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Structural competency

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#1
Lucas Schwob, Mathieu Lalande, Dmitrii Egorov, Jimmy Rangama, Ronnie Hoekstra, Violaine Vizcaino, Thomas Schlathölter, Jean-Christophe Poully
We report on an experimental single-photon absorption study on gas-phase protonated collagen peptides employing a combination of mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation. Partial ion yields for the main photoabsorption products vary steadily with photon energy over the range from 14 to 545 eV. At low energy, non-dissociative photoionisation competes with neutral molecule loss from the precursor ion, whereas fragmentation of the peptide backbone dominates at soft X-ray energies. Neutral molecule losses from the ionised peptide are found to have low energy barriers and most likely involve amino-acid residue side-chains with radical character, in particular aspartic acid...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
#2
William R Shoemaker, Kenneth J Locey, Jay T Lennon
Microorganisms are the most abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms on Earth. Over the past decade, microbial ecologists have produced the largest ever community datasets. However, these data are rarely used to uncover law-like patterns of commonness and rarity, test theories of biodiversity, or explore unifying explanations for the structure of microbial communities. Using a global scale compilation of >20,000 samples from environmental, engineered and host-related ecosystems, we test the power of competing theories to predict distributions of microbial abundance and diversity-abundance scaling laws...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
#3
Yen-Ching Ho, Yi-Siang Wang, Sheng D Chao
Modeling fluid cycloalkanes with molecular dynamics simulations has proven to be a very challenging task partly because of lacking a reliable force field based on quantum chemistry calculations. In this paper, we construct an ab initio force field for fluid cyclopropane using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. We consider 15 conformers of the cyclopropane dimer for the orientation sampling. Single-point energies at important geometries are calibrated by the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
#4
Praveen Kumar Bommineni, Sudeep N Punnathanam
Co-crystal formation from fluid-mixtures is quite common in a large number of systems. The simplest systems that show co-crystal (also called substitutionally ordered solids) formation are binary hard sphere mixtures. In this work, we study the nucleation of AB2 type solid compounds using Monte Carlo molecular simulations in binary hard sphere mixtures with the size ratio of 0.55. The conditions chosen for the study lie in the region where nucleation of an AB2 type solid competes with that of a pure A solid with a face-centered-cubic structure...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
#5
Hsiu-Yu Yu, Zahera Jabeen, David M Eckmann, Portonovo S Ayyaswamy, Ravi Radhakrishnan
We have studied the microstructure of a flow-driven hardsphere suspension inside a cylinder using dynamical density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. In order to be representative of various physical conditions that may prevail in experiments, we investigate the problem using both the grand canonical ($\mu VT$) ensemble and the canonical ($NVT$) ensemble. In both ensembles, the hydrodynamic effect on the suspension mediated by the presence of the confining wall is implemented in a mean-field fashion by incorporating the thermodynamic work done by the inertial lift force on the particle given the average flow field...
August 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
#6
Unni K Moksnes, Magdalena Lazarewicz
This study investigated associations between stress, resilience factors, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a cross-sectional sample of 1183 adolescents 13-18 years old. The results showed a positive significant association between stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Personal competence was significantly negatively associated with depression and anxiety, whereas social support was significantly negatively associated with anxiety. Significant interaction effects were found between gender by personal competence and gender by structured style in relation to anxiety, with stronger associations for girls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
#7
Kyle Koyu Shimabuku, Julian M Paige, Marisol Luna Agüero, R Scott Summers
Cyclohexanol, phenol, benzoic acid, and phenanthrene fractional removal (italicized words are defined within the main text) by pulverized granular activated carbon and biochar adsorption in deionized water and stormwater was independent of target-adsorbate initial concentrations (C0) when C0s were below concentration thresholds. This permits a simple-modeling approach. C0-independent removal in deionized water at low-target-adsorbate concentrations potentially suggests that DOM in the deionized water induce a competitive effect that causes deviations from the Freundlich model...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
#8
Ann Bygholm, Pernille Bertelsen
There is a widespread consensus that it is important to involve patient in their own care, both for the reasons of quality and safety in healthcare and for the sake of the patients' individual rights. The appreciation of patient participation and related notions such as patient empowerment, patient centered care, patient involvement, patient as co-producers of health et cetera, indicate that the role of the patient have changed over the last decades. It has changed from being a passive recipient of treatment to becoming an active and responsible agent...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
#9
Alex W Bajcz, Francis A Drummond
Plant reproductive trade-offs are thought to be caused by resource limitations or other constraints, but more empirical support for these hypotheses would be welcome. Additionally, quantitative characterization of these trade-offs, as well as consideration of whether they are linear, could yield additional insights. We expanded our flower removal research on lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) to explore the nature of and causes of its reproductive trade-offs. We used fertilization, defoliation, positionally biased flower removal, and multiple flower removal levels to discern why reproductive trade-offs occur in this taxon and to plot these trade-offs along two continuous axes...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
#10
Xin-Qiu Yao, M Claire Cato, Emily Labudde, Tyler S Beyett, John J G Tesmer, Barry J Grant
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for transferring extracellular signals into carefully choreographed intracellular responses controlling diverse aspects of cell physiology. The duration of GPCR mediated signaling is primarily regulated via GPCR kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation of activated receptors. Although many GRK structures have been reported, the mechanisms underlying GRK activation are not well understood, in part because it is unknown how these structures map to the conformational landscape available to this enzyme family...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
#11
Marcelo Martins de Oliveira, Ronald Dickman
According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s)? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher reproductive/death ratio will win the competition, but other mechanisms, such as asymmetry in interspecific competition or unequal diffusion rates, have been found to change this scenario dramatically...
2017: PloS One
#12
Paz Elipe, Joaquín A Mora-Merchán, Lydia Nacimiento
Cyberbullying is a phenomenon with important adverse consequences on victims. The emotional impact of this phenomenon has been well established. However, there is to date no instrument with good psychometric properties tested to assess such impact. The objective of this study was developing and testing the psychometric properties of an instrument to assess the emotional impact of cyberbullying: the "Cybervictimization Emotional Impact Scale, CVEIS." The sample included 1,016 Compulsory Secondary Education students (52...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
#13
T-L Jokiaho, P Kaakinen, J I Virtanen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the compatibility of dental hygienist education with working life from the perspective of their educators. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study among principal educators of dental hygienists in Finland in 2012-2013. The participants were leading educators of dental hygienists (n = 13) from the four Finnish education units. We used semi-structured interviews based on previous Nordic studies to collect the data and analysed them using inductive content analysis...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
#14
M P Escudier, M J Woolford, J A Tricio
INTRODUCTION: Clinical reasoning is a fundamental and core clinical competence of healthcare professionals. The study aimed to investigate the utility of the Structured Professional Reasoning Exercise (SPRE), a new competence assessment method designed to measure dental students' clinical reasoning in simulated scenarios, covering the clinical areas of Oral Disease, Primary Dental Care and Restorative Dentistry, Child Dental Health and Dental Practice and Clinical Governance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 313 year-5 students sat for the assessment...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
#15
Dávid Dankó, Márk Péter Molnár
In 2014, balanced assessment systems (BAS) were proposed as a resource-conscious, 'fit-for-purpose' form of health technology assessment for middle-income countries which lack resources and competences necessary for resource-intensive health technology assessment models. BAS has undergone extensive policy debate in the period since its publication but it has not been critically assessed in a structured form yet. This article aims to describe both the contributions and the weak spots of the original framework and to reflect on them with the intention of further developing the model...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
#16
Johnnie R Robbins, Krystal K Valdez-Delgado, Nicole W Caldwell, Linda H Yoder, Elizabeth J Hayes, Michaèl G Barba, Hope L Greeley, Colleen Mitchell, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
INTRODUCTION: There is significant nationwide interest in transitioning new and new-to-specialty nurses into practice, especially in burn care. Lack of a structured transition program in our Burn Center was recognized as a contributing factor for nursing dissatisfaction and increased turnover compared to other hospital units. Employee evaluations exposed a need for more didactic instruction, hands-on learning, and preceptor support. The goal of this project was to implement an evidence-based transition to practice program specific to the burn specialty...
August 10, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
#17
Juan Manuel Maza Solano, Gustavo Benavente Bermudo, Francisco José Estrada Molina, Jesús Ambrosiani Fernández, Serafín Sánchez Gómez
BACKGROUND: and objectives We have evaluated the training capacity of the Spanish resident training book as an electronic portfolio to achieve the learning objectives of otorhinolaryngology (ENT) residents. METHODS: A multi-method qualitative investigation with transversal characteristics, temporal and retrospective guidance was performed on Spanish ENT residents using a structured questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and a computer application on the FORMIR website...
August 10, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
#18
Pedro Jimenez-Sandoval, Jose Luis Vique-Sanchez, Marisol López Hidalgo, Gilberto Velazquez-Juarez, Corina Diaz-Quezada, Luis Fernando Arroyo-Navarro, Gabriela Montero Moran, Juliana Fattori, A Jessica Diaz-Salazar, Enrique Rudiño-Pinera, Rogerio Sotelo-Mundo, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira, Samuel Lara-Gonzalez, Claudia G Benítez-Cardoza, Luis G Brieba
The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis contains two nearly identical triosephosphate isomerases (TvTIMs) that dissociate into stable monomers and dimerize upon substrate binding. Herein, we compare the role of the "ball and socket" and loop 3 interactions in substrate assisted dimer assembly in both TvTIMs. We found that point mutants at the "ball" are only 39 and 29-fold less catalytically active than their corresponding wild-type counterparts, whereas loop 3 deletions are 1502 and 9400-fold less active...
August 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
#19
REVIEW
M Oberst
The new treatment procedures of the German Statutory Accident Insurance (DGUV) have ramifications for the injury type procedure clinics (VAV) from medical, economic and structural aspects. Whereas the latter can be assessed as positive, the medical and economical aspects are perceived as being negative. Problems arise from the partially unclear formulation of the injury type catalogue, which results in unpleasant negotiations with the occupational insurance associations with respect to financial remuneration for services rendered...
August 11, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
#20
Sandra D Starke, Stephen A May
The development of perceptual skills is an important aspect of veterinary education. The authors investigated veterinary student competency in lameness evaluation at two stages, before (third year) and during (fourth/fifth year) clinical rotations. Students evaluated horses in videos, where horses were presented during trot on a straight line and in circles. Eye-tracking data were recorded during assessment on the straight line to follow student gaze. On completing the task, students filled in a structured questionnaire...
August 12, 2017: Veterinary Record
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