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Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Yongjie Liu, Fujun Hou, Zhaoying Qian, Xiaolin Liu
The clade B serpins contain predominantly intracellular proteins and were reported to be involved in multiple biological functions, especially in inflammation and immune system function. However, studies about the role of the invertebrate intracellular serpins in immune responses were still deficient. Therefore, this paper focused on the functional characterization of LvserpinB3 in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The pAc5.1-LvserpinB3-EGFP vector was transfected into Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to analyze the subcellular localization of LvserpinB3, and fluorescent imaging showed that LvserpinB3 were mainly localized to the mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
R V Rial, F Canellas, A Gamundí, M Akaârir, M C Nicolau
Although largely unrecognized by sleep scholars, sleeping is a pleasure. This report aims first, to fill the gap: sleep, like food, water and sex, is a primary reinforcer. The levels of extracellular mesolimbic dopamine show circadian oscillations and mark the "wanting" for pro-homeostatic stimuli. Further, the dopamine levels decrease during waking and are replenished during sleep, in opposition to sleep propensity. The wanting of sleep, therefore, may explain the homeostatic and circadian regulation of sleep...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Amber D Tripodi, James P Strange
Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Mirko Moroni, M Rocio Servin-Vences, Raluca Fleischer, Oscar Sánchez-Carranza, Gary R Lewin
Mechanosensitive PIEZO ion channels are evolutionarily conserved proteins whose presence is critical for normal physiology in multicellular organisms. Here we show that, in addition to mechanical stimuli, PIEZO channels are also powerfully modulated by voltage and can even switch to a purely voltage-gated mode. Mutations that cause human diseases, such as xerocytosis, profoundly shift voltage sensitivity of PIEZO1 channels toward the resting membrane potential and strongly promote voltage gating. Voltage modulation may be explained by the presence of an inactivation gate in the pore, the opening of which is promoted by outward permeation...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Eugeniya I Bekker, Dmitry P Karabanov, Yan R Galimov, Christoph R Haag, Tatiana V Neretina, Alexey A Kotov
Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia...
2018: PloS One
Robert W Zeller
Embryonic development depends on the orchestration of hundreds of regulatory and structural genes to initiate expression at the proper time, in the correct spatial domain(s), and in the amounts required for cells and tissues to become specified, determined, and ultimately to differentiate into a multicellular embryo. One of the key approaches to studying embryonic development is the generation of transgenic animals in which recombinant DNA molecules are transiently or stably introduced into embryos to alter gene expression, to manipulate gene function or to serve as reporters for specific cell types or subcellular compartments...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Qian Li, Jiao Chen, Xiaoying Li, Bomiao Cui, Yaping Fan, Ning Geng, Qianming Chen, Ping Zhang, Yun Feng
High mobility group nucleosomal-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) is an abundant non-histone nuclear protein of vertebrates and invertebrates. The aim of the present study was to characterize the endogenous expression of HMGN2 in various types of tumor cell. Western blotting was performed to analyze HMGN2 expression in the following tumor cell lines: H1975, HSC-4, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, SCC-25 and THP-1. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were included as a noncancerous control. HMGN2 was detected in human oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemical analysis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Li Xu, Hong-Bo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Ying Xiong, Xue-Ping Lu, Yu-Xia Pei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Biogenic amines perform many kinds of important physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS) of insects, acting as neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones. The five most abundant types of biogenic amines in invertebrates are dopamine, histamine, serotonin, tyramine, and octopamine (OA). However, in beetles, an important group of model and pest insects, the role of tyramine β-hydroxylase (TβH) in the OA biosynthesis pathway and the regulation of behavior remains unknown so far...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna-Katharina Buchberger, Denise Brettschneider, Kristin Berg, Dirk Jungmann, Jörg Oehlmann, Marco Scheurer, Matthias Oetken
Aquatic organisms are impacted by various biotic and abiotic stressors such as current, inter- and intraspecific competition for food resources and habitat, neobiota as well as an increasing number of chemicals. The latter also include pharmaceuticals, which are increasingly being detected in surface waters due to their growing use. The aim of our study was to determine effect data for metoprolol as a model compound for beta-blockers under an environmentally realistic exposure scenario on aquatic invertebrates inhabiting lotic environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Chan-Hee Kim, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Maurice R Elphick, Nam Gyu Park
Pedal peptides and orcokinins are structurally related neuropeptides that were first discovered in protostomian invertebrates - mollusks and arthropods, respectively. Recently, pedal peptide/ocokinin (PP/OK)-type neuropeptides were discovered in a deuterostomian phylum, the echinoderms, indicating that the evolutionary origin of this neuropeptide family can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterian animals. Sequences comparison of PP/OK-type neuropeptides reveals several conserved residues, including N- and C-terminally located hydrophobic residues that are important for the bioactivity of orcokinin...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
Mathieu Santonja, Laura Pellan, Christophe Piscart
Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Matthew B G J Brown, Chrissen E C Gemmill, Steven Miller, Priscilla M Wehi
Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hideyuki Miyazawa, Hiroaki Nakano
Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, "ethanol-treated substrate sampling," for collecting placozoans from natural environments...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Peng Zhang, Yu Liu, Min Wang, Miren Dong, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhihao Jia, Weilin Wang, Anguo Zhang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors of proteins, are involved in catalysis reactions, electron transport reactions, regulation processes as well as sensing of ambient conditions. Iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein (IscA) is a scaffold protein member of ISC formation system, which plays a significant role in the assembly and maturation process of ISC proteins. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of iron-sulphur cluster assembly protein 2 (designated as EsIscA2) was cloned from Eriocheir sinensis...
March 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Carolyn J Foley, Zachary S Feiner, Timothy D Malinich, Tomas O Höök
Microplastics are present in aquatic ecosystems the world over and may influence the feeding, growth, reproduction, and survival of freshwater and marine biota; however, the extent and magnitude of potential effects of microplastics on aquatic organisms is poorly understood. In the current study, we conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to examine impacts of exposure to microplastics on consumption (and feeding), growth, reproduction, and survival of fish and aquatic invertebrates. While we did observe within-taxa negative effects for all four categories of responses, many of the effects summarized in our study were neutral, indicating that the effects of exposure to microplastics are highly variable across taxa...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paula C Dos Reis Oliveira, Michiel H S Kraak, Harm G van der Geest, Sofia Naranjo, Piet F M Verdonschot
Despite the widely acknowledged connection between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the contribution of runoff to the sediment composition in lowland stream deposition zones and the subsequent effects on benthic invertebrates remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the mechanisms by which runoff affects sediment composition and macroinvertebrates in deposition zones of lowland stream ecosystems. To this end, sediment from runoff and adjacent instream deposition zones from streams with different land use was chemically characterized and the biological effects were assessed at the species, community and ecosystem level...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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