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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432859/the-impact-of-global-climate-change-on-the-spread-of-parasitic-nematodes
#1
Anna Okulewicz
Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the larvae living mainly in invertebrate intermediate hosts. In biologically diverse nematodes climate warming contributes to the increase in the range of distribution, colonization of new hosts and modification of their development cycles. This is particularly acute in the Arctic and pertains, for instance, to nematodes Ostertagia gruehneri and Setaria tundra parasitizing reindeer Rangifer tarandus and Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus)...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432154/identification-of-the-septate-junction-protein-gliotactin-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-evidence-for-a-role-in-increased-paracellular-permeability-in-larvae
#2
Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Septate junctions (SJs) regulate paracellular permeability across invertebrate epithelia. However, little is known about the function of SJ proteins in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, a role for the transmembrane SJ protein gliotactin (Gli) in the osmoregulatory strategies of larval mosquito (Aedes aegypti) was examined. Differences in gli transcript abundance were observed between the midgut, Malpighian tubules (MT), hindgut and anal papillae (AP) of A. aegypti, which are epithelia that participate in larval mosquito osmoregulation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431346/caged-gammarus-as-biomonitors-identifying-thresholds-of-toxic-metal-bioavailability-that-affect-gammarid-densities-at-the-french-national-scale
#3
Alexandre Ciliberti, Arnaud Chaumot, Rémi Recoura-Massaquant, André Chandesris, Adeline François, Marina Coquery, Martial Ferréol, Olivier Geffard
Bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic elements in biomonitor invertebrate species have already been used to successfully link metal bioavailability and impairments of stream macroinvertebrate communities at the scale of the watershed. However, implementing this empirical comparative approach at a greater spatial scale remains a challenge due to the diversity of biogeographical contexts encompassed by regional and national scales. We showed in previous studies that the use of standard organisms caged permits the use of a common biomonitor over a far greater geographical range, while limiting the influence of confounding factors on levels of bioavailable contamination...
April 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431013/dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-penaeus-monodon-is-predominantly-dependent-on-homologous-recombination
#4
Shikha Srivastava, Sumedha Dahal, Sharanya J Naidu, Deepika Anand, Vidya Gopalakrishnan, Rajendran Kooloth Valappil, Sathees C Raghavan
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mostly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in higher eukaryotes. In contrast, HR-mediated DSB repair is the major double-strand break repair pathway in lower order organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Penaeus monodon, commonly known as black tiger shrimp, is one of the economically important crustaceans facing large-scale mortality due to exposure to infectious diseases. The animals can also get exposed to chemical mutagens under the culture conditions as well as in wild...
April 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430158/identification-of-tight-binding-plasmepsin-ii-and-falcipain-2-inhibitors-in-aqueous-extracts-of-marine-invertebrates-by-the-combination-of-enzymatic-and-interaction-based-assays
#5
Emir Salas-Sarduy, Yasel Guerra, Giovanni Covaleda Cortés, Francesc Xavier Avilés, María A Chávez Planes
Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes...
April 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429758/intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-family-diversity-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-genomic-and-structural-features-of-invertebrate-lipid-transporters
#6
Guilherme de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Flavia Lucena Zacchi, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) play a role in the transport and cellular uptake of fatty acids and gene expression regulation. The aim of this work was to characterize the iLBP gene family of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, one of the most cultivated marine bivalves in the world, using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. A total of 26 different iLBPs transcripts were identified in the Pacific oyster genome, including alternative splicing and gene duplication events. The oyster iLBP gene family seems to be more expanded than in other invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429315/the-mitochondrion-of-euglena-gracilis
#7
Verena Zimorski, Cessa Rauch, Jaap J van Hellemond, Aloysius G M Tielens, William F Martin
In the presence of oxygen, Euglena gracilis mitochondria function much like mammalian mitochondria. Under anaerobiosis, E. gracilis mitochondria perform a malonyl-CoA independent synthesis of fatty acids leading to accumulation of wax esters, which serve as the sink for electrons stemming from glycolytic ATP synthesis and pyruvate oxidation. Some components (enzymes and cofactors) of Euglena's anaerobic energy metabolism are found among the anaerobic mitochondria of invertebrates, others are found among hydrogenosomes, the H2-producing anaerobic mitochondria of protists...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428744/mutational-analysis-at-intersubunit-interfaces-of-an-anionic-glutamate-receptor-reveals-a-key-interaction-important-for-channel-gating-by-ivermectin
#8
Nurit Degani-Katzav, Revital Gortler, Marina Weissman, Yoav Paas
The broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) activates and stabilizes an open-channel conformation of invertebrate chloride-selective glutamate receptors (GluClRs), thereby causing a continuous inflow of chloride ions and sustained membrane hyperpolarization. These effects suppress nervous impulses and vital physiological processes in parasitic nematodes. The GluClRs are pentamers. Homopentameric receptors assembled from the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) GluClα (GLC-1) subunit can inherently respond to IVM but not to glutamate (the neurotransmitter)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428300/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-casseliflavus-pavet15-obtained-from-the-oviduct-infection-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-jiutepec-morelos-mexico
#9
R Cossío-Bayúgar, E Miranda-Miranda, C A Arreguín-Pérez, L Lozano, D Peréz de la Rosa, M K Rocha-Martínez, M A Bravo-Díaz, B Sachman-Ruiz
Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of animals, like mammals, birds, and arthropods. Enterococcus spp. may cause oportunistic infections in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We report here the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus casseliflavus PAVET15 containing 3,722,480 bp, with 80 contigs, an N50 of 179,476 bp, and 41.93% G+C content.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428253/twitchin-kinase-inhibits-muscle-activity
#10
Yohei Matsunaga, Hyundoo Hwang, Barbara Franke, Rhys Williams, McKenna Penley, Hiroshi Qadota, Hong Yi, Levi T Morran, Hang Lu, Olga Mayans, Guy M Benian
Muscle sarcomeres contain giant polypeptides composed of multiple immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains and one or two protein kinase domains. Although binding partners for a number of this family's kinase domains have been identified, the catalytic necessity of these kinase domains remains unknown. In addition, various members of this kinase family are suspected pseudokinases with no, or little, activity. Here, we address catalytic necessity for the first time using the prototypic invertebrate representative twitchin (UNC-22) from C...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428061/identification-and-characterization-of-an-interleukin-16-like-gene-from-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#11
Qianhui Liang, Jiefu Zheng, Hongliang Zuo, Chaozheng Li, Shengwen Niu, Linwei Yang, Muting Yan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Interleukins are a group of cytokines that play essential roles in immune regulation. Almost all interleukin genes are only found in vertebrates. In this study, an interleukin-16-like gene (LvIL-16L) was identified from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIL-16L was predicted to encode a precursor (pro-LvIL-16L) with 1378 amino acids, sharing similarities with predicted pro-IL-16-like proteins from insects. The C-terminus of pro-LvIL-16L protein contained two PDZ domains homologous to the mature IL-16 cytokine of vertebrates...
April 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427773/bioturbation-transports-secondary-microplastics-to-deeper-layers-in-soft-marine-sediments-of-the-northern-baltic-sea
#12
Pinja Näkki, Outi Setälä, Maiju Lehtiniemi
Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line<1mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7-5.1cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth...
April 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426746/low-levels-of-cd-induce-persisting-epigenetic-modifications-and-acclimation-mechanisms-in-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#13
Maja Šrut, Victoria Drechsel, Martina Höckner
Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), a common soil pollutant, are still not very well understood, particularly in regard to its epigenetic impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess DNA methylation changes and their persistence in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris upon chronic low dose Cd exposure using methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Moreover, the biomarker response and fitness of the earthworms, as well as the expression of detoxification-related genes (metallothionein (MT) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS)) was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426724/cloning-retinoid-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-nuclear-receptors-of-the-pacific-oyster-and-in-silico-binding-to-environmental-chemicals
#14
Susanne Vogeler, Tamara S Galloway, Michail Isupov, Tim P Bean
Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425427/tetracapsuloides-bryosalmonae-abundance-in-river-water
#15
Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Jason W Holland, Chris J Secombes, Beth Okamura
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of freshwater bryozoans and salmonids, causing proliferative kidney disease in the latter. To date, detection of the parasite has required collection of hosts and subsequent molecular or histological examination. The release of infectious spores from both hosts offers an opportunity to detect the parasite in water samples. We developed a novel SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for T. bryosalmonae in water samples which provides an estimation of bryozoan malacospore numbers and tested the assay in 3 rivers in southern England (UK) over a period of 5 wk...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424343/interactive-effects-of-temperature-food-and-skeletal-mineralogy-mediate-biological-responses-to-ocean-acidification-in-a-widely-distributed-bryozoan
#16
Daniel S Swezey, Jessica R Bean, Aaron T Ninokawa, Tessa M Hill, Brian Gaylord, Eric Sanford
Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and food concentrations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423423/invertebrates-fungal-biomass-and-leaf-breakdown-in-pools-and-riffles-of-neotropical-streams
#17
Renato Tavares Martins, Lidimara Souza da Silveira, Marcos Pereira Lopes, Roberto Gama Alves
We evaluated fungal biomass (as ergosterol concentration) and invertebrate colonization during leaf breakdown of Picramnia sellowii Planch. (Picramniaceae) in pools and riffles of three low-order forested streams in southeastern Brazil. We hypothesized that leaf breakdown will be higher in riffles due to the high physical fragmentation and fungal activity. The experiment was carried out during the dry season of 2012, using 108 litter bags, each containing 3 ± 0.05 g of air-dried leaves. After 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of incubation, six litter bags (riffle = 3 and pool = 3) were removed from each stream...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423077/early-devonian-late-emsian-shark-fin-remains-chondrichthyes-from-the-paran%C3%A3-basin-southern-brazil
#18
Martha Richter, Elvio P Bosetti, Rodrigo S Horodyski
We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials)...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#19
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421168/contribution-of-the-a-baumannii-a1s_0114-gene-to-the-interaction-with-eukaryotic-cells-and-virulence
#20
Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Theresa A Ramelot, Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Juan A Vallejo, Alejandro Beceiro, Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, María Merino, Steven E Fiester, Michael A Kennedy, Luis A Actis, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Genetic and functional studies showed that some components of the Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 A1S_0112-A1S_0119 gene cluster are critical for biofilm biogenesis and surface motility. Recently, our group has shown that the A1S_0114 gene was involved in biofilm formation, a process related with pathogenesis. Confirming our previous results, microscopy images revealed that the ATCC 17978 Δ0114 derivative lacking this gene was unable to form a mature biofilm structure. Therefore, other bacterial phenotypes were analyzed to determine the role of this gene in the pathogenicity of A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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