricardo Beldade, Sally J Holbrook, Russell J Schmitt, Serge Planes, Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment 'connectivity' with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe spatial and temporal variation in self-recruitment of the anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus, evaluate the consistency of net dispersal distances of self-recruits against the null expectation of passive particle dispersal and test the hypothesis that larvae originating in certain reef habitats (lagoons and passes) would be retained and thus more likely to self-recruit than those originating on the outer (fore) reef...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547526/development-and-characterization-of-novel-microsatellite-markers-by-next-generation-sequencing-for-the-blue-and-red-shrimp-aristeus-antennatus
#20
Sandra Heras, Laia Planella, Ilaria Caldarazzo, Manuel Vera, José-Luis García-Marín, Maria Ines Roldán
The blue and red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, is a commercially important crustacean, in the Mediterranean Sea, which has been listed as a priority species for fishery management. Hypervariable microsatellite markers could be a useful tool to identify genetic stocks among geographically close fishing grounds. Potential microsatellite markers (97) identified from next-generation sequencing of an individual shrimp using a 454 GS Junior Pyrosequencer were tested on a preliminary panel of 15 individuals representing the four worldwide genetic stocks of the species from which 35 polymorphic loci were identified and used to characterize an additional 20 individuals from the Western Mediterranean Sea...
2016: PeerJ
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