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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236182/effect-of-engineered-nanoparticles-on-exopolymeric-substances-release-from-marine-phytoplankton
#1
Meng-Hsuen Chiu, Zafir A Khan, Santiago G Garcia, Andre D Le, Agnes Kagiri, Javier Ramos, Shih-Ming Tsai, Hunter W Drobenaire, Peter H Santschi, Antonietta Quigg, Wei-Chun Chin
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), products from modern nanotechnologies, can potentially impact the marine environment to pose serious threats to marine ecosystems. However, the cellular responses of marine phytoplankton to ENPs are still not well established. Here, we investigate four different diatom species (Odontella mobiliensis, Skeletonema grethae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and one green algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) for their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) release under model ENP treatments: 25 nm titanium dioxide (TiO2), 10-20 nm silicon dioxide (SiO2), and 15-30 nm cerium dioxide (CeO2)...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236119/estimation-of-the-bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-fe-mn-cu-and-zn-in-chinese-vegetables-using-the-in-vitro-digestion-caco-2-cell-model-the-influence-of-gut-microbiota
#2
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235032/monitoring-and-research-of-microcystins-and-environmental-factors-in-a-typical-artificial-freshwater-aquaculture-pond
#3
Xiaobin Hu, Rongfei Zhang, Jinyun Ye, Xiang Wu, Yixiang Zhang, Chenglong Wu
Freshwater aquaculture ponds are important artificially regulated aquatic ecosystems which provide a large number of freshwater fish products in China. The cyanobacteria bloom and microcystin (MC) pollution caused by anthropogenic eutrophication have attracted much attention due to their toxic effects. To provide an insight into the cyanobacterial problem in the ponds, the environmental parameters and MCs of a typical artificial pond in the Yangtze River Delta region of China were monitored and studied from May to December 2015...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235029/impacts-of-integrated-nutrient-management-on-methane-emission-global-warming-potential-and-carbon-storage-capacity-in-rice-grown-in-a-northeast-india-soil
#4
Ashmita Bharali, Kushal Kumar Baruah, Sunitee Gohain Baruah, Pradip Bhattacharyya
Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235022/atmospheric-heavy-metal-deposition-in-agro-ecosystems-in-china
#5
Yanling Zhang, Shixiang Zhang, Fengpeng Zhu, Aiguo Wang, Huaxin Dai, Sen Cheng, Jianwei Wang, Lina Tang
Atmospheric deposition has become one of the main sources of heavy metals in crops in developed and industrial zones in China for the past several years. However, lack of data of the agro-ecosystems on the vast areas of China makes it difficult to assess the impacts of air pollution on the heavy metal accumulation in crops. In this study, with deposit samples from 67 sites located at different agro-ecosystems (typical, factory nearby, town nearby, roadside, and remote) of four natural regions [Huanghuai (HH), Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW) and upper-mid Yangzi River (Up-mid YR)], atmospheric heavy metal deposition in agro-ecosystems on a large scale in China was studied...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234343/effects-of-plant-functional-group-loss-on-soil-microbial-community-and-litter-decomposition-in-a-steppe-vegetation
#6
Chunwang Xiao, Yong Zhou, Jiaqi Su, Fan Yang
Globally, many terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing a rapid loss of biodiversity. Continued improvements in our understanding of interrelationships between plant diversity and soil microbes are critical to address the concern over the consequences of the decline in biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and services. By removing forbs, or grasses, or, to an extreme scenario, both forbs and grasses in a steppe vegetation in Inner Mongolia, we studied how plant functional group (PFG) loss affects soil microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and litter decomposition using a litter-bag method...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234309/rokubacteria-genomic-giants-among-the-uncultured-bacterial-phyla
#7
Eric D Becraft, Tanja Woyke, Jessica Jarett, Natalia Ivanova, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Nicole Poulton, Julia M Brown, Joseph Brown, M C Y Lau, Tullis Onstott, Jonathan A Eisen, Duane Moser, Ramunas Stepanauskas
Recent advances in single-cell genomic and metagenomic techniques have facilitated the discovery of numerous previously unknown, deep branches of the tree of life that lack cultured representatives. Many of these candidate phyla are composed of microorganisms with minimalistic, streamlined genomes lacking some core metabolic pathways, which may contribute to their resistance to growth in pure culture. Here we analyzed single-cell genomes and metagenome bins to show that the "Candidate phylum Rokubacteria," formerly known as SPAM, represents an interesting exception, by having large genomes (6-8 Mbps), high GC content (66-71%), and the potential for a versatile, mixotrophic metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234024/patterns-of-biophonic-periodicity-on-coral-reefs-in-the-great-barrier-reef
#8
Jamie N McWilliam, Robert D McCauley, Christine Erbe, Miles J G Parsons
The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of bioacoustic phenomena, notably choruses produced by fishes. Six fish choruses identified around Lizard Island exhibited distinctive spatial and temporal patterns from 2014 to 2016. Several choruses displayed site fidelity, indicating that particular sites may represent important habitat for fish species, such as fish spawning aggregations sites. The choruses displayed a broad range of periodicities, from diel to annual, which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232611/ocean-acidification-increases-the-toxic-effects-of-tio2-nanoparticles-on-the-marine-microalga-chlorella-vulgaris
#9
Bin Xia, Qi Sui, Xuemei Sun, Qian Han, Bijuan Chen, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Concerns about the environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on marine ecosystems are increasing. Meanwhile, ocean acidification (OA) has become a global environmental problem. However, the combined effects of NPs and OA on marine organisms are still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA (pH values of 7.77 and 7.47) on the bioavailability and toxicity of TiO2 NPs to the marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed that OA enhanced the growth inhibition of algal cells caused by TiO2 NPs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232381/effects-of-experimental-nitrogen-fertilization-on-planktonic-metabolism-and-co2-flux-in-a-hypereutrophic-hardwater-lake
#10
Matthew J Bogard, Kerri Finlay, Marley J Waiser, Vijay P Tumber, Derek B Donald, Emma Wiik, Gavin L Simpson, Paul A Del Giorgio, Peter R Leavitt
Hardwater lakes are common in human-dominated regions of the world and often experience pollution due to agricultural and urban effluent inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N). Although these lakes are landscape hotspots for CO2 exchange and food web carbon (C) cycling, the effect of N enrichment on hardwater lake food web functioning and C cycling patterns remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if different eutrophication scenarios (e.g., modest non point vs. extreme point sources) yield consistent effects on auto- and heterotrophic C cycling, or how biotic responses interact with the inorganic C system to shape responses of air-water CO2 exchange...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232370/spatio-temporal-variations-of-conservation-hotspots-based-on-ecosystem-services-in-xishuangbanna-southwest-china
#11
Shiliang Liu, Yijie Yin, Fangyan Cheng, Xiaoyun Hou, Shikui Dong, Xue Wu
Integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) has been viewed as an appropriate approach to identifying conservation priorities. Taking Xishuangbanna tropical region in Southwest China, different BESs (habitat quality [used as a proxy for biodiversity], carbon storage, and water yield) were quantified using the InVEST model and conservation hotspots from 1976, 1990, and 2010 were identified by overlapping and ranking the service layers. Results showed that BESs areas were unevenly distributed. High habitat quality and carbon storage areas located in the eastern part of the region were mainly occupied by broad-leaved forest, while high water yield areas were covered by grassland and tropical forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231965/mapping-multi-scale-vascular-plant-richness-in-a-forest-landscape-with-integrated-lidar-and-hyperspectral-remote-sensing
#12
C R Hakkenberg, K Zhu, R K Peet, C Song
The central role of floristic diversity in maintaining habitat integrity and ecosystem function has propelled efforts to map and monitor its distribution across forest landscapes. While biodiversity studies have traditionally relied largely on ground-based observations, the immensity of the task of generating accurate, repeatable, and spatially-continuous data on biodiversity patterns at large scales has stimulated the development of remote-sensing methods for scaling up from field plot measurements. One such approach is through integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral remote-sensing...
December 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230921/global-grass-poaceae-success-underpinned-by-traits-facilitating-colonization-persistence-and-habitat-transformation
#13
H P Linder, Caroline E R Lehmann, Sally Archibald, Colin P Osborne, David M Richardson
Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory...
December 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230649/investigating-monsoon-and-post-monsoon-variabilities-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-a-mangrove-ecosystem
#14
Anwesha Ghosh, Punyasloke Bhadury
In mangrove environments, bacterioplankton communities constitute an important component of aquatic biota and play a major role in ecosystem processes. Variability of bacterioplankton communities from Sundarbans mangrove, located in the Indian subcontinent in South Asia and sits on the apex of Bay of Bengal, was investigated over monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The study was undertaken in two stations in Sundarbans using 16S rRNA clone library and Illumina MiSeq approaches with focus on the functionally important members that participate in coastal biogeochemical cycling...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230378/species-diversity-and-drivers-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-in-a-semi-arid-mountain-in-china
#15
He Zhao, Xuanzhen Li, Zhiming Zhang, Yong Zhao, Jiantao Yang, Yiwei Zhu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role in complex ecosystems. However, the species diversity and composition of AMF communities remain unclear in semi-arid mountains. Further, it is not well understood if the characteristics of AMF community assemblies differ for different habitat types, e.g., agricultural arable land, artificial forest land, natural grassland, and bush/wood land. Here, using the high-throughput technology by Illumina sequencing on the MiSeq platform, we explored the species diversity and composition of soil AMF communities among different habitat types in a semi-arid mountain (Taihang Mountain, Mid-western region of China)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230200/from-genes-to-ecosystems-in-microbiology-modeling-approaches-and-the-importance-of-individuality
#16
REVIEW
Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Caroline M Plugge, Clara Prats, Johan H J Leveau, Weiwen Zhang, Ferdi L Hellweger
Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229910/a-mechanistic-theory-for-aquatic-food-chain-length
#17
Colette L Ward, Kevin S McCann
Multiple hypotheses propose an ostensibly disparate array of drivers of food chain length (FCL), with contradictory support from natural settings. Here we posit that the magnitude of vertical energy flux in food webs underlies several drivers of FCL. We show that rising energy flux fuels top-heavy biomass pyramids, promoting omnivory, thereby reducing FCL. We link this theory to commonly evaluated hypotheses for environmental drivers of FCL (productivity, ecosystem size) and demonstrate that effects of these drivers should be context-dependent...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229530/trichoderma-harzianum-mtcc-5179-impacts-the-population-and-functional-dynamics-of-microbial-community-in-the-rhizosphere-of-black-pepper-piper-nigrum-l
#18
Palaniyandi Umadevi, Muthuswamy Anandaraj, Vivek Srivastav, Sailas Benjamin
Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p=1...
November 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#19
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
December 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229008/a-minimalist-macroparasite-diversity-in-the-round-goby-of-the-upper-rhine-reduced-to-an-exotic-acanthocephalan-lineage
#20
Gwendoline M David, Cybill Staentzel, Olivier Schlumberger, Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Jean-Nicolas Beisel, Laurent Hardion
The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a Ponto-Caspian fish considered as an invasive species in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. To understand the role that parasites may play in its successful invasion across Western Europe, we investigated the parasitic diversity of the round goby along its invasion corridor, from the Danube to the Upper Rhine rivers, using data from literature and a molecular barcoding approach, respectively. Among 1666 parasites extracted from 179 gobies of the Upper Rhine, all of the 248 parasites barcoded on the c oxidase subunit I gene were identified as Pomphorhynchus laevis...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
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