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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935906/resilience-of-the-larval-slipper-limpet-crepidula-onyx-to-direct-and-indirect-diet-effects-of-ocean-acidification
#1
Elizaldy A Maboloc, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Ocean acidification (OA) is known to directly impact larval physiology and development of many marine organisms. OA also affects the nutritional quality and palatability of algae, which are principal food sources for many types of planktonic larvae. This potential indirect effect of OA via trophic interactions, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, veligers of Crepidula onyx were exposed to different pH levels representing the ambient (as control) and low pH values (pH 7.7 and pH 7.3) for 14 days, and were fed with Isochrysis galbana cultured at these three respective pHs...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932208/invertebrate-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-related-peptides-and-their-receptors-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Tsubasa Sakai, Akira Shiraishi, Tsuyoshi Kawada, Shin Matsubara, Masato Aoyama, Honoo Satake
Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs) are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931883/high-throughput-targeted-screening-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-identifies-wnt-inhibiting-activities-in-pacific-brittle-stars
#3
Artem Blagodatski, Vsevolod Cherepanov, Alexey Koval, Vladimir I Kharlamenko, Yuri S Khotimchenko, Vladimir L Katanaev
Pro-proliferative oncogenic signaling is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Specific targeting of such signaling pathways is one of the main approaches to modern anti-cancer drug discovery, as opposed to more traditional search for general cytotoxic agents. Natural products, especially from marine sources, represent a largely untapped source of chemical diversity, which so far have mostly been screened for cytotoxicity. Here we present a pioneering pipeline of high-throughput screening of marine-based activities targeted against the Wnt signaling pathway, which is one of the key factors in oncogenic transformation, growth and metastasis in different cancers, including the devastating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) currently lacking any targeted therapies...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931746/voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-repertoire-of-lampreys-gene-duplications-tissue-specific-expression-and-discovery-of-a-long-lost-gene
#4
Harold H Zakon, Weiming Li, Nisha E Pillai, Sumanty Tohari, Prashant Shingate, Jianfeng Ren, Byrappa Venkatesh
Studies of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels of extant gnathostomes have made it possible to deduce that ancestral gnathostomes possessed four voltage-gated sodium channel genes derived from a single ancestral chordate gene following two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrates. We investigated the Nav gene family in two species of lampreys (the Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus) (jawless vertebrates-agnatha) and compared them with those of basal vertebrates to better understand the origin of Nav genes in vertebrates...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931737/changes-in-predator-exposure-but-not-in-diet-induce-phenotypic-plasticity-in-scorpion-venom
#5
Alex N Gangur, Michael Smout, Michael J Liddell, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson, Tobin D Northfield
Animals embedded between trophic levels must simultaneously balance pressures to deter predators and acquire resources. Venomous animals may use venom toxins to mediate both pressures, and thus changes in this balance may alter the composition of venoms. Basic theory suggests that greater exposure to a predator should induce a larger proportion of defensive venom components relative to offensive venom components, while increases in arms races with prey will elicit the reverse. Alternatively, reducing the need for venom expenditure for food acquisition, for example because of an increase in scavenging, may reduce the production of offensive venom components...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931734/cross-taxa-generalities-in-the-relationship-between-population-abundance-and-ambient-temperatures
#6
Diana E Bowler, Peter Haase, Christian Hof, Ingrid Kröncke, Léon Baert, Wouter Dekoninck, Sami Domisch, Frederik Hendrickx, Thomas Hickler, Hermann Neumann, Robert B O'Hara, Anne F Sell, Moritz Sonnewald, Stefan Stoll, Michael Türkay, Roel van Klink, Oliver Schweiger, Rikjan Vermeulen, Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communities within central Europe to compare the effects of temperature on abundance across a broad range of taxonomic groups. We asked whether there was an average relationship between temperatures in different seasons and annual abundances of species in a community, and whether species attributes (temperature range of distribution, range size, habitat breadth, dispersal ability, body size, and lifespan) explained interspecific variation in the relationship between temperature and abundance...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931714/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-kakani-katija
#7
(no author information available yet)
Kakani Katija is a Principal Engineer at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, USA, where she designs and builds instrumentation to study marine invertebrate ecomechanics. She received her Bachelor's degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the University of Washington, USA, before moving to the California Institute of Technology, USA, for her Master's degree in Aeronautics with Morteza Gharib and PhD in Bioengineering in the laboratory of John Dabiri, completed in 2010. Katija was recognised as a National Geographic Emerging Explorer in 2011 and has given presentations at TEDYouth and TEDWomen...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931061/binding-of-a-c-type-lectin-s-coiled-coil-domain-to-the-domeless-receptor-directly-activates-the-jak-stat-pathway-in-the-shrimp-immune-response-to-bacterial-infection
#8
Jie-Jie Sun, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Gerardo R Vasta, Jin-Xing Wang
C-type lectins (CTLs) are characterized by the presence of a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain (CTLD) that by recognizing microbial glycans, is responsible for their roles as pattern recognition receptors in the immune response to bacterial infection. In addition to the CTLD, however, some CTLs display additional domains that can carry out effector functions, such as the collagenous domain of the mannose-binding lectin. While in vertebrates, the mechanisms involved in these effector functions have been characterized in considerable detail, in invertebrates they remain poorly understood...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929348/-comparative-analysis-of-light-sensitivity-depth-and-motion-perception-in-animals-and-humans
#9
REVIEW
F Schaeffel
BACKGROUND: This study examined how humans perform regarding light sensitivity, depth perception and motion vision in comparison to various animals. OBJECTIVE: The parameters that limit the performance of the visual system for these different functions were examined. METHODS: This study was based on literature studies (search in PubMed) and own results. RESULTS: Light sensitivity is limited by the brightness of the retinal image, which in turn is determined by the f‑number of the eye...
September 19, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928963/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-whole-genome-duplications-in-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928387/bi-directional-effects-of-vitamin-b12-and-methotrexate-on-daphnia-magna-fitness-and-genomic-methylation
#11
Fitore Kusari, Alan M O'Doherty, Nikolas J Hodges, Marcin W Wojewodzic
Here we interrogated, using three separate but complementary experimental approaches, the impact of vitamin B12 availability and methotrexate exposure on Daphnia magna, which we hypothesised should have an opposite effect on One carbon metabolism (OCM). OCM is a vital biological process supporting a variety of physiological processes, including DNA methylation. Contrary to mammalian models, this process remains largely unexplored in invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of OCM short-term alteration on the fitness and epigenome of the keystone species, Daphnia...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928019/benzoylecgonine-exposure-induced-oxidative-stress-and-altered-swimming-behavior-and-reproduction-in-daphnia-magna
#12
Marco Parolini, Beatrice De Felice, Claudia Ferrario, Noelia Salgueiro-González, Sara Castiglioni, Antonio Finizio, Paolo Tremolada
Several monitoring studies have shown that benzoylecgonine (BE) is the main illicit drug residue commonly measured in the aquatic system worldwide. Few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of this molecule towards invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic non-target organisms focusing on effects at low levels of the biological organization, but no one has assessed the consequences at higher ones. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the toxicity of a 48-h exposure to two concentrations of BE, similar to those found in aquatic ecosystems (0...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927877/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-by-any-other-wname-would-smell-as-sweet
#13
Pei-San Tsai
The goal of this article is to discuss the nomenclature of members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) superfamily. This superfamily currently consists of 5 families: (1) vertebrate GnRH, (2) adipokinetic hormone, (3) corazonin, (4) adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide and (5) invertebrate GnRH (or GnRH/corazonin). The naming of some of these peptides, especially members of the invertebrate GnRH family, may not have reflected their true evolutionary origin, leading to some confusion and controversy...
September 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927253/comparative-aspects-of-microrna-expression-in-canine-and-human-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Kabiru Sahabi, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Rasedee Abdullah, Cheah Yoke Kqueen, Tan Geok Chin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important players in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. MicroRNA regulation is the most abundant mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs, several of which have been identified in canine and human cancer. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926608/epibenthic-and-mobile-species-colonisation-of-a-geotextile-artificial-surf-reef-on-the-south-coast-of-england
#15
Roger J H Herbert, Ken Collins, Jenny Mallinson, Alice E Hall, Josephine Pegg, Kathryn Ross, Leo Clarke, Tom Clements
With increasing coastal infrastructure and use of novel materials there is a need to investigate the colonisation of assemblages associated with new structures, how these differ to natural and other artificial habitats and their potential impact on regional biodiversity. The colonisation of Europe's first artificial surf reef (ASR) was investigated at Boscombe on the south coast of England (2009-2014) and compared with assemblages on existing natural and artificial habitats. The ASR consists of geotextile bags filled with sand located 220m offshore on a sandy sea bed at a depth of 0-5m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926155/idna-screening-disease-vectors-as-vertebrate-samplers
#16
Arthur Kocher, Benoit De Thoisy, François Catzeflis, Sophie Valiere, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Blood meal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924503/biochemical-and-structural-characterization-of-a-novel-arginine-kinase-from-the-spider-polybetes-pythagoricus
#17
Aldana Laino, Alonso A Lopez-Zavala, Karina D Garcia-Orozco, Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda, Marianela Santana, Vivian Stojanoff, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Carlos Fernando Garcia
Energy buffering systems are key for homeostasis during variations in energy supply. Spiders are the most important predators for insects and therefore key in terrestrial ecosystems. From biomedical interest, spiders are important for their venoms and as a source of potent allergens, such as arginine kinase (AK, EC 2.7.3.3). AK is an enzyme crucial for energy metabolism, keeping the pool of phosphagens in invertebrates, and also an allergen for humans. In this work, we studied AK from the Argentininan spider Polybetes pythagoricus (PpAK), from its complementary DNA to the crystal structure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-c-elegans
#18
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923925/exposure-to-seismic-air-gun-signals-causes-physiological-harm-and-alters-behavior-in-the-scallop-pecten-fumatus
#19
Ryan D Day, Robert D McCauley, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Klaas Hartmann, Jayson M Semmens
Seismic surveys map the seabed using intense, low-frequency sound signals that penetrate kilometers into the Earth's crust. Little is known regarding how invertebrates, including economically and ecologically important bivalves, are affected by exposure to seismic signals. In a series of field-based experiments, we investigate the impact of exposure to seismic surveys on scallops, using measurements of physiological and behavioral parameters to determine whether exposure may cause mass mortality or result in other sublethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923344/transient-effects-following-peak-exposures-towards-pesticides-an-explanation-for-the-unresponsiveness-of-in-situ-measured-functional-variables
#20
Jochen P Zubrod, Rebecca Bundschuh, Dominic Englert, Markus Rohrberg, Matthias V Wieczorek, Nikita Bakanov, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. In situ measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting in situ bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum, and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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