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Personality, risk factor, drug abuse,

Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer L Pilgrim, Rhyse Dorward, Olaf H Drummer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are numerous factors putting health-care professionals (HCP) at a higher risk of substance abuse and premature death, including high-stress jobs, access to controlled substances, long hours of practice and constant contact with the critically ill. This study aimed to examine fatal drug toxicity in this high-risk cohort, in order to: (1) estimate the rate of drug-caused deaths of Australian HCPs; (2) describe the key characteristics of the cohort; and (3) examine the relationship between HCP occupation and drug type, or intent...
November 20, 2016: Addiction
Jessica K Salwen, Anthea Gray, Linda R Mona
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to provide evidence-based guidance for health care providers to engage in brief and extensive assessment of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to initiate appropriate safety precautions and referrals, all within the context of disability. Research Method/Design: This article is a review of the literature on prevalence and risk factors for IPV in nondisabled couples and in couples where a partner has a disability, on various assessment tools, and on the impact of personal assistance on relationships...
November 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
David J Unsworth, Jane L Mathias
Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Giovanna Tassoni, Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Rino Froldi, Giovanni Ottaviani, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
Under Italian law drug addiction and regular drug abuse are incompatible with driving ability. One important problem with the enforcement of the impaired driving law is the large number of people that re-offend. To regain their license, offenders must be drug-free for the duration of an observation period, according to the judgement of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by toxicological analysis. A few studies exist that have used a hair matrix to monitor recidivism. Hair is an attractive matrix for monitoring drug recidivism, due to the large time window for drug detection, and to the non-alterability of this matrix...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
Travis Labrum, Phyllis L Solomon
Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
V Peralta, M J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Delusional disorder (DD) is an under-researched condition and its relationship to schizophrenia (SZ) controversial. This study aimed to further characterize DD and to examine multi-domain evidence for the distinction between DD and SZ. METHOD: Using univariate analyses we examined 146 subjects with DD, 114 subjects with paranoid SZ and 244 subjects with non-paranoid SZ on 52 characteristics from several domains including demographics, risk factors, premorbid features, illness characteristics, index episode features, delusional-related features, response to treatment and outcome...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Micol Parolin, Alessandra Simonelli, Daniela Mapelli, Marianna Sacco, Patrizia Cristofalo
Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shih-Wei Huang, Wei-Te Wang, Li-Fong Lin, Chun-De Liao, Tsan-Hon Liou, Hui-Wen Lin
Although the association between depressive disorders and osteoarthritis (OA) has been studied, the association of other psychiatric disorders with OA remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for OA.The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 of Taiwan. We collected the ambulatory care claim records of patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Saínza García, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Saioa López-Zurbano, Iñaki Zorrilla, Purificación López, Eduard Vieta, Ana González-Pinto
Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Negar Rezaei, Sedigheh Amini-Kafiabad, Mahtab Maghsudlu, Hasan Abolghasemi
BACKGROUND: Due to blood screening and blood donor selection, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to be lower among blood donors compared to the general population. The effective control of blood-transmitted infectious diseases should be one of the goals of public health. Thus, this case-control study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of HCV in a representative sample of blood donors in Iran. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on HCV-negative and on serologically confirmed HCV-positive donors across the country from 2009 to 2013...
July 2016: Transfusion
Geoffrey R T Walton, Kanna Hayashi, Paxton Bach, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Keith Ahamad, M J Milloy, Julio Montaner, Evan Wood
OBJECTIVE: Illicit drug use is a well-established risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the impact of benzodiazepine use on mortality among populations of polysubstance users. This study aimed to identify the effect of benzodiazepine use on mortality among a prospective cohort of people in Canada who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: A cohort of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, was prospectively followed from May 1996 through November 2013...
May 2016: Public Health Reports
Cathryn Rodway, Su-Gwan Tham, Saied Ibrahim, Pauline Turnbull, Kirsten Windfuhr, Jenny Shaw, Nav Kapur, Louis Appleby
BACKGROUND: There is concern about the mental health of children and young people and a possible rise in suicidal behaviour in this group. We have done a comprehensive national multi-agency study of suicide in under 20s in England. We aimed to establish how frequently suicide is preceded by child-specific and young person-specific suicide risk factors, as well as all-age factors, and to identify contact with health-care and social-care services and justice agencies. METHODS: This study is a descriptive examination of suicide in a national consecutive sample of children and young people younger than 20 years who died by suicide in England between Jan 1, 2014, and April 30, 2015...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Michelle Torok, Shane Darke, Fiona Shand, Sharlene Kaye
INTRODUCTION: Violence is a major burden of harm among injecting drug users (IDU), however, the liability to violent offending is not well understood. The current study aimed to better understand differences in the liability to violence by determining whether IDU could be disaggregated into distinct violent offending classes, and determining the correlates of class membership. METHODS: A total of 300 IDU from Sydney, Australia were administered a structured interview examining the prevalence and severity of drug use and violent offending histories, as well as early life risk factors (maltreatment, childhood mental disorder, trait personality)...
September 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Julia L Marcus, Chun R Chao, Wendy A Leyden, Lanfang Xu, Charles P Quesenberry, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Michael A Horberg, Michael J Silverberg
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if a survival gap remains between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with access to care. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study within Kaiser Permanente California during 1996-2011, using abridged life tables to estimate the expected years of life remaining ("life expectancy") at age 20. RESULTS: Among 24,768 HIV-infected and 257,600 HIV-uninfected individuals, there were 2229 and 4970 deaths, with mortality rates of 1827 and 326 per 100,000 person-years, respectively...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Enrique Esbec, Enrique Echeburúa
There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use...
2016: Adicciones
Raina D Pang, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Nicholas I Goldenson, Casey R Guillot, Adam M Leventhal
OBJECTIVE: Identifying factors that moderate subjective response to stimulants is important for understanding individuals at risk for abusing these drugs. Some research suggests that Asians may respond differently to stimulants than other races, but controlled human laboratory research of stimulant administration effects in Asians is scant. METHODS: In this double-blind counterbalanced within-subject study, healthy stimulant-naïve participants (N = 65; 55% Asian; 63% female; age 18-35) received a single dose of 20-mg oral d-amphetamine or placebo on separate days...
May 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Maria Rikala, Helena Kastarinen, Pekka Tiittanen, Risto Huupponen, Maarit Jaana Korhonen
AIMS: The demand for oral anticoagulant therapy will continue to increase in the future along with the aging of the population. This study aimed to determine the rate of bleeding requiring hospitalization and to characterize early bleeders among persons initiating warfarin therapy. Characterization of those most susceptible to early bleeding is important in order to increase the safety of warfarin initiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from nationwide health registers, we identified persons initiating warfarin therapy between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2012, n=101,588, and followed them until hospitalization for bleeding, death, or administrative end of the study (December 31, 2012)...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam
Antibiotics are commonly used to combat infections and could be used in treating some connective diseases. They are not without side effects especially when used without regard to age, gender, diseases and their severity, comorbidity, and idiosyncrasies. This is more likely to occur when dispensed by unqualified persons to selves or others. Consequences of inappropriate use include various morbidities and in some instances death. This is a report of a middle-aged man with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, who on the side had chronic osteomyelitis...
November 2015: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Sanyog G Shitole, Noel Kayo, Vankeepuram Srinivas, Venkatesh Alapati, Charles Nordin, William Southern, Panagiota Christia, Robert T Faillace, James Scheuer, Jorge R Kizer
Although cocaine is a well-recognized risk factor for coronary disease, detailed information is lacking regarding related behavioral and clinical features of cocaine-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban settings. Nor are systematic or extended follow-up data available on outcomes for cocaine-associated STEMI in the contemporary era of percutaneous coronary intervention. We leveraged a prospective STEMI registry from a large health system serving an inner-city community to characterize the clinical features, acute management, and middle-term outcomes of cocaine-related versus cocaine-unrelated STEMI...
April 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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