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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621601/results-from-the-third-scottish-national-prevalence-survey-is-a-population-health-approach-now-needed-to-prevent-hai
#1
Shona Cairns, Cheryl Gibbons, Aynsley Milne, Hazel King, Melissa Llano, Laura MacDonald, William Malcolm, Chris Robertson, Jacqueline Sneddon, Jennifer Weir, Jacqui Reilly
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are a major public health concern and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A robust and current evidence base that is specific to local, national and Europe-wide settings is necessary to inform the development of strategies to reduce HAI and contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AIM: To measure the prevalence of HAI and antimicrobial prescribing and identify key priority areas for interventions to reduce the burden of infection...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610200/efref-and-the-transcription-regulator-chlr-are-required-for-chlorhexidine-stress-response-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583
#2
Farry J Li, Kelli L Palmer
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. Daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of patients is generally regarded as an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections. It is likely that E. faecalis are frequently exposed to inhibitory and sub-inhibitory CHG in clinical settings. The goal of this study was to investigate how the vancomycin-resistant strain E. faecalis V583 transcriptionally responds to and tolerates stress from CHG...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497925/recovery-within-injury-compensation-schemes-a-system-mapping-study
#3
Alex Collie, Sharon Newnam, Helen Keleher, Alan Petersen, Agnieszka Kosny, Adam P Vogel, Jason Thompson
Purpose Many industrialised nations have systems of injury compensation and rehabilitation that are designed to support injury recovery and return to work. Despite their intention, there is now substantial evidence that injured people, employers and healthcare providers can experience those systems as difficult to navigate, and that this can affect injury recovery. This study sought to characterise the relationships and interactions occurring between actors in three Australian injury compensation systems, to identify the range of factors that impact on injury recovery, and the interactions and inter-relationships between these factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492794/sociodemographic-influences-of-emergency-department-care-for-anxiety-disorders
#4
Tyra Dark, George Rust, Heather A Flynn, Heidi Kinsell, Jeffrey S Harman
This study examines variations in content of care for anxiety-related emergency department (ED) visits in the USA across various sociodemographic strata. The 2009-2012 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was used to identify all visits to general hospital EDs in which an anxiety diagnosis was recorded (n = 1930). Content and equitability of care was assessed utilizing logistic regression models. There were an estimated 1,856,000 ED visits with anxiety-related discharge diagnoses in the USA annually...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153315/what-are-the-keys-to-a-longer-happier-life-answers-from-five-decades-of-health-psychology-research
#5
Blair T Johnson, Rebecca L Acabchuk
RATIONALE: It has long been known that factors of the mind and of interpersonal relationships influence health, but it is only in the last 50 years that an independent scientific field of health psychology appeared, dedicated to understanding psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: This article (a) reviews important research that answers the question of how human beings can have longer, happier lives; and (b) highlights trends in health psychology featuring articles in Social Science & Medicine as well as other related literature...
January 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074507/systematic-review-of-interventions-for-improving-the-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Madeleine Ballard, Paul Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and critically appraise the evidence for the effects of interventions to improve the performance of community health workers (CHWs) for community-based primary healthcare in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. METHODS: 19 electronic databases were searched with a highly sensitive prespecified strategy and the grey literature examined, completed July 2016...
October 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039774/transnational-dynamics-amid-poor-regulations-taiwan-s-asbestos-ban-actions-and-experiences
#7
Harry Yi-Jui Wu, Ro-Ting Lin, Jung-Der Wang, Yawen Cheng
This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987982/a-qualitative-study-of-speaking-out-about-patient-safety-concerns-in-intensive-care-units
#8
Carolyn Tarrant, Myles Leslie, Julian Bion, Mary Dixon-Woods
Much policy focus has been afforded to the role of "whistleblowers" in raising concerns about quality and safety of patient care in healthcare settings. However, most opportunities for personnel to identify and act on these concerns are likely to occur much further upstream, in the day-to-day mundane interactions of everyday work. Using qualitative data from over 900 h of ethnographic observation and 98 interviews across 19 English intensive care units (ICUs), we studied how personnel gave voice to concerns about patient safety or poor practice...
November 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983286/inducible-expression-of-spo0a-as-a-universal-tool-for-studying-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficile
#9
Marcin Dembek, Stephanie E Willing, Huynh A Hong, Siamand Hosseini, Paula S Salgado, Simon M Cutting
Clostridium difficile remains a leading nosocomial pathogen, putting considerable strain on the healthcare system. The ability to form endospores, highly resistant to environmental insults, is key to its persistence and transmission. However, important differences exist between the sporulation pathways of C. difficile and the model Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis . Amongst the challenges in studying sporulation in C. difficile is the relatively poor levels of sporulation and high heterogeneity in the sporulation process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938218/late-life-suicide-prevention-strategies-current-status-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Kim Van Orden, Charlene Deming
Late life suicide prevention differs from suicide prevention for other age groups: first, the number of older adults worldwide is on the rise; second, late-life suicide receives much less attention in all societal spheres, from the media, to federal funding agencies, to healthcare initiatives. Recent findings indicate an association between internalized ageist stereotypes and reduced will to live. Recent research also addresses the role of cognitive control as a contributor to risk and as an intervention target (e...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887343/population-health-and-medicine-policy-and-financial-drivers
#11
Jill E Lavigne, Jack Brown, Gary R Matzke
PURPOSE: The financial and policy levers of population health and potential opportunities for pharmacists are described. SUMMARY: Three long-standing problems drive the focus on population health: (1) the United States suffers far worse population health outcomes compared with those of other developed nations that spend significantly less on healthcare, (2) the U.S. healthcare system's focus on "sick care" fails to address upstream prevention and population health improvement, and (3) financial incentives for healthcare delivery are poorly aligned with improvements in population health outcomes...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885536/moving-upstream-in-u-s-hospital-care-toward-investments-in-population-health
#12
James W Begun, Sandra Potthoff
The root causes for most health outcomes are often collectively referred to as the social determinants of health. Hospitals and health systems now must decide how much to "move upstream," or invest in programs that directly affect the social determinants of health. Moving upstream in healthcare delivery requires an acceptance of responsibility for the health of populations. We examine responses of 950 nonfederal, general hospitals in the United States to the 2015 American Hospital Association Population Health Survey to identify characteristics that distinguish those hospitals that are most aligned with population health and most engaged in addressing social determinants of health...
September 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682155/community-health-integration-through-pharmacy-process-and-ergonomics-redesign-chipper
#13
Michelle A Jahn, Barrett S Caldwell
As the expansion and utilisation of community pharmacy systems increases, so does the risk for an adverse drug event to occur. In attempts to mitigate this risk, many community pharmacies implement health information technology (IT); however, there are challenges in integrating the wider systems components necessary for a successful implementation with minimal unintended consequences. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Community Health Integration through Pharmacy Process and Ergonomics Redesign (CHIPPER) framework, which explores the multiple angles of health IT integration to support medication delivery processes in community pharmacy systems...
July 13, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644300/breathlessness-in-the-primary-care-setting
#14
Noel Baxter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is a high-volume problem with 10% of adults experiencing the symptom daily placing a heavy burden on the health and wider economy. As it worsens, they enter the specialist and hospital-based symptom services where costs quickly escalate and people may find themselves in a place not of their choosing. For many, their care will be delivered by a disease or organ specialist and can find themselves passing between physicians without coordination for symptom support...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600800/women-weight-poverty-and-menopause-understanding-health-practices-in-a-context-of-chronic-disease-prevention
#15
Mélisa Audet, Alex Dumas, Rachelle Binette, Isabelle J Dionne
Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada...
June 10, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583176/nurse-led-navigation-to-provide-early-palliative-care-in-rural-areas-a-pilot-study
#16
Barbara Pesut, Brenda Hooper, Marnie Jacobsen, Barbara Nielsen, Miranda Falk, Brian P O 'Connor
BACKGROUND: Few services are available to support rural older adults living at home with advancing chronic illness. The objective of this project was to pilot a nurse-led navigation service to provide early palliative support for rural older adults and their families living at home with advancing chronic illness. METHODS: Twenty-five older adults and 11 family members living with advancing chronic illness received bi-weekly home visits by a nurse navigator over a 2-year period...
June 5, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472598/supportive-cardiology-moving-palliative-care-upstream-for-patients-living-with-advanced-heart-failure
#17
Warren Harris Lewin, Wendy Cheung, A Nina Horvath, Shana Haberman, Archna Patel, Dorothy Sullivan
Heart failure (HF) affects ∼600,000 Canadians and is a chronic, life-limiting illness marked by exacerbations of distressing symptoms requiring acute medical management, typically sought in Canada's emergency departments. HF often has an unpredictable illness trajectory and is a chronic terminal illness with a poor prognosis. Patients living with advanced HF have difficulty in accessing palliative care (PC) supports, which can result in unnecessary suffering as their HF progresses and they near end of life (EOL)...
October 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441870/protein-nanocellulose-interactions-in-paper-filters-for-advanced-separation-applications
#18
Simon Gustafsson, Levon Manukyan, Albert Mihranyan
Protein-based pharmaceutics are widely explored for healthcare applications, and 6 out of 10 best-selling drugs today are biologicals. The goal of this work was to evaluate the protein nanocellulose interactions in paper filter for advanced separation applications such as virus removal filtration and bioprocessing. The protein recovery was measured for bovine serum albumin (BSA), γ-globulin, and lysozyme using biuret total protein reagent and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the throughput was characterized in terms of flux values from fixed volume filtrations at various protein concentrations and under worst-case experimental conditions...
May 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997996/oral-health-interventions-in-australian-aboriginal-communities-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
J Patel, A Durey, L Hearn, L M Slack-Smith
Aboriginal Australians experience significant disparities in oral health with even poorer outcomes reported in rural and remote areas. The high rates of preventable dental disease in Aboriginal communities are a serious concern from a social standpoint and in terms of service provision and health care expenditure. In this review, primary research literature was comprehensively reviewed. Papers were selected if they reported designing or implementing an intervention or oral health programme specific to the needs of Aboriginal communities...
December 20, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729662/-coronary-sinus-reducer-implantation-a-new-treatment-for-chronic-refractory-angina
#20
Francesco Giannini, Andrea Aurelio, Alaide Chieffo
Refractory angina is a chronic condition characterized by the presence of disabling symptoms due to severe obstructive coronary artery disease not improved by either optimal medical therapy and/or percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Mortality rates associated with this condition are quite low in clinically stable patients on optimal medical therapy. However, rehospitalization rates are high. In this subgroup of patients there is thus a clinical need for new therapies targeting an improvement of symptoms but taking into account the potential impact in terms of healthcare and costs...
October 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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