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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731828/geographical-variation-in-community-divergence-insights-from-tropical-forest-monodominance-by-ectomycorrhizal-trees
#1
Tadashi Fukami, Mifuyu Nakajima, Claire Fortunel, Paul V A Fine, Christopher Baraloto, Sabrina E Russo, Kabir G Peay
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730741/the-power-of-competence-support-the-impact-of-coaches-and-athlete-leaders-on-intrinsic-motivation-and-performance
#2
Katrien Fransen, Filip Boen, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Niels Mertens, Gert Vande Broek
Grounded in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory, a mini-theory of Self-Determination Theory, this experimental field study sought to examine the impact of competence support of both coaches and athlete leaders on athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and subjective as well as objective performance. Male basketball players (N = 120) were allocated to groups of five players. These groups were then randomly assigned to a control group or to one of three experimental conditions. In these experimental conditions either the coach, the athlete leader, or both provided motivational feedback to their team...
July 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729736/the-relationship-between-folding-and-activity-in-ureg-an-intrinsically-disordered-enzyme
#3
Marta Palombo, Alessio Bonucci, Emilien Etienne, Stefano Ciurli, Vladimir N Uversky, Bruno Guigliarelli, Valérie Belle, Elisabetta Mileo, Barbara Zambelli
A growing body of literature on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) led scientists to rethink the structure-function paradigm of protein folding. Enzymes are often considered an exception to the rule of intrinsic disorder (ID), believed to require a unique structure for catalysis. However, recent studies revealed the presence of disorder in several functional native enzymes. In the present work, we address the importance of dynamics for catalysis, by investigating the relationship between folding and activity in Sporosarcina pasteurii UreG (SpUreG), a P-loop GTPase and the first discovered native ID enzyme, involved in the maturation of the nickel-containing urease...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728768/maintaining-integrity-how-nurses-navigate-boundaries-in-pediatric-palliative-care
#4
Alyssa Erikson, Betty Davies
PURPOSE: To explore how nurses manage personal and professional boundaries in caring for seriously ill children and their families. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, a convenience sample of 18 registered nurses from four practice sites was interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. RESULTS: Nurses across the sites engaged in a process of maintaining integrity whereby they integrated two competing, yet essential, aspects of their nursing role - behaving professionally and connecting personally...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727200/landscape-genetic-analyses-reveal-fine-scale-effects-of-forest-fragmentation-in-an-insular-tropical-bird
#5
Aurélie Khimoun, William Peterman, Cyril Eraud, Bruno Faivre, Nicolas Navarro, Stéphane Garnier
Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest-specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea)...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726950/one-dna-strand-homo-polymerizes-into-defined-nanostructures
#6
Mo Li, Hua Zuo, Jinwen Yu, Xinfeng Zhao, Chengde Mao
We report a strategy for programmed DNA self-assembly that is favorable in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. In a previous study, it has been demonstrated that DNA self-assembly is primarily driven by thermodynamics and the assembly kinetics is not considered. To reach such stable states at equilibria, prolonged annealing duration is needed. In addition, there are cases where the desired structures could not compete with alternative structures. For example, a single-stranded DNA with a palindromic sequence quickly folds into a one-stranded hairpin instead of forming a two-stranded DNA duplex...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726930/competition-and-selectivity-in-supramolecular-synthesis-structural-landscape-around-1-pyridylmethyl-2-2-biimidazoles
#7
C A Gunawardana, J Desper, A S Sinha, M Ðaković, C B Aakeröy
Three isomeric forms of 1-(pyridylmethyl)-2,2'-biimidazole, A1-A3, have been synthesized and subjected to systematic co-crystallizations with selected hydrogen- and halogen-bond donors in order to explore the impact of electrostatics and geometry on the resulting supramolecular architectures. The solid-state supramolecular behavior of A1-A3 is largely consistent in halogen-bonded co-crystals. Only two types of primary interactions, the N-HN/NH-N homomeric hydrogen-bond interactions responsible for the pairing of biimidazole moieties and the IN(pyridine) halogen bonds responsible for the co-crystal formation and structure extension, are present in these systems...
July 20, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725993/are-young-children-able-to-learn-exploratory-strategies-by-observation
#8
Francesca Foti, Domenico Martone, Stefania Orrù, Simone Montuori, Esther Imperlini, Pasqualina Buono, Laura Petrosini, Laura Mandolesi
New competencies may be learned through active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or observation of others' experiences (learning by observation). Observing another person performing a complex action facilitates the observer's acquisition of the same action. The present research is aimed at analyzing if the observation of specific explorative strategies adopted in a constrained environment, such as the Radial Arm Maze (RAM), could help young children to explore the maze and to build a cognitive spatial map of the explored environment...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724409/hybrid-assembly-with-long-and-short-reads-improves-discovery-of-gene-family-expansions
#9
Jason R Miller, Peng Zhou, Joann Mudge, James Gurtowski, Hayan Lee, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Brian P Walenz, Junqi Liu, Robert M Stupar, Roxanne Denny, Li Song, Namrata Singh, Lyza G Maron, Susan R McCouch, W Richard McCombie, Michael C Schatz, Peter Tiffin, Nevin D Young, Kevin A T Silverstein
BACKGROUND: Long-read and short-read sequencing technologies offer competing advantages for eukaryotic genome sequencing projects. Combinations of both may be appropriate for surveys of within-species genomic variation. METHODS: We developed a hybrid assembly pipeline called "Alpaca" that can operate on 20X long-read coverage plus about 50X short-insert and 50X long-insert short-read coverage. To preclude collapse of tandem repeats, Alpaca relies on base-call-corrected long reads for contig formation...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722545/trna-engineering-for-manipulating-genetic-code
#10
Takayuki Katoh, Yoshihiko Iwane, Hiroaki Suga
In ribosomal translation, only 20 kinds of proteinogenic amino acids (pAAs), namely 19 l-amino acids and glycine, are exclusively incorporated into polypeptide chain. To overcome this limitation, various methods to introduce non-proteinogenic amino acids (npAAs) other than the 20 pAAs have been developed to date. However, the repertoire of amino acids that can be simultaneously introduced is still limited. Moreover, the efficiency of npAA incorporation is not always sufficient depending on their structures...
July 19, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720818/structural-and-rheological-properties-conferring-fertilization-competence-to-xenopus-egg-coating-envelope
#11
Mayu Hanaue, Naofumi Miwa
The extracellular egg-coating envelope that comprises a meshwork of filaments polymerized by glycoproteins plays a pivotal role in species-selective sperm recognition and subsequent fertilization; however, the structural and rheological properties conferring fertilization competence to the egg-coating envelope remain poorly unveiled. Here we show several nanoscale-structural and viscoelastic properties of the egg-coat using the transmission electron microscopy and the quartz crystal microbalance experiments, following clamp of the egg-coat at either fertilization-competent or -incompetent statuses by short-term pretreatment with synthetic peptides...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719588/structures-of-carboxylic-acid-reductase-reveal-domain-dynamics-underlying-catalysis
#12
Deepankar Gahloth, Mark S Dunstan, Daniela Quaglia, Evaldas Klumbys, Michael P Lockhart-Cairns, Andrew M Hill, Sasha R Derrington, Nigel S Scrutton, Nicholas J Turner, David Leys
Carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) catalyzes the ATP- and NADPH-dependent reduction of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes. The enzyme is related to the nonribosomal peptide synthetases, consisting of an adenylation domain fused via a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) to a reductase termination domain. Crystal structures of the CAR adenylation-PCP didomain demonstrate that large-scale domain motions occur between the adenylation and thiolation states. Crystal structures of the PCP-reductase didomain reveal that phosphopantetheine binding alters the orientation of a key Asp, resulting in a productive orientation of the bound nicotinamide...
July 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719194/molecular-modeling-of-the-major-dna-adduct-formed-from-the-food-mutagen-ochratoxin-a-in-nari-2-base-deletion-duplexes-impact-of-sequence-context-and-adduct-ionization-on-conformational-preference-and-mutagenicity
#13
Preetleen Kathuria, Purshotam Sharma, Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C(8)-dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of post-replication 2-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C(8) position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718766/structural-insights-into-the-light-driven-auto-assembly-process-of-the-water-oxidizing-mn4cao5-cluster-in-photosystem-ii
#14
Miao Zhang, Martin Bommer, Ruchira Chatterjee, Rana Hussein, Junko Yano, Holger Dau, Jan Kern, Holger Dobbek, Athina Zouni
In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven splitting of water at a protein-bound Mn4CaO5-cluster, the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). In the photosynthetic organisms, the light-driven formation of the WOC from dissolved metal ions is a key process because it is essential in both initial activation and continuous repair of PSII. Structural information is required for understanding of this chaperone-free metal-cluster assembly. For the first time, we obtained a structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus without the Mn4CaO5-cluster...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718357/the-influence-of-staff-training-and-education-on-prosthetic-and-orthotic-service-quality-a-scoping-review
#15
Saeed Forghany, Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh, Ursula Trinler, Pornsuree Onmanee, Michael P Dillon, Richard Baker
BACKGROUND: Education and training in prosthetics and orthotics typically comply with International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics standards based on three categories of prosthetic and orthotic professionals. OBJECTIVE: This scoping study sought to describe the evidence base available to answer the question, How are prosthetic and orthotic services influenced by the training of staff providing them? STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A structured search of the peer-reviewed literature catalogued in major electronic databases yielded 3039 papers...
July 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717976/-trauma-surgery-in-pacific-small-island-developing-states-sids
#16
REVIEW
H Oberli, C Martin
BACKGROUND: The small developing countries in the Pacific are grouped together as Small Island Development States (SIDS) because they face similar problems which they cannot cope with nationally. They are developing countries, so-called low and lower middle income countries (LMIC), are economically weak and the islands of the different nations are widely scattered. Approximately 80% of the 10 million inhabitants live in rural regions. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SURGICAL CAPACITY: Over 40% of patients in the surgical departments of hospitals are hospitalized for injuries, and this tendency is increasing...
July 17, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716893/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-there-is-only-one-true-winner
#17
Scott B Halstead
The scientific community now possesses information obtained directly from human beings that makes it possible to understand why breakthrough-enhanced dengue virus (DENV) infections occurred in children receiving Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and to predict the possibility of breakthrough-enhanced DENV infections following immunization with two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccines now in phase III testing. Based upon recent research, Dengvaxia, lacking DENV nonstructural protein antigens, did not protect seronegatives because it failed to raise a competent T-cell response and/or antibodies to NS1...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716793/the-realities-of-partnership-in-person-centred-care-a-qualitative-interview-study-with-patients-and-professionals
#18
Axel Wolf, Lucy Moore, Doris Lydahl, Öncel Naldemirci, Mark Elam, Nicky Britten
OBJECTIVE: Although conceptual definitions of person-centred care (PCC) vary, most models value the involvement of patients through patient-professional partnerships. While this may increase patients' sense of responsibility and control, research is needed to further understand how this partnership is created and perceived. This study aims to explore the realities of partnership as perceived by patients and health professionals in everyday PCC practice. DESIGN: Qualitative study employing a thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with professionals and patients...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716021/missed-diagnoses-in-african-americans-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-the-structured-clinical-interview-for-dsm-iv-axis-i-disorders-scid-i
#19
Gregory S Chasson, Monnica T Williams, Darlene M Davis, Jessica Y Combs
BACKGROUND: Research on the utility of structured interviews in assessing OCD is scarce, and even more so, in its use for OCD in African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) in detecting OCD in African Americans when used by well-trained, culturally competent clinicians. METHODS: Seventy-four African American adults with OCD were assessed with the SCID-I and additional measures of OCD...
July 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715603/an-exploratory-study-on-exemplary-practice-of-nurse-consultants
#20
Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Ada Tak Yin Lau, Rebecca Ng, Elaine Wing Yee Wong, So Man Wong, Eva Ching Yee Kan, Eva Liu, Denise Bryant-Lukosius
PURPOSE: To examine the exemplary practice of nurse consultants (NCs) and derive a model to illustrate the highest level of advanced nursing practice. DESIGN: A descriptive study was conducted to examine the practice and outcomes of seven NC roles in varied clinical specialties in Hong Kong. Exemplary practice was examined in relation to competencies for advanced practice nursing in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data about NC characteristics and their practices were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
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