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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778989/involvement-of-serotonin-in-crayfish-hematopoiesis
#1
Chadanat Noonin
Serotonin (5-HT) is a conserved monoamine neurotransmitter that has several physiological functions both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to its well-known function in the central nervous system, 5-HT also participates in peripheral system. However, in crustaceans, the knowledge about peripheral functions of 5-HT is limited. In this study, a role of 5-HT in hematopoiesis in crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, was investigated. The presence of 5-HT in crayfish plasma and the effect of 5-HT injection on hemocyte number were examined...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778904/c-lysozyme-contributes-to-antiviral-immunity-in-bombyx-mori-against-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#2
Ting-Ting Chen, Li-Rong Tan, Nan Hu, Zhan-Qi Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ya-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu
Lysozymes is a ubiquitous immune effector that is widely distributed in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previous reports have shown that lysozymes significantly inhibit viral infections in vertebrates. However, the antiviral effects of lysozymes in invertebrates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of lysozymes in Bombyx mori (B. mori) response to viral infection by overexpressing B. mori C-lysozyme (BmC-LZM) in larvae and cells. We found that BmC-LZM was up-regulated in cells in response to viral infection...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778006/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-tramadol-and-citalopram-alter-behaviour-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate
#3
M Buřič, K Grabicová, J Kubec, A Kouba, I Kuklina, P Kozák, R Grabic, T Randák
Environmental pollution by pharmaceutically active compounds, used in quantities similar to those of pesticides and other organic micropollutants, is increasingly recognized as a major threat to the aquatic environment. These compounds are only partly removed from wastewaters and, despite their low concentrations, directly and indirectly affect behaviour of freshwater organisms in natural habitats. The aim of this study was to behaviourally assess the effects of an opioid painkiller (tramadol) and antidepressant drug (citalopram) on behaviour patterns of a clonal model species, marbled crayfish...
May 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777183/harmless-sea-snail-parasite-causes-mass-mortalities-in-numerous-commercial-scallop-populations-in-the-northern-hemisphere
#4
Árni Kristmundsson, Mark Andrew Freeman
Apicomplexans comprise a group of unicellular, often highly pathogenic, obligate parasites exploiting either one or two hosts to complete a full reproductive cycle. For decades, various scallop populations have suffered cyclical mass mortality events, several of which shown to be caused by apicomplexan infections. We report the first dual mollusc life cycle for an apicomplexan: a species highly pathogenic in various pectinid bivalve species, but apathogenic when infecting the common whelk as Merocystis kathae...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777096/the-first-isolate-of-candida-auris-in-china-clinical-and-biological-aspects
#5
Xiaojuan Wang, Jian Bing, Qiushi Zheng, Feifei Zhang, Jingbo Liu, Huizhen Yue, Li Tao, Han Du, Yina Wang, Hui Wang, Guanghua Huang
The emerging human fungal pathogen Candida auris has been recognized as a multidrug resistant species and is associated with high mortality. This fungus was first described in Japan in 2009 and has been reported in at least 18 countries on five continents. In this study, we report the first isolate of C. auris from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a hospitalized woman in China. Interestingly, this isolate is susceptible to all tested antifungals including amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin...
May 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776592/response-to-metals-treatment-of-fra1-a-member-of-the-ap-1-transcription-factor-family-in-p-lividus-sea-urchin-embryos
#6
Roberta Russo, Rosa Bonaventura, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Valeria Matranga, Francesca Zito
Lithium (Li), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) are metals normally present in the seawater, although they can have adverse effects on the marine ecosystem at high concentrations by interfering with many biological processes. These metals are toxic for sea urchin embryos, affecting their morphology and developmental pathways. In particular, they perturb differently the correct organization of the embryonic axes (animal-vegetal, dorso-ventral): Li is a vegetalizing agent and Ni disrupts the dorso-ventral axis, while Zn has an animalizing effect...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776339/differential-gene-transcription-across-the-life-cycle-in-daphnia-magna-using-a-new-all-genome-custom-made-microarray
#7
Bruno Campos, Danielle Fletcher, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Carlos Barata
BACKGROUND: Unravelling the link between genes and environment across the life cycle is a challenging goal that requires model organisms with well-characterized life-cycles, ecological interactions in nature, tractability in the laboratory, and available genomic tools. Very few well-studied invertebrate model species meet these requirements, being the waterflea Daphnia magna one of them. Here we report a full genome transcription profiling of D. magna during its life-cycle. The study was performed using a new microarray platform designed from the complete set of gene models representing the whole transcribed genome of D...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775460/genus-wide-comparison-of-pseudovibrio-bacterial-genomes-reveal-diverse-adaptations-to-different-marine-invertebrate-hosts
#8
Anoop Alex, Agostinho Antunes
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774238/chitinase-genes-chia-s-provide-genomic-footprints-of-a-post-cretaceous-dietary-radiation-in-placental-mammals
#9
Christopher A Emerling, Frédéric Delsuc, Michael W Nachman
The end-Cretaceous extinction led to a massive faunal turnover, with placental mammals radiating in the wake of nonavian dinosaurs. Fossils indicate that Cretaceous stem placentals were generally insectivorous, whereas their earliest Cenozoic descendants occupied a variety of dietary niches. It is hypothesized that this dietary radiation resulted from the opening of niche space, following the extinction of dinosaurian carnivores and herbivores. We provide the first genomic evidence for the occurrence and timing of this dietary radiation in placental mammals...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#10
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771324/impacts-of-the-invasive-european-red-ant-myrmica-rubra-l-hymenoptera-formicidae-on-a-myrmecochorous-system-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#11
Nicola Gammans, Frank Drummond, Eleanor Groden
We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770420/selenium-species-dependent-toxicity-bioavailability-and-metabolic-transformations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Isabelle Rohn, Talke Anu Marschall, Nina Kroepfl, Kenneth Bendix Jensen, Michael Aschner, Simon Tuck, Doris Kuehnelt, Tanja Schwerdtle, Julia Bornhorst
The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) is required for various systemic functions, but its beneficial range is narrow and overexposure may result in adverse health effects. Additionally, the chemical form of the ingested selenium contributes crucially to its health effects. While small Se species play a major role in Se metabolism, their toxicological effects, bioavailability and metabolic transformations following elevated uptake are poorly understood. Utilizing the tractable invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans allowed for an alternative approach to study species-specific characteristics of organic and inorganic Se forms in vivo, revealing remarkable species-dependent differences in the toxicity and bioavailability of selenite, selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys)...
May 17, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#13
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769587/explorations-on-the-ecological-role-of-toxin-secretion-and-delivery-in-jawless-predatory-polychaeta
#14
N Cuevas, M Martins, A P Rodrigo, C Martins, P M Costa
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769532/aid-apobec-like-cytidine-deaminases-are-ancient-innate-immune-mediators-in-invertebrates
#15
Mei-Chen Liu, Wen-Yun Liao, Katherine M Buckley, Shu Yuan Yang, Jonathan P Rast, Sebastian D Fugmann
In the course of both innate and adaptive immunity, cytidine deaminases within the activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID)/apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC) family modulate immune responses by mutating specific nucleic acid sequences of hosts and pathogens. The evolutionary emergence of these mediators, however, seems to coincide precisely with the emergence of adaptive immunity in vertebrates. Here, we show a family of genes in species within two divergent invertebrate phyla-the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the brachiopod Lingula anatina-that encode proteins with similarities in amino acid sequence and enzymatic activities to the vertebrate AID/APOBECs...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764939/the-importance-of-a-halotyrosine-dehalogenase-for-drosophila-fertility
#16
Abhishek Phatarphekar, Qi Su, Suk Ho Eun, Xin Chen, Steven E Rokita
The ability of iodotyrosine deiodinase to salvage iodide from iodotyrosine has long been recognized as critical for iodide homeostasis and proper thyroid function in vertebrates. The significance of its additional ability to dehalogenate bromo- and chlorotyrosine is less apparent and none of these functions could have been anticipated in invertebrates until recently. Drosophila , as most arthropods, contains a deiodinase homolog encoded by CG6279 , now named condet ( cdt ), with a similar catalytic specificity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763883/impact-of-common-environmental-chemicals-bisphenol-a-and-bisphenol-s-on-the-physiology-of-lumbriculus-variegatus
#17
Victoria Vought, Hong-Sheng Wang
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate plastics and a near ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol S (BPS), a substitute of BPA, is also hormonally active. This study examines the effects of aqueous exposure to BPA and BPS on the freshwater annelids Lumbriculus variegatus, a keystone species in shallow water ecosystems. Both BPA and BPS, at both low dose (10-9 M) and high dose (10-6 M), retarded the initial phase of body regrowth after cutting/fragmentation, which is the main mode of reproduction of L...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763761/toxicity-of-functionalized-fullerene-and-fullerene-synthesis-chemicals
#18
Paul A Indeglia, Angelina T Georgieva, Vijay B Krishna, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jean-Claude J Bonzongo
Fullerene is one of the most studied carbon-based nanoparticles due to its unique structure and potential for diverse applications. This study focuses on toxicological effects of two fullerene nanomaterials, contributing to ecological as well as human risk assessment strategies. The biological responses from two basic fullerene materials, aqueous-nanoC60 and alkaline-synthesized fullerenol, were examined using four model organisms. Bioassays were conducted on bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) to determine population impacts and to assess mechanisms of cellular effects for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761464/echinobase-tools-for-echinoderm-genome-analyses
#19
Gregory A Cary, R Andrew Cameron, Veronica F Hinman
The echinoderms are a phylum of invertebrate deuterostome animals that constitute important research models for a number of biological disciplines. EchinoBase ( www.echinobase.org ) is an echinoderm-specific genome database and web information system that provides a platform for the interrogation and exploration of echinoderm genomic data. This chapter outlines the datasets available on EchinoBase; from assembled genomes and genome annotations, to spatial and quantitative expression data, as well as functional genomics datasets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761210/biochemical-properties-of-bacterial-reverse-transcriptase-related-rvt-gene-products-multimerization-protein-priming-and-nucleotide-preference
#20
Irina A Yushenova, Irina R Arkhipova
Cellular reverse transcriptase-related (rvt) genes represent a novel class of reverse transcriptases (RTs), which are only distantly related to RTs of retrotransposons and retroviruses, but, similarly to telomerase RTs, are immobilized in the genome as single-copy genes. They have been preserved by natural selection throughout the evolutionary history of large taxonomic groups, including most fungi, a few plants and invertebrates, and even certain bacteria, being the only RTs present across different domains of life...
May 14, 2018: Current Genetics
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