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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457960/phylogenetic-relationships-and-acaricidal-effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-obtained-from-cattle-farm-soils-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#1
Agustin Fernández-Salas, Miguel Angel Alonso Díaz, Rogelio Alejandro Alonso Morales, Roberto Lezama-Gutierrez, José Antonio Cervantes-Chávez
The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457693/growth-yield-and-selection-of-nosz-clade-ii-types-in-a-continuous-enrichment-culture-of-n-2-o-respiring-bacteria
#2
Monica Conthe, Lea Wittorf, J Gijs Kuenen, Robbert Kleerebezem, Sara Hallin, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) reducing microorganisms may be key in the mitigation of N2 O emissions from managed ecosystems. However, there is still no clear understanding of the physiological and bioenergetic implications of microorganisms possessing either of the two N2 O reductase genes (nosZ), clade I and the more recently described clade II type nosZ. It has been suggested that organisms with nosZ clade II have higher growth yields and a lower affinity constant (Ks ) for N2 O. We compared N2 O reducing communities with different nosZI/nosZII ratios selected in chemostat enrichment cultures, inoculated with activated sludge, fed with N2 O as a sole electron acceptor and growth limiting factor, and acetate as electron donor...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457134/trophic-signatures-of-seabirds-suggest-shifts-in-oceanic-ecosystems
#3
Tyler O Gagne, K David Hyrenbach, Molly E Hagemann, Kyle S Van Houtan
Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level-based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher-trophic level to lower-trophic level prey...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456892/under-the-armor-x-ray-computed-tomographic-reconstruction-of-the-internal-skeleton-of-coahomasuchus-chathamensis-archosauria-aetosauria-from-the-upper-triassic-of-north-carolina-usa-and-a-phylogenetic-analysis-of-aetosauria
#4
Devin K Hoffman, Andrew B Heckert, Lindsay E Zanno
Aetosauria is a clade of heavily armored, quadrupedal omnivorous to herbivorous archosaurs known from the Late Triassic across what was the supercontinent of Pangea. Their abundance in many deposits relative to the paucity of other Triassic herbivores indicates that they were key components of Late Triassic ecosystems. However, their evolutionary relationships remain contentious due, in large part, to their extensive dermal armor, which often obstructs observation of internal skeletal anatomy and limits access to potentially informative characters...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456267/inorganic-carbon-and-oxygen-dynamics-in-a-marsh-dominated-estuary
#5
Shiyu Rachel Wang, Daniela Di Iorio, Wei-Jun Cai, Charles S Hopkinson
We conducted a free-water mass balance-based study to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. We measured open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2 ...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456243/hopanoid-lipids-from-membranes-to-plant-bacteria-interactions
#6
REVIEW
Brittany J Belin, Nicolas Busset, Eric Giraud, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo, Dianne K Newman
Lipid research represents a frontier for microbiology, as showcased by hopanoid lipids. Hopanoids, which resemble sterols and are found in the membranes of diverse bacteria, have left an extensive molecular fossil record. They were first discovered by petroleum geologists. Today, hopanoid-producing bacteria remain abundant in various ecosystems, such as the rhizosphere. Recently, great progress has been made in our understanding of hopanoid biosynthesis, facilitated in part by technical advances in lipid identification and quantification...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456188/parasitism-and-the-biodiversity-functioning-relationship
#7
REVIEW
André Frainer, Brendan G McKie, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Kevin D Lafferty
Species interactions can influence ecosystem functioning by enhancing or suppressing the activities of species that drive ecosystem processes, or by causing changes in biodiversity. However, one important class of species interactions - parasitism - has been little considered in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BD-EF) research. Parasites might increase or decrease ecosystem processes by reducing host abundance. Parasites could also increase trait diversity by suppressing dominant species or by increasing within-host trait diversity...
February 15, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456033/ecostructuring-of-marine-nematode-communities-by-submarine-groundwater-discharge
#8
Katarzyna Grzelak, Joseph Tamborski, Lech Kotwicki, Henry Bokuniewicz
Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed...
February 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455856/towards-the-development-of-a-modeling-framework-to-track-nitrogen-export-from-lowland-artificial-watersheds-polders
#9
Jiacong Huang, George B Arhonditsis, Junfeng Gao, Dong-Kyun Kim, Feifei Dong
Excess nitrogen (N) export from lowland artificial watersheds (polders) is often assumed to be a major contributor to the cultural eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, the complex transport processes characterizing lowland areas pose significant challenges in accurately quantifying their actual role. In this study, we developed a dynamic model to track N sources and transport pathways in lowland polders. The model is able to accommodate all the unique characteristics of polder dynamics, including artificial drainage, and interactions among surface water, groundwater and soil water...
April 15, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455297/pan-european-phenological-database-pep725-a-single-point-of-access-for-european-data
#10
Barbara Templ, Elisabeth Koch, Kjell Bolmgren, Markus Ungersböck, Anita Paul, Helfried Scheifinger, This Rutishauser, Montserrat Busto, Frank-M Chmielewski, Lenka Hájková, Sabina Hodzić, Frank Kaspar, Barbara Pietragalla, Ramiro Romero-Fresneda, Anne Tolvanen, Višnja Vučetič, Kirsten Zimmermann, Ana Zust
The Pan European Phenology (PEP) project is a European infrastructure to promote and facilitate phenological research, education, and environmental monitoring. The main objective is to maintain and develop a Pan European Phenological database (PEP725) with an open, unrestricted data access for science and education. PEP725 is the successor of the database developed through the COST action 725 "Establishing a European phenological data platform for climatological applications" working as a single access point for European-wide plant phenological data...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455262/spatio-temporal-variability-of-physico-chemical-variables-chlorophyll-a-and-primary-productivity-in-the-northern-arabian-sea-along-india-coast
#11
Vinaya Kumar Vase, Gyanaranjan Dash, K R Sreenath, Ganesh Temkar, R Shailendra, K Mohammed Koya, D Divu, Swatipriyankasen Dash, Rajesh K Pradhan, Kapil S Sukhdhane, J Jayasankar
The present study attempts to understand the seasonal and spatial variations in the physico-chemical (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients) and productivity characteristics of the northern Arabian Sea off the Indian coast. Samples were collected from four different sites off the Veraval coast. The values of the physical and chemical variables were higher during the summer season, whereas nutrient concentrations were high during the winter season due to the maturity of intake nutrients during post-monsoon and winter convective mixing during the northeast monsoon...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455256/terrestrial-aquatic-trophic-linkages-support-fish-production-in-a-tropical-oligotrophic-river
#12
Sandra Bibiana Correa, Kirk Winemiller
Despite low in situ primary productivity, tropical oligotrophic rivers support highly diverse fish assemblages and productive fisheries. This raises the question, what energy sources support fish production in these ecosystems? We sampled fish and food resources in the floodplain of a nearly pristine, large, oligotrophic river in western Amazonia. We combined data from stomach contents and stable isotopes to test the hypothesis that floodplain forests sustain fisheries in tropical oligotrophic rivers. Analysis of stomach contents from > 800 specimens of 12 omnivorous fish species demonstrated that during the annual flood, forest plant matter dominated diets...
February 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455240/taxonomic-structure-and-function-of-seed-inhabiting-bacterial-microbiota-from-common-reed-phragmites-australis-and-narrowleaf-cattail-typha-angustifolia-l
#13
Ting Gao, Xian-Yang Shi
The present study investigated the endophytic bacterial communities in the seeds of mature, natural common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.). Additionally, seed endophytic bacterial communities were compared with rhizospheric and root endophytic bacterial communities using Illumina-based sequencing. Seed endophytic bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (reed, 41.24%; cattail, 45.51%), followed by Bacteroidetes (reed, 12.01%; cattail, 10.41%), Planctomycetes (reed, 10...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455153/the-recovery-of-estuarine-quality-and-the-perceived-increase-of-cultural-ecosystem-services-by-beach-users-a-case-study-from-northern-spain
#14
Sarai Pouso, María C Uyarra, Ángel Borja
In Europe, the quality of coastal bathing waters improved considerably in the last decades, mainly due to the more demanding legislation and the adoption of water sanitation plans. In the Nerbioi estuary (North Spain), the Wastewater Treatment Plan implemented between 1990 and 2001 resulted on an abrupt decrease in microbial concentration; thus, complying with bathing waters legislation and allowing recreational activities again in the three beaches of the estuary. However, little is known about how improvements in bathing waters influences the provision of cultural ecosystem services and human well-being...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455135/distinguishing-two-phenotypes-of-blooms-using-the-normalised-difference-peak-valley-index-ndpi-and-cyano-chlorophyta-index-cci
#15
Botian Zhou, Mingsheng Shang, Guoyin Wang, Sheng Zhang, Li Feng, Xiangnan Liu, Ling Wu, Kun Shan
Harmful algal blooms are now widely recognised as a severe threat to freshwater ecosystems, particularly in semi-fluvial environments created by river damming. Given the high spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, remote sensing is more suitable than conventional field surveys in monitoring blooms. However, the majority of existing algorithms cannot distinguish cyanobacterial blooms from eukaryotic algal blooms by extracting spectral features in the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs ). In this study, in situ Rrs spectra of cyanobacterial and green algal blooms in Lakes Gaoyang, Hanfeng and Changshou of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China were recorded...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455132/rapid-sewage-pollution-assessment-by-means-of-the-coverage-of-epilithic-taxa-in-a-coastal-area-in-the-sw-atlantic
#16
M E Becherucci, M L Jaubet, M A Saracho Bottero, E N Llanos, R Elías, G V Garaffo
The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455130/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-buffer-strip-vegetation-in-an-agricultural-landscape-high-potential-for-nutrient-removal-but-low-potential-for-plant-biodiversity
#17
Sandra Hille, Dagmar Kappel Andersen, Brian Kronvang, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455088/parasite-susceptibility-in-an-amphibian-host-is-modified-by-salinization-and-predators
#18
Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua
Secondary salinization represents a global threat to freshwater ecosystems. Salts, such as NaCl, can be toxic to freshwater organisms and may also modify the outcome of species interactions (e.g. host-parasite interactions). In nature, hosts and their parasites are embedded in complex communities where they face anthropogenic and biotic (i.e. predators) stressors that influence host-parasite interactions. As human populations grow, considering how anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to shape host-parasite interactions will become increasingly important...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454923/seasonal-differences-in-the-content-of-phenols-and-pigments-in-thalli-of-freshwater-cladophora-glomerata-and-its-habitat
#19
Joanna Fabrowska, Beata Messyasz, Radosław Pankiewicz, Patrycja Wilińska, Bogusława Łęska
Polyphenols are chemicals that primarily inhibit the growth of various autotrophic organisms. The presence of these metabolites greatly boosts the ecological dominance of eg. Cladophora, which creates large surface mats. The main goal of our work was to quantify the phenol and polyphenols (allelopathic substances) secreted by the macroalgae as a result of exposure to biotic stress caused by competition. The research was carried out on the Cladophora glomerata biomass collected from two freshwater ecosystems located in Wielkopolska Region (Poland, Fig...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454907/sediment-bacteria-in-an-urban-stream-spatiotemporal-patterns-in-community-composition
#20
Alescia A Roberto, Jonathon B Van Gray, Laura G Leff
Sediment bacterial communities play a critical role in biogeochemical cycling in lotic ecosystems. Despite their ecological significance, the effects of urban discharge on spatiotemporal distribution of bacterial communities are understudied. In this study, we examined the effect of urban discharge on the spatiotemporal distribution of stream sediment bacteria in a northeast Ohio stream. Water and sediment samples were collected after large storm events (discharge > 100 m) from sites along a highly impacted stream (Tinkers Creek, Cuyahoga River watershed, Ohio, USA) and two reference streams...
February 15, 2018: Water Research
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