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Parentage testing

Ning- Qu, Yifan Xie, Haiyan Li, Hao- Liang, Shaobin Lin, Erwen Huang, Jun- Gao, Fang- Chen, Yanwei Shi, Xueling Ou
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology have provided efficient methods for noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT). However, a well-accepted protocol has not been established. The present study developed an MPS-based approach for NIPAT and compared the performance of two recently reported methods for MPS data interpretation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected 1795 unlinked polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed paternity analysis in 34 real parentage test cases with maternal plasma samples using the Illumina HiSeq platform...
March 13, 2018: Transfusion
Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Brenda M Murdoch, Timothy P L Smith, James D Murdoch, Michael P Heaton, Stephanie D McKay
Background : Moose ( Alces alces ) colonized the North American continent from Asia less than 15,000 years ago, and spread across the boreal forest regions of Canada and the northern United States (US).  Contemporary populations have low genetic diversity, due either to low number of individuals in the original migration (founder effect), and/or subsequent population bottlenecks in North America.  Genetic tests based on informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are helpful in forensic and wildlife conservation activities, but have been difficult to develop for moose, due to the lack of a reference genome assembly and whole genome sequence (WGS) data...
2018: F1000Research
Erin L McCullough, Bruno A Buzatto, Leigh W Simmons
When females mate with more than one male, sexual selection acts both before and after mating. The interaction between pre- and post-mating episodes of selection is expected to be context dependent, but few studies have investigated how total sexual selection changes under different ecological conditions. We examined how population density mediates the interaction between pre- and post-mating sexual selection by establishing replicate populations of the horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus at low, medium, and high densities, and using microsatellite-based parentage analyses to measure male fitness...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
John H Boyle, Dino J Martins, Julianne Pelaez, Paul M Musili, Staline Kibet, S Kimani Ndung'u, David Kenfack, Naomi E Pierce
The Acacia drepanolobium (also known as Vachellia drepanolobium) ant-plant symbiosis is considered a classic case of species coexistence, in which four species of tree-defending ants compete for nesting space in a single host tree species. Coexistence in this system has been explained by trade-offs in the ability of the ant associates to compete with each other for occupied trees versus the ability to colonize unoccupied trees. We seek to understand the proximal reasons for how and why the ant species vary in competitive or colonizing abilities, which are largely unknown...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kexin Yu, Wing Kam Fung
The Chinese government established a national anti-trafficking DNA database in 2009 to help reunite trafficked children with their families. The database collects DNA information from missing children's parents, trafficked and homeless children, then conducts parentage testing using 18 or more loci to find matched pairs. This article evaluates the matching accuracy of parentage testing in child-trafficking cases, under both Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population substructure. Both one-parent and two-parent scenarios are considered, and mutations are taken into account...
February 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaogang Chen, Yuancun Zhao, Shu Zhang, Zehua Gao, Yiwen Yang, Yufang Wang, Ji Zhang
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels), which combine the advantages of both short tandem repeats and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are suitable for parentage testing. To overcome the limitations of the low polymorphism of di-allelic indels, we constructed a set of haplotypes with physically linked, multi-allelic indels. Candidate haplotypes were selected from the 1000 Genomes Project database, and were subject to the following criteria for inclusion: (i) each marker must have a minimum allele frequency (MAF) of ≥0...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Addisie Geremew, Melkamu G Woldemariam, Alemayehu Kefalew, Iris Stiers, Ludwig Triest
Limited seed or pollen dispersal enhances spatial genetic relatedness between individuals (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, FSGS), which usually decreases as a function of physical distance. However, such isotropic pattern of FSGS may not always occur when spatially asymmetric processes, for instance, wind direction during dispersal, are considered in wind-pollinated and -dispersed plants. This study assessed the pattern of FSGS in the keystone tropical wetland plant Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) as a function of these isotropic and anisotropic processes...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Guanglin He, Zheng Wang, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Yiping Hou
Understanding the origin and genetic background of Chinese high-altitude Tibetans play a pivotal role in medical genetics, archeology, anthropology, and forensics. In this study, to investigate the forensic characterization and genetic diversity of Chinese Tibetan, allele frequencies and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STRs included in the AmpFℓSTR® Sinofiler™ kit were obtained from 1220 Tibetan individuals residing in Lhasa country, Tibet Autonomous Region. We identified 191 alleles with corresponding allele frequencies varied from 0...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Kurt W Karageorge, Raymond R Wilson
Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Howard W Rines, Marisa E Miller, Martin Carson, Shiaoman Chao, Tyler Tiede, Jochum Wiersma, Shahryar F Kianian
Oat crown rust is one of the most damaging diseases of oat. We identified a new source of resistance and developed KASP and TaqMan markers for selection in breeding programs. A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plants are resistant with no virulent isolates encountered in over 8 years of testing...
March 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
M Zhou, H Q Zhang, J Wang
OBJECTIVES: To derive and experiment validate the probability of exclusion (PE) formulas in the cases of standard triplet parentage testing. METHODS: The formulas were derived voluntarily based on the PE definition: [Formula: see text]. This formula was compared with the 5 formulas (1)-(5) reported previously, and the PE values of 19 autosomal STR loci in AGCU EX20 system were calculated. Based on 1 000 samples of single-parentage cases and 1 000 unrelated individuals, the real experiment was designed and the real experiment results of PE were calculated...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Serena E Dool, Sven Künzel, Martin Haase, Mike D Picker, Monika J B Eberhard
The recently discovered insect order Mantophasmatodea currently comprises 19 Southern African species. These mainly occur in allopatry, have high levels of colour polymorphism and communicate via species- and gender-specific vibratory signals. High levels of interspecific morphological conservatism mean that cryptic species are likely to be uncovered. These aspects of Mantophasmatodean biology make them an ideal group in which to investigate population divergence due to habitat-specific adaptation, sexual selection and potentially sensory speciation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre, Sara R Marques, Poppy H L Lamberton, Nicholas J Lwambo, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of profound medical importance. Current control focusses on mass praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of populations in endemic areas, termed Preventative Chemotherapy (PC). Large-scale PC programmes exert prolonged selection pressures on parasites with the potential for, direct and/or indirect, emergence of drug resistance. Molecular methods can help monitor genetic changes of schistosome populations over time and in response to drug treatment, as well as estimate adult worm burdens through parentage analysis...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Huiyong Jiao, He Ren, Yaran Yang, Bin Ni, Haiyan Zhou, Wei Chen, Yunwang Cao, Chuguang Chen, Yanmei Huang, Jiangwei Yan
A maternity testing case is reported, in which the child showed tri-allelic patterns in two short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The genotypes of Penta D of the mother and the child were 9,13 and 9,10,13, respectively. Those of D21S11 were 32.2,35 and 29,35, respectively, but intensity ratio of alleles 29 and 35 of the child was 1:2. These results suggested the copy number variations (CNVs) or trisomy of chromosome 21. By further examination using STR-based chromosome aneuploidy detection kit, three alleles were detected in D21S1411, LFG21 and Penta D, and 2 alleles with intensity ratio of 1:2 were observed in D21S2502, D21S1435, D21S11 and D21S1246...
October 28, 2017: Legal Medicine
Lina Eva Robin Ljungfeldt, María Quintela, François Besnier, Frank Nilsen, Kevin Alan Glover
The salmon louse is a highly abundant ectoparasitic copepod of salmonids in the North Pacific and Atlantic. Widespread and rapid development of resistance to chemical agents used to delouse salmonids on marine farms is now threatening the continued development of the aquaculture industry and have served as a potent catalyst for the development of alternative pest management strategies. These include freshwater and warm-water treatments to which the louse is sensitive. However, given the well-documented evolutionary capacity of this species, the risk of developing tolerance towards these environmental treatments cannot be dismissed...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Ya Liu, Yeyu Chen, Quan Gong, Jiansheng Lai, Jun Du, Xiaochuan Deng
Acipenser dabryanus is listed as a Critical Endangered species in the IUCN Red List and the first class protected animals in China. Fortunately, A. dabryanus specimens are being successfully bred in captivity for conservation. However, for effective ex situ conservation, we should be aware of the genetic diversity and the degree of relatedness of the individuals selected for breeding. In this study, we aimed at the development of novel and reliable microsatellites used for the genetic study of A. dabryanus...
2017: PloS One
Waki Toya
DNA paternity testing has recently become more widely available in Japan. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues surrounding (1) the implementing agency, whether the testing is conducted in a commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) setting or a judicial non-DTC setting, and (2) the implementation conditions and more specifically the legal capacity of the proband (test subject). Literature research in Japanese and English was conducted. Some countries prohibit commercial DNA testing without the consent of the proband or her or his legally authorized representative...
2017: Asian Bioethics Review
Eva M Strucken, Hawlader A Al-Mamun, Cecilia Esquivelzeta-Rabell, Cedric Gondro, Okeyo A Mwai, John P Gibson
BACKGROUND: Smallholder dairy farming in much of the developing world is based on the use of crossbred cows that combine local adaptation traits of indigenous breeds with high milk yield potential of exotic dairy breeds. Pedigree recording is rare in such systems which means that it is impossible to make informed breeding decisions. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays allow accurate estimation of breed composition and parentage assignment but are too expensive for routine application...
September 12, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Xing Zou, Yongguo Li, Zehong Wei, Ting Wang, Yue Hu, Ying Zhu, Jianbo Li, Renkuan Tang
Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), widely distributed in the whole human genome, play an important role in personal identification and parentage testing. In this study, the allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters of 21 autosomal STR loci included in the AGCU EX22 kit were obtained from 433 Chinese Han individuals residing in the Wanzhou District in the north of Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in all of the 21 STR loci. A total of 241 alleles were observed with allele frequencies ranging from 0...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lan Xu, Qi Li, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has been introduced widely and massively and became an economically important aquaculture species on a global scale. We estimated heritabilities of growth and shell color traits and their genetic correlations in black shell strain of C. gigas. Analyses were performed on 22 full-sib families in a nested mating design including 410 individuals at harvest (24 months of age). The parentage assignment was inferred based on four panels of multiplex PCR markers including 10 microsatellite loci and 94...
October 2017: Marine Biotechnology
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