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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330119/degradation-of-fipronil-by-stenotrophomonas-acidaminiphila-isolated-from-rhizospheric-soil-of-zea-mays
#1
Shivani Uniyal, Rashmi Paliwal, R K Sharma, J P N Rai
Fipronil is a widely used insecticide in agriculture and can cause potential health hazards to non-target soil invertebrates and nearby aquatic systems. In the present study, a fipronil degrading bacterium was isolated from fipronil contaminated soil, i.e. rhizospheric zone of Zea mays. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of strain indicated that it clearly belongs to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (accession no. KJ396942). A three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface modeling was employed to predict the optimum conditions for fipronil degradation...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326483/assessment-of-sperm-quality-in-palaemonid-prawns-using-comet-assay-methodological-optimization
#2
Alexandre Erraud, Marc Bonnard, Aurélie Duflot, Alain Geffard, Jean-Michel Danger, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Benoît Xuereb
The aim of this study was to adapt the Comet assay in spermatozoa of the marine prawn Palaemon serratus to use it as a marker of sperm quality. Indeed, due to the characteristics of their spermatozoa, the measurement of DNA integrity is one of the few markers which can be transferred to crustaceans to assess the quality of their semen. In the first step, the methods of collecting and maintaining spermatozoa were optimized. Cell survival was estimated during kinetics of preservation (i.e. 1, 2, 4 and 8 h) in various suspension media to define artificial seawater (ASW) as optimal...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326075/advantages-of-the-silkworm-as-an-animal-model-for-developing-novel-antimicrobial-agents
#3
REVIEW
Suresh Panthee, Atmika Paudel, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The demand for novel antibiotics to combat the global spread of multi drug-resistant pathogens continues to grow. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi that cause fatal human infections can also kill silkworms and the infected silkworms can be cured by the same antibiotics used to treat infections in the clinic. As an invertebrate model, silkworm model is characterized by its convenience, low cost, no ethical issues. The presence of conserved immune response and similar pharmacokinetics compared to mammals make silkworm infection model suitable to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325973/building-a-database-for-long-term-monitoring-of-benthic-macrofauna-in-the-pertuis-charentais-2004-2014
#4
Anne S Philippe, Christine Plumejeaud-Perreau, Jérôme Jourde, Philippe Pineau, Nicolas Lachaussée, Emmanuel Joyeux, Frédéric Corre, Philippe Delaporte, Pierrick Bocher
BACKGROUND: Long-term benthic monitoring is rewarding in terms of science, but labour-intensive, whether in the field, the laboratory, or behind the computer. Building and managing databases require multiple skills, including consistency over time as well as organisation via a systematic approach. Here, we introduce and share our spatially explicit benthic database, comprising 11 years of benthic data. It is the result of intensive benthic sampling that has been conducted on a regular grid (259 stations) covering the intertidal mudflats of the Pertuis-Charentais (Marennes-Oléron Bay and Aiguillon Bay)...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#5
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325173/patterns-and-processes-influencing-helminth-parasites-of-arctic-coastal-communities-during-climate-change
#6
K V Galaktionov
This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323380/sarcophytrols-g-l-novel-minor-metabolic-components-from-south-china-sea-soft-coral-sarcophyton-trocheliophorum-marenzeller
#7
Lin-Fu Liang, Wen-Ting Chen, Ernesto Mollo, Li-Gong Yao, He-Yao Wang, Wei Xiao, Yue-Wei Guo
Minor metabolic components, six new cembranoids sarcophytrols G - L (1 - 6) along with two known related analogues 7 and 8, were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS.) as well as comparison with literature data. As part of our ongoing research project for discovering bioactive substances from Chinese marine invertebrates, compounds 1 - 8 were tested for their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a key target for the treatment of Type-II diabetes and obesity...
March 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323368/biotic-interactions-modify-multiple-stressor-effects-on-juvenile-brown-trout-in-an-experimental-stream-food-web
#8
Andreas Bruder, Romana K Salis, Peter E Jones, Christoph D Matthaei
Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e...
March 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323215/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-calreticulin-involved-in-the-immune-response-of-the-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#9
Guanghua Wang, Zengjie Jiang, Ning Yang, Dongfa Zhu, Min Zhang
Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional calcium-binding chaperone shared among vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a novel CRT (CfCRT) was identified in the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA was composed of 1345 bp, which included a 1158 bp open reading frame, a 25 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 162 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted molecular mass of CfCRT was 44.8 kDa. CfCRT contained three highly conserved domains (N-, P- and C-domains) essential to the function of CRT...
March 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322934/comparative-immunogenomics-of-molluscs
#10
Jonathan H Schultz, Coen M Adema
Comparative immunology, studying both vertebrates and invertebrates, provided the earliest descriptions of phagocytosis as a general immune mechanism. However, the large scale of animal diversity challenges all-inclusive investigations and the field of immunology has developed by mostly emphasizing study of a few vertebrate species. In addressing the lack of comprehensive understanding of animal immunity, especially that of invertebrates, comparative immunology helps toward management of invertebrates that are food sources, agricultural pests, pathogens, or transmit diseases, and helps interpret the evolution of animal immunity...
March 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320954/cerberus-nodal-lefty-pitx-signaling-cascade-controls-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#11
Guang Li, Xian Liu, Chaofan Xing, Huayang Zhang, Sebastian M Shimeld, Yiquan Wang
Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus, Nodal, Lefty, and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320265/role-of-atypical-protein-kinases-in-maintenance-of-long-term-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
A A Borodinova, A B Zuzina, P M Balaban
Investigation of biochemical mechanisms underlying the long-term storage of information in nervous system is one of main problems of modern neurobiology. As a molecular basis of long-term memory, long-term changes in kinase activities, increase in the level and changes in the subunit composition of receptors in synaptic membranes, local activity of prion-like proteins, and epigenetic modifications of chromatin have been proposed. Perhaps a combination of all or of some of these factors underlies the storage of long-term memory in the brain...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318791/toxicokinetics-and-toxicodynamics-of-lead-in-the-soil-invertebrate-enchytraeus-crypticus
#13
Lulu Zhang, Cornelis A M Van Gestel
The aim of the present study was to link Pb toxicokinetics to toxicodynamics in Enchytraeus crypticus. The enchytraeids were exposed for 14 d to different Pb concentrations (uptake phase) in natural Lufa 2.2 soil, followed by a 14-d elimination phase in clean soil. Pb accumulation and enchytraeid mortality were determined at different time intervals. At each exposure concentration, internal Pb concentration increased with exposure time and achieved equilibrium in approximately 7 d. Median lethal concentration (LC50) based on total Pb concentration in soil decreased with exposure time, but did not reach a steady-state level...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318787/municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-induced-effects-on-freshwater-mussel-populations-and-the-role-of-mussel-refugia-in-recolonizing-an-extirpated-reach
#14
Patricia L Gillis, Rodney McInnis, Joseph Salerno, Shane R de Solla, Mark R Servos, Erin M Leonard
Global human population and urbanization continually increase the volume of wastewater entering aquatic environments. Despite efforts to treat these effluents, they contribute a diverse suite of substances that enter watersheds at concentrations that have the potential to elicit adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The relationship between wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent exposure and biological responses within aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood, especially at the population level. To examine the effect of WWTP effluents on sentinel invertebrates, freshwater mussels were assessed in the Grand River, Ontario, in populations associated with the outfall of a major WWTP...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315825/effects-of-florida-red-tides-on-histone-variant-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-the-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#15
Rodrigo Gonzalez-Romero, Victoria Suarez-Ulloa, Javier Rodriguez-Casariego, Daniel Garcia-Souto, Gabriel Diaz, Abraham Smith, Juan Jose Pasantes, Gary Rand, Jose M Eirin-Lopez
Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence...
March 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315362/molecular-analyses-reveal-high-species-diversity-of-trematodes-in-a-sub-arctic-lake
#16
Miroslava Soldánová, Simona Georgieva, Jana Roháčová, Rune Knudsen, Jesper A Kuhn, Eirik H Henriksen, Anna Siwertsson, Jenny C Shaw, Armand M Kuris, Per-Arne Amundsen, Tomáš Scholz, Kevin D Lafferty, Aneta Kostadinova
To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314608/trophic-availability-buffers-the-detrimental-effects-of-clogging-in-an-alpine-stream
#17
Alberto Doretto, Francesca Bona, Elena Piano, Ilaria Zanin, Anna Chiara Eandi, Stefano Fenoglio
Clogging, the streambed colmation by fine sediments, is an important widespread source of impact affecting freshwaters. Alterations in stream morphology and hydrology, added to the effects of global climate change, are responsible for this phenomenon, that is particularly pernicious in mountainous lotic systems naturally characterized by coarse substrates. Among the studies investigating this issue some were descriptive, while others used artificial substrates to compare ongoing fine sediment accumulation and macroinvertebrate assemblage recruitment...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304352/in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-aqueous-extracts-from-the-edible-sea-anemones-anemonia-sulcata-and-actinia-equina
#18
Tânia Costa Silva, Paula Branquinho de Andrade, Fátima Paiva-Martins, Patrícia Valentão, David Micael Pereira
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303139/evolution-of-interferons-and-interferon-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Chris J Secombes, Jun Zou
The earliest jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomes) would likely have had interferon (IFN) genes, since they are present in extant cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and bony fish (lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, the latter consisting of the chondrostei, holostei, and teleostei), as well as in tetrapods. They are thought to have evolved from a class II helical cytokine ancestor, along with the interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family. The two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) that occurred between invertebrates and vertebrates (1) may have given rise to additional loci, initially containing an IL-10 ancestor and IFN ancestor, which have duplicated further to give rise to the two loci containing the IL-10 family genes, and potentially the IFN type I and IFN type III loci (2)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302499/microsomal-glutathione-transferase-1-attenuated-ros-induced-lipid-peroxidation-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#20
Zhen Zhang, Zhimeng Lv, Yina Shao, Qiongfen Qiu, Weiwei Zhang, Xuemei Duan, Ye Li, Chenghua Li
Microsomal glutathione transferase (mGST) is a membrane bound glutathione transferase in multifunctional detoxification isoenzymes family and also plays crucial roles in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel microsomal GST homology was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjmGST1) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of AjmGST1 was of 1296 bp encoded a protein of 169 amino acids residues. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis together supported that AjmGST1 belonged to a new member in invertebrates mGST family...
March 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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