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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#1
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091884/pre-mining-trace-element-and-radiation-exposure-to-biota-from-a-breccia-pipe-uranium-mine-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona-usa-watershed
#2
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091775/developmental-and-sex-specific-differences-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-derived-from-allatotropin-gene-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#3
Branislav Bednár, Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Diana Mitrová, Dušan Žitňan
Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori...
January 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091741/chemical-physical-and-biological-factors-shape-littoral-invertebrate-community-structure-in-coal-mining-end-pit-lakes
#4
Andreas Luek, Joseph B Rasmussen
Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091617/switch-from-sexual-to-parthenogenetic-reproduction-in-a-zebra-shark
#5
Christine L Dudgeon, Laura Coulton, Ren Bone, Jennifer R Ovenden, Severine Thomas
Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089897/crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormones-directly-modulate-the-immune-response-of-hemocytes-in-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#6
Lin Wang, Hao Chen, Jianchao Xu, Qingsong Xu, Mengqiang Wang, Depeng Zhao, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
A robust immune response against invading pathogens is crucial for host to survive, which depends greatly on the well balance of metabolism. Increasing evidence has indicated that some metabolic hormones, such as insulin, could modulate immune responses directly. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family is a group of ecdysozoans-specific peptide hormone involved in glucose metabolism and other biological events. In the present study, two members of CHH family (designated as LvCHH I and LvCHH II) in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with one and two crustacean neurohormone domains respectively were chosen to investigate their putative modulatory roles in both glucose metabolism and immune response...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089489/long-non-coding-rnas-are-associated-with-spatiotemporal-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-marine-gastropod-tegula-atra
#7
Camille Détrée, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Fabian Tapia, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play diverse roles in cellular processes, including in the regulation of embryogenesis and growth. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in marine invertebrates inhabiting changing environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present the first characterization of lncRNAs in an intertidal marine gastropod. Specifically, Tegula atra individuals were sampled in four sites of the central-northern Chilean coastline (28-31°) during summer and winter...
January 12, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089465/differential-bioaccumulation-patterns-of-nanosized-and-dissolved-silver-in-a-land-snail-achatina-fulica
#8
Yuanzhen Chen, Youbin Si, Dongmei Zhou, Fei Dang
With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO3) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088650/assessing-the-identity-and-expression-level-of-the-cytochrome-p450-20a1-cyp20a1-gene-in-the-bpa-bde-47-and-waf-exposed-copepods-tigriopus-japonicus-and-paracyclopina-nana
#9
Jeonghoon Han, Duck-Hyun Kim, Jung Soo Seo, Il-Chan Kim, David R Nelson, Jayesh Puthumana, Jae-Seong Lee
CYP20A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, identified as an orphan P450 without any assigned biological function; hence, its continued status as an "orphan" gene. In order to address this shortcoming in our understanding of this superfamily, we sought to characterize the CYP20A1 gene in the copepods Tigriopus japonicus (Tj-CYP20A1) and Paracyclopina nana (Pn-CYP20A1) at their mRNA transcriptional level. We assessed the response of this gene's expression in various developmental stages and in response to treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil...
January 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086791/identification-of-functional-enolase-genes-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-from-public-databases-with-a-combination-of-dry-and-wet-bench-processes
#10
Akira Kikuchi, Takeru Nakazato, Katsuhiko Ito, Yosui Nojima, Takeshi Yokoyama, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Hidemasa Bono, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Ryoichi Sato, Hiroko Tabunoki
BACKGROUND: Various insect species have been added to genomic databases over the years. Thus, researchers can easily obtain online genomic information on invertebrates and insects. However, many incorrectly annotated genes are included in these databases, which can prevent the correct interpretation of subsequent functional analyses. To address this problem, we used a combination of dry and wet bench processes to select functional genes from public databases. RESULTS: Enolase is an important glycolytic enzyme in all organisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#11
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078785/risks-of-ocean-acidification-in-the-california-current-food-web-and-fisheries-ecosystem-model-projections
#12
Kristin N Marshall, Isaac C Kaplan, Emma E Hodgson, Albert Hermann, D Shallin Busch, Paul McElhany, Timothy E Essington, Chris J Harvey, Elizabeth A Fulton
The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues...
January 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078624/millipede-defensive-compounds-are-a-double-edged-sword-natural-history-of-the-millipede-parasitic-genus-myriophora-brown-diptera-phoridae
#13
John M Hash, Jocelyn G Millar, John M Heraty, James F Harwood, Brian V Brown
Toxic defensive secretions produced by millipedes in the orders Julida, Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Polydesmida are highly repellent to most vertebrate and invertebrate natural enemies, but a few insects have evolved mechanisms to overcome these defenses. We demonstrate that highly specialized parasitic phorid flies in the species-rich genus Myriophora use volatile millipede defensive compounds as kairomones for host location. Of the two predominant quinone components in the defensive blend of juliform millipedes, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone alone was sufficient to attract adult flies of both sexes; however, a combination of 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone increased attractiveness nearly threefold...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077607/anatomy-of-mdm2-and-mdm4-in-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Ban Xiong Tan, Hoe Peng Liew, Joy S Chua, Farid J Ghadessy, Yaw Sing Tan, David P Lane, Cynthia R Coffill
Mouse double minute (Mdm) genes span an evolutionary timeframe from the ancient eukaryotic placozoa Trichoplax adhaerens to Homo sapiens, implying a significant and possibly conserved cellular role throughout history. Maintenance of DNA integrity and response to DNA damage involve many key regulatory pathways, including precise control over the tumour suppressor protein p53. In most vertebrates, degradation of p53 through proteasomal targeting is primarily mediated by heterodimers of Mdm2 and the Mdm2-related protein Mdm4 (also known as MdmX)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#15
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077092/phylogenetic-analysis-of-ionotropic-l-glutamate-receptor-genes-in-the-bilateria-with-special-notes-on-aplysia-californica
#16
Justin B Greer, Sawsan Khuri, Lynne A Fieber
BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent neurotransmission is a key component of the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077066/the-essential-requirement-of-an-animal-heme-peroxidase-protein-during-the-wing-maturation-process-in-drosophila
#17
Dondra Bailey, Mohammed Abul Basar, Sanjay Nag, Nivedita Bondhu, Shaloei Teng, Atanu Duttaroy
BACKGROUND: Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis. Using bioinformatics tools we found that Cysu is remarkably conserved in the genus Drosophila (>95%) as well as in invertebrates (>70%), although its vertebrate orthologs show poor homology. Time-lapse imaging and histochemical analyses have confirmed that the defective wing phenotype of Cysu is not a result of any underlying cellular alterations; instead, its wings fail to expand in mature adults...
January 11, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077064/an-internet-based-bioinformatics-toolkit-for-plant-biosecurity-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-viruses-and-viroids
#18
Roberto A Barrero, Kathryn R Napier, James Cunnington, Lia Liefting, Sandi Keenan, Rebekah A Frampton, Tamas Szabo, Simon Bulman, Adam Hunter, Lisa Ward, Mark Whattam, Matthew I Bellgard
BACKGROUND: Detection and preventing entry of exotic viruses and viroids at the border is critical for protecting plant industries trade worldwide. Existing post entry quarantine screening protocols rely on time-consuming biological indicators and/or molecular assays that require knowledge of infecting viral pathogens. Plants have developed the ability to recognise and respond to viral infections through Dicer-like enzymes that cleave viral sequences into specific small RNA products. Many studies reported the use of a broad range of small RNAs encompassing the product sizes of several Dicer enzymes involved in distinct biological pathways...
January 11, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076438/the-roles-of-sea-ice-light-and-sedimentation-in-structuring-shallow-antarctic-benthic-communities
#19
Graeme F Clark, Jonathan S Stark, Anne S Palmer, Martin J Riddle, Emma L Johnston
On polar coasts, seasonal sea-ice duration strongly influences shallow marine environments by affecting environmental conditions, such as light, sedimentation, and physical disturbance. Sea-ice dynamics are changing in response to climate, but there is limited understanding of how this might affect shallow marine environments and benthos. Here we present a unique set of physical and biological data from a single region of Antarctic coast, and use it to gain insights into factors shaping polar benthic communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074089/antiviral-activity-of-animal-venom-peptides-and-related-compounds
#20
REVIEW
Élida Cleyse Gomes da Mata, Caroline Barbosa Farias Mourão, Marisa Rangel, Elisabeth Ferroni Schwartz
Viruses exhibit rapid mutational capacity to trick and infect host cells, sometimes assisted through virus-coded peptides that counteract host cellular immune defense. Although a large number of compounds have been identified as inhibiting various viral infections and disease progression, it is urgent to achieve the discovery of more effective agents. Furthermore, proportionally to the great variety of diseases caused by viruses, very few viral vaccines are available, and not all are efficient. Thus, new antiviral substances obtained from natural products have been prospected, including those derived from venomous animals...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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