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Parentage testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687607/why-do-some-animals-mate-with-one-partner-rather-than-many-a-review-of-causes-and-consequences-of-monogamy
#1
Charlotta Kvarnemo
Why do some animals mate with one partner rather than many? Here, I investigate factors related to (i) spatial constraints (habitat limitation, mate availability), (ii) time constraints (breeding synchrony, length of breeding season), (iii) need for parental care, and (iv) genetic compatibility, to see what support can be found in different taxa regarding the importance of these factors in explaining the occurrence of monogamy, whether shown by one sex (monogyny or monandry) or by both sexes (mutual monogamy)...
April 23, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680387/prevalence-of-twin-foaling-and-blood-chimaerism-in-purebred-spanish-horses
#2
G Anaya, M E Fernández, M Valera, A Molina, F Azcona, P Azor, M Solé, M Moreno-Millán, S Demyda-Peyrás
Twin foaling is associated with chimaerism in several domestic species and is recognised in horses. In this study, 21,097 purebred Spanish (Pura Raza Español) horse births from the 2015 to 2016 breeding season were investigated for chimaerism. Twin foaled and chimaeric individuals were assessed on the basis of foaling records, short-tandem repeat (STR) parentage test results and a sex-linked STR-based technique. Fourteen twin pregnancies with 23 twin foals born alive were identified (0.066% twin foaling prevalence), including five blood chimaeric cases (21...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677481/mutation-analysis-of-short-tandem-repeats-in-a-population-sample-from-upper-silesia-southern-poland
#3
Kornelia Droździok, Jadwiga Kabiesz, Marcin Tomsia, Rafał Skowronek, Krzysztof Rębała
In paternity testing, DNA polymorphism analysis not only settles explicitly disputed paternity issue but also provides information on mutation frequencies in STR loci. In this study, insertion or deletion of one repetitive unit was observed in 38 of 32,391 meiotic transfers analysed in 953 paternity testing cases. Parentage samples from Upper Silesia (southern Poland) were examined in 2008-2014 with the use of three commercially available amplification kits: AmpFlSTR Identifiler (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex 16 HS (Promega) and PowerPlex ESX 17 (Promega)...
April 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625275/mutation-analysis-of-19-commonly-used-short-tandem-repeat-loci-in-a-guangdong-han-population
#4
Cheng Xiao, Zhiyong Peng, Feilong Chen, Hui Yan, Bofeng Zhu, Yunchun Tai, Pingming Qiu, Chao Liu, Xuheng Song, Zihao Wu, Ling Chen
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are the most widely used genetic markers in current forensic practice. However, STR mutations have troubled paternity test all the time. To ensure the accuracy in parentage testing, it is important to obtain population mutation data and identify factors that affect STR mutation rates. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on 322 mutation events in 19 autosomal STR loci from 12,752 meiotic events in 9,626 parentage test cases. The average mutation rate for the 19 STR loci was estimated at 1...
March 23, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618182/accuracy-of-imputation-of-microsatellite-markers-from-bovinesnp50-and-bovinehd-beadchip-in-hanwoo-population-of-korea
#5
Aditi Sharma, Jong-Eun Park, Byungho Park, Mi-Na Park, Seung-Hee Roh, Woo-Young Jung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Han-Ha Chai, Gul-Won Chang, Yong-Min Cho, Dajeong Lim
Until now microsatellite (MS) have been a popular choice of markers for parentage verification. Recently many countries have moved or are in process of moving from MS markers to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for parentage testing. FAO-ISAG has also come up with a panel of 200 SNPs to replace the use of MS markers in parentage verification. However, in many countries most of the animals were genotyped by MS markers till now and the sudden shift to SNP markers will render the data of those animals useless...
March 2018: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593780/accuracy-of-genomic-evaluations-of-juvenile-growth-rate-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#6
Christos Palaiokostas, Martin Kocour, Martin Prchal, Ross D Houston
Cyprinids are the most important group of farmed fish globally in terms of production volume, with common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) being one of the most valuable species of the group. The use of modern selective breeding methods in carp is at a formative stage, implying a large scope for genetic improvement of key production traits. In the current study, a population of 1,425 carp juveniles, originating from a partial factorial cross between 40 sires and 20 dams, was used for investigating the potential of genomic selection (GS) for juvenile growth, an exemplar polygenic production trait...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536546/noninvasive-prenatal-paternity-testing-using-targeted-massively-parallel-sequencing
#7
Ning- Qu, Yifan Xie, Haiyan Li, Hao- Liang, Shaobin Lin, Erwen Huang, Jun- Gao, Fang- Chen, Yanwei Shi, Xueling Ou
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology have provided efficient methods for noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT). However, a well-accepted protocol has not been established. The present study developed an MPS-based approach for NIPAT and compared the performance of two recently reported methods for MPS data interpretation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected 1795 unlinked polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed paternity analysis in 34 real parentage test cases with maternal plasma samples using the Illumina HiSeq platform...
March 13, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479424/a-snp-resource-for-studying-north-american-moose
#8
Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Brenda M Murdoch, Timothy P L Smith, James D Murdoch, Michael P Heaton, Stephanie D McKay
Background : Moose ( Alces alces ) colonized the North American continent from Asia less than 15,000 years ago, and spread across the boreal forest regions of Canada and the northern United States (US).  Contemporary populations have low genetic diversity, due either to low number of individuals in the original migration (founder effect), and/or subsequent population bottlenecks in North America.  Genetic tests based on informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are helpful in forensic and wildlife conservation activities, but have been difficult to develop for moose, due to the lack of a reference genome assembly and whole genome sequence (WGS) data...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455461/population-density-mediates-the-interaction-between-pre-and-postmating-sexual-selection
#9
Erin L McCullough, Bruno A Buzatto, Leigh W Simmons
When females mate with more than one male, sexual selection acts both before and after mating. The interaction between pre- and postmating episodes of selection is expected to be context dependent, but few studies have investigated how total sexual selection changes under different ecological conditions. We examined how population density mediates the interaction between pre- and postmating sexual selection by establishing replicate populations of the horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus at low, medium, and high densities, and then using microsatellite-based parentage analyses to measure male fitness...
April 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435223/polygyny-does-not-explain-the-superior-competitive-ability-of-dominant-ant-associates-in-the-african-ant-plant-acacia-vachellia-drepanolobium
#10
John H Boyle, Dino J Martins, Julianne Pelaez, Paul M Musili, Staline Kibet, S Kimani Ndung'u, David Kenfack, Naomi E Pierce
The Acacia drepanolobium (also known as Vachellia drepanolobium ) ant-plant symbiosis is considered a classic case of species coexistence, in which four species of tree-defending ants compete for nesting space in a single host tree species. Coexistence in this system has been explained by trade-offs in the ability of the ant associates to compete with each other for occupied trees versus the ability to colonize unoccupied trees. We seek to understand the proximal reasons for how and why the ant species vary in competitive or colonizing abilities, which are largely unknown...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428891/evaluation-of-parentage-testing-accuracy-of-child-trafficking-cases-combining-the-exclusion-probability-and-likelihood-ratio-approaches
#11
Kexin Yu, Wing Kam Fung
The Chinese government established a national anti-trafficking DNA database in 2009 to help reunite trafficked children with their families. The database collects DNA information from missing children's parents, trafficked and homeless children, then conducts parentage testing using 18 or more loci to find matched pairs. This article evaluates the matching accuracy of parentage testing in child-trafficking cases, under both Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population substructure. Both one-parent and two-parent scenarios are considered, and mutations are taken into account...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428890/construction-and-forensic-genetic-characterization-of-11-autosomal-haplotypes-consisting-of-22-tri-allelic-indels
#12
Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaogang Chen, Yuancun Zhao, Shu Zhang, Zehua Gao, Yiwen Yang, Yufang Wang, Ji Zhang
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels), which combine the advantages of both short tandem repeats and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are suitable for parentage testing. To overcome the limitations of the low polymorphism of di-allelic indels, we constructed a set of haplotypes with physically linked, multi-allelic indels. Candidate haplotypes were selected from the 1000 Genomes Project database, and were subject to the following criteria for inclusion: (i) each marker must have a minimum allele frequency (MAF) of ≥0...
May 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383234/isotropic-and-anisotropic-processes-influence-fine-scale-spatial-genetic-structure-of-a-keystone-tropical-plant
#13
Addisie Geremew, Melkamu G Woldemariam, Alemayehu Kefalew, Iris Stiers, Ludwig Triest
Limited seed or pollen dispersal enhances spatial genetic relatedness between individuals (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, FSGS), which usually decreases as a function of physical distance. However, such isotropic pattern of FSGS may not always occur when spatially asymmetric processes, for instance, wind direction during dispersal, are considered in wind-pollinated and -dispersed plants. This study assessed the pattern of FSGS in the keystone tropical wetland plant Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) as a function of these isotropic and anisotropic processes...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313099/genetic-variation-and-forensic-characterization-of-highland-tibetan-ethnicity-reveled-by-autosomal-str-markers
#14
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299300/an-integrative-mating-system-assessment-of-a-nonmodel-economically-important-pacific-rockfish-sebastes-melanops-reveals-nonterritorial-polygamy-and-conservation-implications-for-a-large-species-flock
#15
Kurt W Karageorge, Raymond R Wilson
Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops ...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222636/identification-introgression-and-molecular-marker-genetic-analysis-and-selection-of-a-highly-effective-novel-oat-crown-rust-resistance-from-diploid-oat-avena-strigosa
#16
Howard W Rines, Marisa E Miller, Martin Carson, Shiaoman Chao, Tyler Tiede, Jochum Wiersma, Shahryar F Kianian
Oat crown rust is one of the most damaging diseases of oat. We identified a new source of resistance and developed KASP and TaqMan markers for selection in breeding programs. A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plants are resistant with no virulent isolates encountered in over 8 years of testing...
March 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219265/-formula-derivation-and-validation-of-probability-of-exclusion-in-the-cases-of-standard-triplet-parentage-testing
#17
M Zhou, H Q Zhang, J Wang
OBJECTIVES: To derive and experiment validate the probability of exclusion (PE) formulas in the cases of standard triplet parentage testing. METHODS: The formulas were derived voluntarily based on the PE definition: [Formula: see text]. This formula was compared with the 5 formulas (1)-(5) reported previously, and the PE values of 19 autosomal STR loci in AGCU EX20 system were calculated. Based on 1 000 samples of single-parentage cases and 1 000 unrelated individuals, the real experiment was designed and the real experiment results of PE were calculated...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206981/variable-molecular-markers-for-the-order-mantophasmatodea-insecta
#18
Serena E Dool, Sven Künzel, Martin Haase, Mike D Picker, Monika J B Eberhard
The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of colour polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection and potentially sensory speciation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197426/phenotypic-and-genotypic-monitoring-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzanian-schoolchildren-five-years-into-a-preventative-chemotherapy-national-control-programme
#19
Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre, Sara R Marques, Poppy H L Lamberton, Nicholas J Lwambo, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of profound medical importance. Current control focusses on mass praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of populations in endemic areas, termed Preventative Chemotherapy (PC). Large-scale PC programmes exert prolonged selection pressures on parasites with the potential for, direct and/or indirect, emergence of drug resistance. Molecular methods can help monitor genetic changes of schistosome populations over time and in response to drug treatment, as well as estimate adult worm burdens through parentage analysis...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154001/tri-allelic-patterns-of-strs-and-partially-homologous-non-sister-chromatid-crossover-observed-in-a-parentage-test
#20
Huiyong Jiao, He Ren, Yaran Yang, Bin Ni, Haiyan Zhou, Wei Chen, Yunwang Cao, Chuguang Chen, Yanmei Huang, Jiangwei Yan
A maternity testing case is reported, in which the child showed tri-allelic patterns in two short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The genotypes of Penta D of the mother and the child were 9,13 and 9,10,13, respectively. Those of D21S11 were 32.2,35 and 29,35, respectively, but intensity ratio of alleles 29 and 35 of the child was 1:2. These results suggested the copy number variations (CNVs) or trisomy of chromosome 21. By further examination using STR-based chromosome aneuploidy detection kit, three alleles were detected in D21S1411, LFG21 and Penta D, and 2 alleles with intensity ratio of 1:2 were observed in D21S2502, D21S1435, D21S11 and D21S1246...
January 2018: Legal Medicine
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