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Parentage testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313099/genetic-variation-and-forensic-characterization-of-highland-tibetan-ethnicity-reveled-by-autosomal-str-markers
#1
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299300/an-integrative-mating-system-assessment-of-a-nonmodel-economically-important-pacific-rockfish-sebastes-melanops-reveals-nonterritorial-polygamy-and-conservation-implications-for-a-large-species-flock
#2
Kurt W Karageorge, Raymond R Wilson
Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222636/identification-introgression-and-molecular-marker-genetic-analysis-and-selection-of-a-highly-effective-novel-oat-crown-rust-resistance-from-diploid-oat-avena-strigosa
#3
Howard W Rines, Marisa E Miller, Martin Carson, Shiaoman Chao, Tyler Tiede, Jochum Wiersma, Shahryar F Kianian
Oat crown rust is one of the most damaging diseases of oat. We identified a new source of resistance and developed KASP and TaqMan markers for selection in breeding programs. A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plants are resistant with no virulent isolates encountered in over 8 years of testing...
December 6, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219265/-formula-derivation-and-validation-of-probability-of-exclusion-in-the-cases-of-standard-triplet-parentage-testing
#4
M Zhou, H Q Zhang, J Wang
OBJECTIVES: To derive and experiment validate the probability of exclusion (PE) formulas in the cases of standard triplet parentage testing. METHODS: The formulas were derived voluntarily based on the PE definition: [Formula: see text]. This formula was compared with the 5 formulas (1)-(5) reported previously, and the PE values of 19 autosomal STR loci in AGCU EX20 system were calculated. Based on 1 000 samples of single-parentage cases and 1 000 unrelated individuals, the real experiment was designed and the real experiment results of PE were calculated...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206981/variable-molecular-markers-for-the-order-mantophasmatodea-insecta
#5
Serena E Dool, Sven Künzel, Martin Haase, Mike D Picker, Monika J B Eberhard
The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of colour polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection and potentially sensory speciation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197426/phenotypic-and-genotypic-monitoring-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzanian-schoolchildren-five-years-into-a-preventative-chemotherapy-national-control-programme
#6
Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre, Sara R Marques, Poppy H L Lamberton, Nicholas J Lwambo, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of profound medical importance. Current control focusses on mass praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of populations in endemic areas, termed Preventative Chemotherapy (PC). Large-scale PC programmes exert prolonged selection pressures on parasites with the potential for, direct and/or indirect, emergence of drug resistance. Molecular methods can help monitor genetic changes of schistosome populations over time and in response to drug treatment, as well as estimate adult worm burdens through parentage analysis...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154001/tri-allelic-patterns-of-strs-and-partially-homologous-non-sister-chromatid-crossover-observed-in-a-parentage-test
#7
Huiyong Jiao, He Ren, Yaran Yang, Bin Ni, Haiyan Zhou, Wei Chen, Yunwang Cao, Chuguang Chen, Yanmei Huang, Jiangwei Yan
A maternity testing case is reported, in which the child showed tri-allelic patterns in two short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The genotypes of Penta D of the mother and the child were 9,13 and 9,10,13, respectively. Those of D21S11 were 32.2,35 and 29,35, respectively, but intensity ratio of alleles 29 and 35 of the child was 1:2. These results suggested the copy number variations (CNVs) or trisomy of chromosome 21. By further examination using STR-based chromosome aneuploidy detection kit, three alleles were detected in D21S1411, LFG21 and Penta D, and 2 alleles with intensity ratio of 1:2 were observed in D21S2502, D21S1435, D21S11 and D21S1246...
October 28, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151856/a-pedigree-based-experiment-reveals-variation-in-salinity-and%C3%A2-thermal-tolerance-in-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#8
Lina Eva Robin Ljungfeldt, María Quintela, François Besnier, Frank Nilsen, Kevin Alan Glover
The salmon louse is a highly abundant ectoparasitic copepod of salmonids in the North Pacific and Atlantic. Widespread and rapid development of resistance to chemical agents used to delouse salmonids on marine farms is now threatening the continued development of the aquaculture industry and have served as a potent catalyst for the development of alternative pest management strategies. These include freshwater and warm-water treatments to which the louse is sensitive. However, given the well-documented evolutionary capacity of this species, the risk of developing tolerance towards these environmental treatments cannot be dismissed...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953941/paternity-assignment-in-the-polyploid-acipenser-dabryanus-based-on-a-novel-microsatellite-marker-system
#9
Ya Liu, Yeyu Chen, Quan Gong, Jiansheng Lai, Jun Du, Xiaochuan Deng
Acipenser dabryanus is listed as a Critical Endangered species in the IUCN Red List and the first class protected animals in China. Fortunately, A. dabryanus specimens are being successfully bred in captivity for conservation. However, for effective ex situ conservation, we should be aware of the genetic diversity and the degree of relatedness of the individuals selected for breeding. In this study, we aimed at the development of novel and reliable microsatellites used for the genetic study of A. dabryanus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943970/ethical-legal-and-social-issues-in-japan-on-the-determination-of-blood-relationship-via-dna-testing
#10
Waki Toya
DNA paternity testing has recently become more widely available in Japan. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues surrounding (1) the implementing agency, whether the testing is conducted in a commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) setting or a judicial non-DTC setting, and (2) the implementation conditions and more specifically the legal capacity of the proband (test subject). Literature research in Japanese and English was conducted. Some countries prohibit commercial DNA testing without the consent of the proband or her or his legally authorized representative...
2017: Asian Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899355/genetic-tests-for-estimating-dairy-breed-proportion-and-parentage-assignment-in-east-african-crossbred-cattle
#11
Eva M Strucken, Hawlader A Al-Mamun, Cecilia Esquivelzeta-Rabell, Cedric Gondro, Okeyo A Mwai, John P Gibson
BACKGROUND: Smallholder dairy farming in much of the developing world is based on the use of crossbred cows that combine local adaptation traits of indigenous breeds with high milk yield potential of exotic dairy breeds. Pedigree recording is rare in such systems which means that it is impossible to make informed breeding decisions. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays allow accurate estimation of breed composition and parentage assignment but are too expensive for routine application...
September 12, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866789/population-data-and-forensic-efficiency-of-21-autosomal-str-loci-included-in-agcu-ex22-amplification-system-in-the-wanzhou-han-population
#12
Xing Zou, Yongguo Li, Zehong Wei, Ting Wang, Yue Hu, Ying Zhu, Jianbo Li, Renkuan Tang
Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), widely distributed in the whole human genome, play an important role in personal identification and parentage testing. In this study, the allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters of 21 autosomal STR loci included in the AGCU EX22 kit were obtained from 433 Chinese Han individuals residing in the Wanzhou District in the north of Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in all of the 21 STR loci. A total of 241 alleles were observed with allele frequencies ranging from 0...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861717/estimates-of-heritability-for-growth-and-shell-color-traits-and-their-genetic-correlations-in-the-black-shell-strain-of-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#13
Lan Xu, Qi Li, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has been introduced widely and massively and became an economically important aquaculture species on a global scale. We estimated heritabilities of growth and shell color traits and their genetic correlations in black shell strain of C. gigas. Analyses were performed on 22 full-sib families in a nested mating design including 410 individuals at harvest (24 months of age). The parentage assignment was inferred based on four panels of multiplex PCR markers including 10 microsatellite loci and 94...
October 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855677/no-evidence-for-parental-age-effects-on-offspring-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-free-living-soay-sheep
#14
H Froy, E J Bird, R V Wilbourn, J Fairlie, S L Underwood, E Salvo-Chirnside, J G Pilkington, C Bérénos, J M Pemberton, D H Nussey
In humans, the effect of paternal age at conception (PAC) on offspring leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is well established, with older fathers thought to pass on longer telomeres to their offspring in their sperm. Few studies have looked for PAC effects in other species, but it has been hypothesised that the effect will be exacerbated in polygamous species with higher levels of sperm competition and production. We test for maternal (MAC) and paternal age at conception effects on offspring LTL in Soay sheep, a primitive breed experiencing strong sperm competition...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854191/use-of-noninvasive-bug-eggs-to-enable-comparative-inferences-on-genetic-mating-system-with-and-without-parental-information-a-study-in-a-cattle-egret-colony
#15
Carolina Isabel Miño, Elaine Dantas de Souza, Emmanuel Moralez-Silva, Talita Alvarenga Valdes, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues, Sílvia Nassif Del Lama
Colonial waterbirds such as herons, egrets and spoonbills exhibit ecological characteristics that could have promoted the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism and extra-pair copulation. However, an adequate characterization of the genetic mating systems of this avian group has been hindered by the lack of samples of elusive candidate parents which precluded conducting conventional parentage allocation tests. Here, we investigate the genetic mating system of the invasive cattle egret using hematophagous insects contained in fake eggs to collect blood from incubating adults in a wild breeding colony...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797302/development-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-markers-for-diploid-populations-of-the-wind-pollinated-herb-mercurialis-annua
#16
Ana Paula Machado, John R Pannell, Jeanne Tonnabel
OBJECTIVE: Mercurialis annua is a wind-pollinated annual plant that has long been used as a model for the study of ploidy and sexual-systems evolution. However, no molecular markers are yet available for genetic studies of its diploid populations. Here, we develop and characterize a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers for diploid dioecious M. annua. RESULTS: Following an SSR-enrichment protocol, 13 microsatellite markers were proposed, eight of which yielded successful amplification and polymorphism...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776934/development-of-genome-and-transcriptome-derived-microsatellites-in-related-species-of-snapping-shrimps-with-highly-duplicated-genomes
#17
Kaitlyn M Gaynor, Joseph W Solomon, Stefanie Siller, Linnet Jessell, J Emmett Duffy, Dustin R Rubenstein
Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed microsatellite markers for Synalpheus shrimp, a genus in which species exhibit not only great variation in social organization, but also interspecific variation in genome size and partial genome duplication...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735584/genomic-differentiation-between-swamp-and-river-buffalo-using-a-cattle-high-density-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-panel
#18
L Pérez-Pardal, S Chen, V Costa, X Liu, J Carvalheira, A Beja-Pereira
Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important livestock species in many tropical and subtropical regions. In recent decades, the interest in buffalo's milk have expanded and intensive buffalo farms start to emerge. However, breeding programs and population genetics information for this species is scarce or inexistent. The present study aims to test the suitability of the commercial high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping panel, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, to estimate population genetics parameters, pedigree control and identification of common variants in major production candidate genes...
July 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619083/on-marker-based-parentage-verification-via-non-linear-optimization
#19
Vinzent Boerner
BACKGROUND: Parentage verification by molecular markers is mainly based on short tandem repeat markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as bi-allelic markers have become the markers of choice for genotyping projects. Thus, the subsequent step is to use SNP genotypes for parentage verification as well. Recent developments of algorithms such as evaluating opposing homozygous SNP genotypes have drawbacks, for example the inability of rejecting all animals of a sample of potential parents...
June 15, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560110/isolation-and-characterization-of-microsatellite-markers-for-sturnira-parvidens-and-cross-species-amplification-in-sturnira-species
#20
Edgar G Gutiérrez, Giovani Hernández Canchola, Livia S León Paniagua, Norberto Martínez Méndez, Jorge Ortega
BACKGROUND: Sturnira is one of the most species-rich genera in the Neotropics, and it is found from Mexico and the Lesser Antilles to Argentina. This genus forms a well-supported monophyletic clade with at least twenty-one recognized species, as well as several others under taxonomic review. Sturnira parvidens is a widespread frugivorous bat of the deciduous forests of the Neotropics, is highly abundant, and is a major component in fruit dispersal to regenerate ecosystems. METHODS: We used a technique based on Illumina paired-end sequencing of a library highly enriched for microsatellite repeats to develop loci for S...
2017: PeerJ
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