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Ute Risse-Buhl, Christine Anlanger, Katalin Kalla, Thomas R Neu, Christian Noss, Andreas Lorke, Markus Weitere
Previous laboratory and on-site experiments have highlighted the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping biofilm composition and architecture. In how far responses to hydrodynamics can be found in natural flows under the complex interplay of environmental factors is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of near streambed turbulence in terms of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) on the composition and architecture of biofilms matured in two mountainous streams differing in dissolved nutrient concentrations...
September 28, 2017: Water Research
Wilson R Valbon, Franciele M Cruz, Gabryele S Ramos, Hudson V V Tomé, Eugênio E Oliveira
Freshwater ecosystems provide environmental conditions for many arthropod species, including pests like mosquitoes and beneficial insects. Giant water bugs, Belostoma anurum (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), are aquatic insects that provide biological control of mosquitoes and small vertebrates in freshwater environments. However, the application of insecticides aiming to control mosquitoes can lead to insecticide exposures of aquatic predators that can result in their death or significant reductions in their behavioral abilities...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Wei Chen, Zhen-Yu Ouyang, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) as emerging contaminants in the environment may cause changes in water or sediment characteristics, and further affect their biogeochemical cycles. Thus, insights into the interactions between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and MPs are essential for the assessment of environmental impacts of MPs in ecosystems. Integrating spectroscopic methods with chemometric analyses, this work explored the chemical and microstructural changes of DOM-MP complex to reveal the mechanism of DOM-MP interaction at a molecular level...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Messika Revel, Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
In recent years, the implication of genomics into ecotoxicological studies has been studied closely to allow a better understanding of organism's responses to environmental contaminants including engineering nanomaterials (ENMs). ENMs are increasingly produced for various applications including cosmetics, electronics, sports equipment, biomedicine and agriculture. Because of their small size, ENMs possess chemical or physical characteristics improved compared to the corresponding macro-sized material. As their application expend, the release of manufactured ENMs into the environment is likely to increase and concern over impacts for the aquatic ecosystem is growing...
October 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Yuliya Vystavna, Josef Hejzlar, Jiří Kopáček
European freshwater ecosystems have undergone significant human-induced and environmentally-driven variations in nutrient export from catchments throughout the past five decades, mainly in connection with changes in land-use, agricultural practice, waste water production and treatment, and climatic conditions. We analysed the relations among concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the Slapy Reservoir (a middle reservoir of the Vltava River Cascade, Czechia), and socio-economic and climatic factors from 1963 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
Violet Aileen Senapati, Krupa Kansara, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan, Ashutosh Kumar
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) possess different physical and chemical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. These unique properties have found application in various products in the area of therapeutics, consumer goods, environmental remediation, optical and electronic fields. This has also increased the likelihood of their release into the environment thereby affecting human health and ecosystem. ENPs, when in contact with the biological system have various physical and chemical interactions with cellular macromolecules including proteins...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
Xin Wang, Guénola Drillon, Taewoo Ryu, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Tatiana G Volova, Svetlana V Prudnikova, Natalia O Zhila
Fungicidal activity of experimental tebuconazole (TEB) formulations was investigated in laboratory soil ecosystems in wheat plant communities infected by Fusarium moniliforme. TEB was embedded in the matrix of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, shaped as films and microgranules. These formulations were buried in the soil with wheat plants, and their efficacy was compared with that of commercial formulation Raxil and with the effect of pre-sowing treatment of seeds. In the experiment with the initially infected seeds and a relatively low level of natural soil infection caused by Fusarium fungi, the effects of the experimental P(3HB)/TEB formulations and Raxil were comparable...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mehrdad Jeihouni, Ara Toomanian, Seyed Kazem Alavipanah, Saeid Hamzeh
Preserving aquatic ecosystems and water resources management is crucial in arid and semi-arid regions for anthropogenic reasons and climate change. In recent decades, the water level of the largest lake in Iran, Urmia Lake, has decreased sharply, which has become a major environmental concern in Iran and the region. The efforts to revive the lake concerns the amount of water required for restoration. This study monitored and assessed Urmia Lake status over a period of 30 years (1984 to 2014) using remotely sensed data...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Myriam R Hirt, Walter Jetz, Björn C Rall, Ulrich Brose
Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Jacob L Johansen, Bridie J M Allan, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
Global demand for energy and oil-based products is progressively introducing petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into sensitive marine environments, primarily from fossil-fuel exploration, transport, and urban and industrial runoff. These toxic pollutants are found worldwide, yet the long-term ecological effects on coral reef ecosystems are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that oil exposure spanning PAH concentrations that are environmentally relevant for many coastal marine ecosystems (≤5.7 μg l(-1)), including parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Red Sea, Asia and the Caribbean, causes elevated mortality and stunted growth rates in six species of pre-settlement coral reef fishes, spanning two evolutionarily distinct families (Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Catalina Pimiento, John N Griffin, Christopher F Clements, Daniele Silvestro, Sara Varela, Mark D Uhen, Carlos Jaramillo
The end of the Pliocene marked the beginning of a period of great climatic variability and sea-level oscillations. Here, based on a new analysis of the fossil record, we identify a previously unrecognized extinction event among marine megafauna (mammals, seabirds, turtles and sharks) during this time, with extinction rates three times higher than in the rest of the Cenozoic, and with 36% of Pliocene genera failing to survive into the Pleistocene. To gauge the potential consequences of this event for ecosystem functioning, we evaluate its impacts on functional diversity, focusing on the 86% of the megafauna genera that are associated with coastal habitats...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Christoforos Pappas, Miguel D Mahecha, David C Frank, Flurin Babst, Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Terrestrial ecosystem processes, and the associated vegetation carbon dynamics, respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Long-term variability of the terrestrial carbon cycle is not yet well constrained and the resulting climate-biosphere feedbacks are highly uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive overview of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability from hourly to decadal timescales integrating multiple in situ and remote-sensing datasets characterizing extra-tropical forest sites...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Julia L Blanchard, Reg A Watson, Elizabeth A Fulton, Richard S Cottrell, Kirsty L Nash, Andrea Bryndum-Buchholz, Matthias Büchner, David A Carozza, William W L Cheung, Joshua Elliott, Lindsay N K Davidson, Nicholas K Dulvy, John P Dunne, Tyler D Eddy, Eric Galbraith, Heike K Lotze, Olivier Maury, Christoph Müller, Derek P Tittensor, Simon Jennings
Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Andrew Bissett, David J Eldridge, Fernando T Maestre, Ji-Zheng He, Jun-Tao Wang, Kelly Hamonts, Yu-Rong Liu, Brajesh K Singh, Noah Fierer
The legacy impacts of past climates on the current distribution of soil microbial communities are largely unknown. Here, we use data from more than 1,000 sites from five separate global and regional datasets to identify the importance of palaeoclimatic conditions (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) in shaping the current structure of soil bacterial communities in natural and agricultural soils. We show that palaeoclimate explains more of the variation in the richness and composition of bacterial communities than current climate...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Dana M Bergstrom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Michael N Gooseff, John E Barrett, Byron J Adams, Peter T Doran, Andrew G Fountain, W Berry Lyons, Diane M McKnight, John C Priscu, Eric R Sokol, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Ross A Virginia, Diana H Wall
Amplified climate change in polar regions is significantly altering regional ecosystems, yet there are few long-term records documenting these responses. The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) cold desert ecosystem is the largest ice-free area of Antarctica, comprising soils, glaciers, meltwater streams and permanently ice-covered lakes. Multi-decadal records indicate that the MDV exhibited a distinct ecosystem response to an uncharacteristic austral summer and ensuing climatic shift. A decadal summer cooling phase ended in 2002 with intense glacial melt ('flood year')-a step-change in water availability triggering distinct changes in the ecosystem...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Kevin J Wolz, Timothy M Wertin, Mark Abordo, Dan Wang, Andrew D B Leakey
Stomatal pores on leaf surfaces respond to environmental and physiological signals to regulate leaf gas exchange. Mathematical models can predict stomatal conductance (g s), with one parameter (m or g l) reflecting the sensitivity of g s to the photosynthetic rate (A), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and atmospheric humidity, and a second parameter (g 0) representing the minimum g s. Such models are solved iteratively with a photosynthesis model to form the core of many models of crop or ecosystem carbon and water fluxes...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Fletcher W Halliday, Robert W Heckman, Peter A Wilfahrt, Charles E Mitchell
Theory predicts that increasing biodiversity will dilute the risk of infectious diseases under certain conditions and will amplify disease risk under others. Yet, few empirical studies demonstrate amplification. This contrast may occur because few studies have considered the multivariate nature of disease risk, which includes richness and abundance of parasites with different transmission modes. By combining a multivariate statistical model developed for biodiversity-ecosystem-multifunctionality with an extensive field manipulation of host (plant) richness, composition and resource supply to hosts, we reveal that (i) host richness alone could not explain most changes in disease risk, and (ii) shifting host composition allowed disease amplification, depending on parasite transmission mode...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kirsten Cowley, Arun Looman, Damien T Maher, Kirstie Fryirs
Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of upland wetland, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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