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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038716/relationship-between-a-network-s-indicators-and-basic-factors-with-high-risk-behavior-of-injection-among-injecting-drug-users-idu-via-the-multiple-membership-multilevel-model
#1
Ali Karamoozian, Yunes Jahani, Armita Shahesmaeili, Moghaddameh Mirzaee
BACKGROUND: Among various methods and types of drug abuse, injection receives a great deal of importance because of its related dangerous behavior and health consequences. It seemed that some of the network's indicators affect dangerous behavior of injection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between a network's indicators and basic factors with high-risk behavior of injection among injecting drug users (IDU) via the multiple memberships multilevel model...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983184/examination-of-the-extent-to-which-employment-factors-are-associated-with-reduced-child-maltreatment-potential-and-drug-use
#2
Brad Donohue, Christopher P Plant, Kimberly A Barchard, David J Gillis
Job assistance programs are commonly recommended for parents of children who have been victimized by child maltreatment, particularly when illicit drugs are indicated. However, the relationship between employment factors, substance abuse and risk of child maltreatment has received limited empirical attention. Therefore, the current study examines employment factors in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred by Child Protective Services (CPS) for treatment of substance abuse and child neglect. Child maltreatment potential was found to be negatively associated with number of hours employed and self-reported happiness with employment...
January 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979752/triangular-relationship-among-risky-sexual-behavior-addiction-and-aggression-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Seyed Alireza Javadinia, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Mohammad Arash Ramezani, Homa Sedghijalal
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. OBJECTIVE: To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. METHODS: This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013...
August 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931618/predicting-major-bleeding-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nina A Hilkens, Ale Algra, Jacoba P Greving
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Performance of risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is not well established. We aimed to validate risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants after cerebral ischemia and explore the net benefit of oral anticoagulants among bleeding risk categories. METHODS: We analyzed 3623 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke included in the RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy)...
November 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838579/national-trends-in-substance-use-and-use-disorders-among-youth
#5
Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco, Robert L DuPont
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in the 12-month prevalence of patterns of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among US youth during 2002 through 2014. METHOD: Data were from 288,300 persons 12 to 17 years old who participated in the 2002 to 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied. RESULTS: During 2002 through 2014, among US youth, the 12-month prevalence of any substance use decreased by 27...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666811/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-subunit-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-exert-opposing-actions-on-rapid-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-rats-with-high-versus-low-response-to-novelty
#6
Cody A Siciliano, J Michael McIntosh, Sara R Jones, Mark J Ferris
Determining neurobiological factors that contribute to individual variance in drug addiction vulnerability allows for identification of at-risk populations, use of preventative measures and personalized medicine in the treatment of substance use disorders. Rodents that exhibit high locomotor activity when exploring an inescapable novel environment (high-responder; HR) are more susceptible to the reinforcing effects of many abused compounds, including nicotine, as compared to animals that exhibit low locomotor activity (low-responder; LR)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660681/the-role-of-affective-temperament-as-a-predictor-of-relapse-in-alcohol-dependence
#7
Sofia Paulino, Samuel Pombo, Fátima Ismail, Maria Luísa Figueira, Otto Lesch
BACKGROUND: Personality traits have been proposed as relapse risk factors in alcohol use disorders. So far, no study has assessed the association between affective temperamental traits and the prospective relapse risk. METHODS: This was a 3-month prospective naturalistic study, designed to assess the impact of affective temperaments in relapse. A sample of 61 alcohol-dependent patients was collected from an ambulatory clinical setting. Socio-demographic information, drinking and substance use habits, drinking status, craving and affective temperament traits were assessed...
June 29, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602472/neglect-educational-success-and-young-people-in-out-of-home-care-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analyses
#8
Nicholas G Tessier, Aoife O'Higgins, Robert J Flynn
Maltreated young persons in out-of-home care often have poor educational outcomes, heightening their risk of long-term psychosocial disadvantage (Forsman, Brännström, Vinnerljung, & Hjern, 2016). In their systematic reviews, Romano, Babchishin, Marquis, and Fréchette (2014) and O'Higgins, Sebba, and Gardner (in press) found evidence that neglect was more often linked with low academic achievement, whereas abuse was more likely to be associated with behavioral difficulties. In large samples of young persons in out-of-home care in Ontario, Canada, who had experienced mainly neglect, we investigated risk and protective factors as predictors of educational success...
June 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599210/long-term-recall-of-social-relationships-related-to-addiction-and-hiv-risk-behaviors
#9
R L Stout, T Janssen, J M Braciszewski, A Vose-O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudied. METHODS: Using the modified Important People and Activities questionnaire, we investigated to what degree IPs were dropped, added, or retained, and whether data about individual IPs were reported accurately on 6- and 12-month follow up periods using a sample of 50 drug or alcohol abusing participants...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492958/psychometric-validation-of-the-posit-for-screening-alcohol-and-other-drugs-risk-consumption-among-adolescents
#10
Manuel Araujo, Sandra Golpe, Teresa Braña, Jesús Varela, Antonio Rial
Early detection of alcohol and drug abuse among adolescents is decisive not only for rapid referral and intervention in cases of risk, but also as an indicator for use in the evaluation of prevention programs and public policies to reduce consumption. One of the most widely-used screening instruments in the world is the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) (Rahdert, 1991), whose substance use and abuse subscale (POSITUAS) is a brief tool of enormous applied potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491887/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-after-cholecystectomy
#11
David K Warren, Katelin B Nickel, Anna E Wallace, Daniel Mines, Fang Tian, William J Symons, Victoria J Fraser, Margaret A Olsen
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18-64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#12
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405265/socio-epidemiologic-aspects-and-cutaneous-side-effects-of-permanent-tattoos-in-germany-tattoos-are-not-restricted-to-a-specific-social-phenotype
#13
Cornelia Sigrid Lissi Müller, Angela Oertel, Rebecca Körner, Claudia Pföhler, Thomas Vogt
Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment...
2017: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280383/nurses-and-opioids-results-of-a-bi-national-survey-on-mental-models-regarding-opioid-administration-in-hospitals
#14
Charlotte Guest, Fabian Sobotka, Athina Karavasopoulou, Stephen Ward, Carsten Bantel
OBJECTIVE: Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses' mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252529/immunodeficiency-aids-related-pneumonia-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#15
Julia L Marcus, Wendy A Leyden, Chun R Chao, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, Charles P Quesenberry, William J Towner, Michael J Silverberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to clarify the role of immunodeficiency and pneumonia in elevated lung cancer risk among HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in a large integrated healthcare system in California during 1996-2011. METHODS: We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios for lung cancer associated with HIV infection, overall and stratified by recent CD4 cells/μl (HIV-uninfected as reference group), with χ tests for trends across CD4 strata...
April 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241797/changes-in-mortality-rates-and-causes-of-death-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-persons-living-with-and-without-hiv-from-1996-to-2012
#16
Oghenowede Eyawo, Conrado Franco-Villalobos, Mark W Hull, Adriana Nohpal, Hasina Samji, Paul Sereda, Viviane D Lima, Jeannie Shoveller, David Moore, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Non-HIV/AIDS-related diseases are gaining prominence as important causes of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare changes over time in mortality rates and causes of death among a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. METHODS: We analysed data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study; a retrospective population-based study created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Population Data BC, and containing data for HIV-infected individuals and the general population of BC, respectively...
February 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236511/do-patient-characteristics-moderate-the-effect-of-extended-release-naltrexone-xr-ntx-for-opioid-use-disorder
#17
Peter D Friedmann, Donna Wilson, Edward V Nunes, Randall Hoskinson, Joshua D Lee, Michael Gordon, Sean M Murphy, Richard J Bonnie, Donna T Chen, Tamara Y Boney, Charles P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) injected intramuscularly monthly has been shown to reduce relapse in persons with opioid use disorder. Baseline factors, including patients' demographics, comorbidities and lifestyle, may help identify patients who will benefit most or least from XR-NTX treatment. METHODS: Potential moderators of XR-NTX's effect were examined in the largest North American randomized open-label effectiveness trial of XR-NTX. Relapse status (Yes/No) at 6-month follow-up was regressed on treatment group (XR-NTX, N=153; or Treatment-as-Usual [TAU], N=155), baseline covariates, and their two-way interaction to identify moderator effects...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#18
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188400/-juvenile-stroke-what-is-important
#19
M Fischer, B Eckert, J Röther
Stroke in young adults is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all persons involved. Approximately 15% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. Lack of awareness of the symptoms in emergency departments often results in delayed diagnosis and access to specific therapeutic options, such as revascularization. The causes are often heterogeneous and necessitate specific investigations. The etiology of juvenile stroke includes drug abuse, vasculitis and arteriopathies, such as reversible vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, although the prevalence of classical vascular risk factors is high...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165441/intravenous-drugs-abuse-as-the-main-risk-factor-of-increasing-hepatitis-c-infection-prevalence-in-prisoners-in-zenica-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#20
Harun Hodžić, Amel Bajramović, Zarema Obradović, Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo
Aim To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) among prisoners in Zenica prison, and to investigate the relation between HCV and risky behaviors: intravenous drugs use (IDU), tattooing, promiscuity. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted at the High Security Penitentiary in Zenica involved 200 convicted persons who gave their consents for the research. Their blood was tested by AraGen Hepatitis C Test. Risky behaviors (IDU, tattooing, promiscuity) were tested by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
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