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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902727/hybrid-origins-of-citrus-varieties-inferred-from-dna-marker-analysis-of-nuclear-and-organelle-genomes
#1
Tokurou Shimizu, Akira Kitajima, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, Satoshi Ohta, Shingo Goto, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takako Mochizuki, Hideki Nagasaki, Eli Kaminuma, Yasukazu Nakamura
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890101/genetic-polymorphism-studies-on-22-autosomal-str-loci-of-the-powerplex-fusion-system-in-bangladeshi-population
#2
Tania Hossain, Mahamud Hasan, Ashish K Mazumder, Pilu Momtaz, Abu Sufian, Jabedul Alam Khandaker, Sharif Akhteruzzaman
Genetic polymorphism of 22 autosomal STR loci included in PowerPlex® Fusion System (D3S1358, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, FGA and D22S1045) was studied in 188 unrelated Bangladeshi Bengali individuals. Allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters such as, the power of discrimination (PD), observed and expected heterozygosity (Ho & He), polymorphism information content (PIC), probability of match (PM), power of exclusion (PE) and typical paternity index was calculated for the loci...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864914/the-lek-mating-system-of-the-worm-pipefish-nerophis-lumbriciformis-a-molecular-maternity-analysis-and-test-of-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis
#3
N M Monteiro, D Carneiro, A Antunes, N Queiroz, M N Vieira, A G Jones
The origin and maintenance of mating preferences continues to be an important and controversial topic in sexual selection research. Leks and lek-like mating systems, where individuals gather in particular spots for the sole purpose of mate choice, are particularly puzzling, because the strong directional selection imposed by mate choice should erode genetic variation among competing individuals and negate any benefit for the choosing sex. Here, we take advantage of the lek-like mating system of the worm pipefish (Nerophis lumbriciformis) to test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis for the maintenance of mating preferences...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851802/str-profiling-for-discrimination-between-wild-and-domestic-swine-specimens-and-between-main-breeds-of-domestic-pigs-reared-in-belarus
#4
Krzysztof Rębała, Alina A Rabtsava, Svetlana A Kotova, Viachaslau N Kipen, Natalja V Zhurina, Alla I Gandzha, Iosif S Tsybovsky
A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851753/nature-vs-nurture-evidence-for-social-learning-of-conflict-behaviour-in-grizzly-bears
#5
Andrea T Morehouse, Tabitha A Graves, Nate Mikle, Mark S Boyce
The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822853/genetic-fingerprinting-using-microsatellite-markers-in-a-multiplex-pcr-reaction-a-compilation-of-methodological-approaches-from-primer-design-to-detection-systems
#6
Jacqueline Krüger, Dorit Schleinitz
Microsatellites are polymorphic DNA loci comprising repeated sequence motifs of two to five base pairs which are dispersed throughout the genome. Genotyping of microsatellites is a widely accepted tool for diagnostic and research purposes such as forensic investigations and parentage testing, but also in clinics (e.g. monitoring of bone marrow transplantation), as well as for the agriculture and food industries. The co-amplification of several short tandem repeat (STR) systems in a multiplex reaction with simultaneous detection helps to obtain more information from a DNA sample where its availability may be limited...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816851/investigator-%C3%A2-hdplex-qiagen-reference-population-database-for-forensic-use-in-argentina
#7
Gustavo Martínez, Alicia Borosky, Daniel Corach, Cintia Llull, Laura Locarno, Mercedes Lojo, Miguel Marino, María Cecilia Miozzo, Nidia Modesti, Carla Pacharoni, Juan Pablo Pilili, María Isabel Ramella, Andrea Sala, Cecilia Schaller, Carlos Vullo, Ulises Toscanini
Currently, autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers represent the method of election in forensic human identification. Commercial kits of most common use nowadays -e.g. PowerPlex(®)Fusion, Promega Corp.; AmpFlSTR GlobalFiler, Thermofisher scientific; Investigator 24Plex QS,Qiagen-, allow the co-amplification of 23 highly polymorphic STR loci providing a high discrimination power in human identity testing. However, in complex kinship analysis and familial database searches involving distant relationships, additional DNA typing is often required in order to achieve well-founded conclusions...
October 18, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795462/genetic-characterization-of-the-miyako-horse-based-on-polymorphisms-of-microsatellites-and-mitochondrial-dna
#8
Natsuko Senju, Teruaki Tozaki, Hironaga Kakoi, Julio Almunia, Masami Maeda, Ryota Matsuyama, Masaki Takasu
To help plan conservation of the endangered Miyako horse, a biological resource of the Miyako Islands in Japan, we characterized the genetics of the breed by genotyping 32 microsatellites and identifying mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. We also calculated genetic distances between individuals based on the proportion of shared alleles and visualized the genetic relationships with a phylogenetic tree. Two important results were obtained. One is that accurate pedigree registration of the horse by using microsatellites is possible, as the exclusion power of parentage testing is 0...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785383/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-the-clonal-shrub-orixa-japonica-rutaceae-using-454-sequencing
#9
Ichiro Tamaki, Suzuki Setsuko, Kyoko Sugai, Nao Yanagisawa
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0...
October 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777746/dermatosparaxis-in-two-limousin-calves
#10
Catherine I Carty, Alison M Lee, Nathan A E Wienandt, Edward L Stevens, Derron A Alves, John A Browne, Jill Bryan, Eoin G Ryan, Joseph P Cassidy
BACKGROUND: An unusual presentation of skin disease was identified in two related neonatal Pedigree Limousin calves presented to University Veterinary Hospital, University College Dublin, following detailed post mortem examination a diagnosis of dermatosparaxis was made. Dermatosparaxis in animals or Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, which is the analogous condition seen in humans, is a connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme skin fragility. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such a diagnosis in the Limousin breed and the features of this lethal phenotype were severe in comparison to previous reports of the condition...
2016: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764130/first-results-in-the-use-of-bovine-ear-notch-tag-for-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-detection-and-genetic-analysis
#11
Christian Quinet, Guy Czaplicki, Elise Dion, Fabiana Dal Pozzo, Anke Kurz, Claude Saegerman
BACKGROUND: Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688959/polymorphic-dna-microsatellite-markers-for-forensic-individual-identification-and-parentage-analyses-of-seven-threatened-species-of-parrots-family-psittacidae
#12
Catherine Jan, Luca Fumagalli
The parrot family represents one of the bird group with the largest number of endangered species, as a result of habitat destruction and illegal trade. This illicit traffic involves the smuggling of eggs and animals, and the laundering through captive breeding facilities of wild-caught animals. Despite the huge potential of wildlife DNA forensics to determine with conclusive evidence illegal trade, current usage of DNA profiling approaches in parrots has been limited by the lack of suitable molecular markers specifically developed for the focal species and by low cross-species polymorphism...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557731/spatial-patterns-of-self-recruitment-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-relation-to-island-scale-retention-mechanisms
#13
Ricardo Beldade, Sally J Holbrook, Russell J Schmitt, Serge Planes, Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment 'connectivity' with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe spatial and temporal variation in self-recruitment of the anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus, evaluate the consistency of net dispersal distances of self-recruits against the null expectation of passive particle dispersal and test the hypothesis that larvae originating in certain reef habitats (lagoons and passes) would be retained and thus more likely to self-recruit than those originating on the outer (fore) reef...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547526/development-and-characterization-of-novel-microsatellite-markers-by-next-generation-sequencing-for-the-blue-and-red-shrimp-aristeus-antennatus
#14
Sandra Heras, Laia Planella, Ilaria Caldarazzo, Manuel Vera, José-Luis García-Marín, Maria Ines Roldán
The blue and red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, is a commercially important crustacean, in the Mediterranean Sea, which has been listed as a priority species for fishery management. Hypervariable microsatellite markers could be a useful tool to identify genetic stocks among geographically close fishing grounds. Potential microsatellite markers (97) identified from next-generation sequencing of an individual shrimp using a 454 GS Junior Pyrosequencer were tested on a preliminary panel of 15 individuals representing the four worldwide genetic stocks of the species from which 35 polymorphic loci were identified and used to characterize an additional 20 individuals from the Western Mediterranean Sea...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420915/sex-in-the-city-breeding-behavior-of-urban-peregrine-falcons-in-the-midwestern-us
#15
Isabel C Caballero, John M Bates, Mary Hennen, Mary V Ashley
Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were extirpated from most of the continental United States by widespread use of the pesticide DDT in the 1960s. Populations have rebounded with banning of the pesticide and successful implementation of captive breeding and hacking programs. An essentially new population of Midwestern peregrines now exists that is comprised almost entirely of urban-nesting birds. The new population is considered to be of mixed ancestry, occurs at relatively high densities, and has nest sites in close proximity, factors that could influence breeding behaviors including mate fidelity, nest-site fidelity, extra-pair paternity, and natal dispersal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387730/hybrid-vigour-in-dogs
#16
REVIEW
Frank W Nicholas, Elizabeth R Arnott, Paul D McGreevy
Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350328/matricide-and-queen-sex-allocation-in-a-yellowjacket-wasp
#17
Kevin J Loope
In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide-the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301262/giving-back-a-mixed-methods-study-of-the-contributions-of-us-based-nigerian-physicians-to-home-country-health-systems
#18
Joseph Nwadiuko, Keyonie James, Galen E Switzer, Jamie Stern
BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in the capacity of US immigrants to contribute to their homelands via entrepreneurship and philanthropy. However, there has been little research examining how immigrant physicians may support health systems and what factors facilitate or raise barriers to increased support. METHODS: This study used an observational design with paper questionnaire and interview components. Our sample was drawn from attendees of a 2011 conference for US Based Nigerian physicians; respondents who were not US residents, physicians, and of Nigerian birth or parentage were excluded from further analysis...
2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148872/two-of-a-kind-or-a-full-house-reproductive-suppression-and-alloparenting-in-laboratory-mice
#19
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063253/molecular-and-cytogenetic-evidence-for-an-allotetraploid-origin-of-chenopodium-quinoa-and-c-berlandieri-amaranthaceae
#20
Bozena Kolano, Jamie McCann, Maja Orzechowska, Dorota Siwinska, Eva Temsch, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage...
July 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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