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Parentage testing

Catherine Jan, Luca Fumagalli
The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism...
2016: PeerJ
Ricardo Beldade, Sally J Holbrook, Russell J Schmitt, Serge Planes, Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment 'connectivity' with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe spatial and temporal variation in self-recruitment of the anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus, evaluate the consistency of net dispersal distances of self-recruits against the null expectation of passive particle dispersal and test the hypothesis that larvae originating in certain reef habitats (lagoons and passes) would be retained and thus more likely to self-recruit than those originating on the outer (fore) reef...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sandra Heras, Laia Planella, Ilaria Caldarazzo, Manuel Vera, José-Luis García-Marín, Maria Ines Roldán
The blue and red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, is a commercially important crustacean, in the Mediterranean Sea, which has been listed as a priority species for fishery management. Hypervariable microsatellite markers could be a useful tool to identify genetic stocks among geographically close fishing grounds. Potential microsatellite markers (97) identified from next-generation sequencing of an individual shrimp using a 454 GS Junior Pyrosequencer were tested on a preliminary panel of 15 individuals representing the four worldwide genetic stocks of the species from which 35 polymorphic loci were identified and used to characterize an additional 20 individuals from the Western Mediterranean Sea...
2016: PeerJ
Isabel C Caballero, John M Bates, Mary Hennen, Mary V Ashley
Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were extirpated from most of the continental United States by widespread use of the pesticide DDT in the 1960s. Populations have rebounded with banning of the pesticide and successful implementation of captive breeding and hacking programs. An essentially new population of Midwestern peregrines now exists that is comprised almost entirely of urban-nesting birds. The new population is considered to be of mixed ancestry, occurs at relatively high densities, and has nest sites in close proximity, factors that could influence breeding behaviors including mate fidelity, nest-site fidelity, extra-pair paternity, and natal dispersal...
2016: PloS One
Frank W Nicholas, Elizabeth R Arnott, Paul D McGreevy
Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
Kevin J Loope
In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide-the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Joseph Nwadiuko, Keyonie James, Galen E Switzer, Jamie Stern
BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in the capacity of US immigrants to contribute to their homelands via entrepreneurship and philanthropy. However, there has been little research examining how immigrant physicians may support health systems and what factors facilitate or raise barriers to increased support. METHODS: This study used an observational design with paper questionnaire and interview components. Our sample was drawn from attendees of a 2011 conference for US Based Nigerian physicians; respondents who were not US residents, physicians, and of Nigerian birth or parentage were excluded from further analysis...
2016: Globalization and Health
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity...
2016: PloS One
Bozena Kolano, Jamie McCann, Maja Orzechowska, Dorota Siwinska, Eva Temsch, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage...
July 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Bo Jin, Qin Su, Haibo Luo, Yingbi Li, Jin Wu, Jing Yan, Yiping Hou, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
Mutation rates and 95% CI of 33 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S2142, D2S1338, D2S441, D3S1358, D3S1754, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S3048, D7S820, D8S1132, D8S1179, D10S1248, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S1492, D13S317, D13S325, D14S306, D15S659, D16S539, D18S1364, D18S51, D19S433, D20S161, D21S11, D22GATA198B05, CSF1PO, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX, and vWA) were investigated through more than 424,000 parent-child meiotic transfers obtained from 10636 trios parentage testing cases in southwest Chinese Han population...
March 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
A Talenti, E L Nicolazzi, S Chessa, S Frattini, R Moretti, B Coizet, L Nicoloso, L Colli, G Pagnacco, A Stella, P Ajmone-Marsan, G Ptak, P Crepaldi
Accurate pedigrees are essential to optimize genetic improvement and conservation of animal genetic resources. In goats, the use of mating groups and kidding management procedures hamper the identification of parentage. Small panels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been proposed in other species to substitute microsatellites for parentage assessment. Using data from the current GoatSNP50 chip, we developed a new 3-step procedure to identify a low-density SNP panel for highly accurate parentage assessment...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
E Giner, G David, A Scemama, J P Malrieu
This paper presents a rigorous state-specific multi-reference coupled cluster formulation of the method first proposed by Meller et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 4068 (1996)]. Guess values of the amplitudes of the single and double excitations (the T operator) on the top of the references are extracted from the knowledge of the coefficients of the Multi-Reference Singles and Doubles Configuration Interaction (MR-CISD) matrix. The multiple parentage problem is solved by scaling these amplitudes from the interaction between the references and the singles and doubles...
February 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christiaan Labuschagne, Lisa Nupen, Antoinette Kotzé, Paul J Grobler, Desiré L Dalton
Captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species is traditionally based on pedigree information derived from studbook data. However, molecular methods could provide a powerful set of complementary tools to verify studbook records and also contribute to improving the understanding of the genetic status of captive populations. Here, we compare the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) and two analytical methods for assigning parentage in ten families of captive African penguins held in South African facilities...
October 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Bertram Brenig, Ekkehard Schütz
BACKGROUND: Methods for parentage control in cattle have changed since their initial implementation in the late 1950's from blood group typing to more current single nucleotide polymorphism determination. In the early 1990's, 12 microsatellites were selected by the International Society for Animal Genetics based on their informativeness and robustness in a variety of different cattle breeds. Since then this panel is used as standard in cattle herd book breeding and its application is accompanied by recurrent international comparison tests ensuring permanent validity for the most common commercial dairy and beef cattle breeds for example Holstein Friesian, Simmental, Angus, and Hereford...
2016: BMC Genetics
Li Wang, Meili Lv, Daniel Zaumsegel, Lushun Zhang, Fengji Liu, Jihua Xiang, Jun Li, Peter M Schneider, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
The low mutation rates, short amplicon sizes and length variation characteristics of biallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) are features that allow combining advantages of both STR and SNP markers for genetic analysis. The Qiagen Investigator DIPplex kit contains 30 biallelic autosomal INDELs plus Amelogenin for forensic personal identification and parentage testing. This study compares general performances, forensic and population data collected in 7 Chinese ethnic populations (Han, Tibetan, Yi, Zhuang, Dong, Miao and Uyghur) from three areas (Southwest, South and Northwest) of China by DIPplex kit...
March 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
G Rahimi-Mianji, A Nejati-Javaremi, A Farhadi
The present study was undertaken to genetically evaluate Turkmen horses for genetic diversity and to evaluate whether they have experienced any recent genetic bottlenecks. A total of 565 individuals from Turkmen horses were characterized for within breed diversity using 12 microsatellite markers. The estimated mean allelic diversity was (9.42 ± 1.78) per locus, with a total of 131 alleles in genotyped samples. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of effective number of alleles (4...
September 2015: Genetika
Sara A Kaiser, J E Danner, Laura Bergner, Robert C Fleischer
BACKGROUND: Although the highest diversity of birds occurs in tropical regions, little is known about the genetic mating systems of most tropical species. We describe microsatellite markers isolated in the chestnut-crested yuhina (Staphida everetti), endemic to the island of Borneo, and the grey-throated babbler (Stachyris nigriceps), widely distributed across Southeast Asia. Both species belong to the avian family Timaliidae and are highly social, putatively cooperatively breeding birds in which helpers attend the nests of members of their social group...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Sayaka Arata, Ai Asahi, Yukari Takeuchi, Yuji Mori
Eighteen autosomal microsatellite loci were examined using 275 Shiba Inus in Japan. Eighteen dogs representing eight trios were obtained from four breeders to calculate mutation rates, and 257 dogs kept by owners were collected through veterinary clinics throughout Japan to calculate population genetic parameters and estimate discrimination power. After two loci (INU005 and AHTk253) were excluded, average expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphic information content (PIC) and fixation index (F) were 0.665, 0...
March 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
S Bolormaa, K Gore, J H J van der Werf, B J Hayes, H D Daetwyler
Genotyping sheep for genome-wide SNPs at lower density and imputing to a higher density would enable cost-effective implementation of genomic selection, provided imputation was accurate enough. Here, we describe the design of a low-density (12k) SNP chip and evaluate the accuracy of imputation from the 12k SNP genotypes to 50k SNP genotypes in the major Australian sheep breeds. In addition, the impact of imperfect imputation on genomic predictions was evaluated by comparing the accuracy of genomic predictions for 15 novel meat traits including carcass and meat quality and omega fatty acid traits in sheep, from 12k SNP genotypes, imputed 50k SNP genotypes and real 50k SNP genotypes...
October 2015: Animal Genetics
R O Manoel, M L M Freitas, E V Tambarussi, J Cambuim, M L T Moraes, A M Sebbenn
Genipa americana is a tropical tree species that is widely distributed in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. This study investigated Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at six microsatellite loci developed for G. americana. Adult trees (188) and regenerants (163) were sampled and genotyped in a fragmented population of the species. We also genotyped open-pollinated seeds from 12 seed-trees during reproductive events in 2010 and 2011. Significant deviations from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation were detected in 29...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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