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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644993/long-term-toxicity-of-surface-charged-polystyrene-nanoplastics-to-marine-planktonic-species-dunaliella-tertiolecta-and-artemia-franciscana
#1
E Bergami, S Pugnalini, M L Vannuccini, L Manfra, C Faleri, F Savorelli, K A Dawson, I Corsi
Plastic pollution has been globally recognized as a critical issue for marine ecosystems and nanoplastics constitute one of the last unexplored areas to understand the magnitude of this threat. However, current difficulties in sampling and identifying nano-sized debris make hard to assess their occurrence in marine environment. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) are largely used as nanoplastics in ecotoxicological studies and although acute exposures have been already investigated, long-term toxicity on marine organisms is unknown...
June 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644833/quantifying-the-web-browser-ecosystem
#2
Sela Ferdman, Einat Minkov, Ron Bekkerman, David Gefen
Contrary to the assumption that web browsers are designed to support the user, an examination of a 900,000 distinct PCs shows that web browsers comprise a complex ecosystem with millions of addons collaborating and competing with each other. It is possible for addons to "sneak in" through third party installations or to get "kicked out" by their competitors without user involvement. This study examines that ecosystem quantitatively by constructing a large-scale graph with nodes corresponding to users, addons, and words (terms) that describe addon functionality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644725/quantifying-structural-modifications-of-gills-of-two-fish-species-astyanax-altiparanae-lambari-and-prochilodus-lineatus-curimbat%C3%A3-after-exposure-to-biodegradable-detergents-in-urban-lake-water
#3
Bruno Fiorelini Pereira, Anderson Luis Alves, José Augusto Senhorini, Priscilla Hakime Scalize, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini De Figueiredo, Dimítrius Leonardo Pitol, Flávio Henrique Caetano
Anthropic actions in rivers and urban lakes are a cause for concern to our ecosystem. The effects on fauna and flora of substances discharged into waterways have become a focus for investigations globally. Biodegradable detergents are widely used in residences and small industries, but little is known regarding the consequences on fish fauna. The objective of the present study was to identify modifications in gill structure in two fish species, Astyanax altiparanae and Prochilodus lineatus, after treatment with water obtained from an urban lake and an exposure to 1 ppm diluted biodegradable detergents (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644715/biological-responses-of-the-american-coot-fulica-americana-in-wetlands-with-contrasting-environmental-conditions-basin-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#4
María Eugenia López-Islas, Itzel Ibarra-Meza, Esperanza Ortiz-Ordóñez, Liliana Favari, J Elías Sedeño-Díaz, Eugenia López-López
Wetland ecosystems are subject to severe impacts (physical and chemical) and to the input of various xenobiotics that provoke toxicological consequences. Waterbirds are potential sentinel species of these environments. To analyze how habitat conditions affect the health of Fulica americana, early-warning biomarkers, histopathology, somatic indices, and water quality were examined in two wetlands of the Basin of Mexico: Xochimilco, an urban wetland highly eutrophic with a mixture of pollutants, and Tecocomulco (the reference site), a rural wetland with hunting migratory birds in winter, and with some agricultural contaminants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644442/linking-the-development-and-functioning-of-a-carnivorous-pitcher-plant-s-microbial-digestive-community
#5
David W Armitage
Ecosystem development theory predicts that successional turnover in community composition can influence ecosystem functioning. However, tests of this theory in natural systems are made difficult by a lack of replicable and tractable model systems. Using the microbial digestive associates of a carnivorous pitcher plant, I tested hypotheses linking host age-driven microbial community development to host functioning. Monitoring the yearlong development of independent microbial digestive communities in two pitcher plant populations revealed a number of trends in community succession matching theoretical predictions...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644376/monitoring-effect-of-fire-on-ant-assemblages-in-brazilian-rupestrian-grasslands-contrasting-effects-on-ground-and-arboreal-fauna
#6
Diego Anjos, Ricardo Campos, Renata Campos, Sérvio Ribeiro
Fire is one of the most relevant ecological disturbances in nature. Little is known about the effects of fire on biodiversity in ecosystems like rupestrian grasslands, which share characteristics with savanna and forest biomes. Brazilian rupestrian grasslands are part of an endangered ecosystem that has been modified by anthropogenic fire events that have become more intense in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fire on ground and arboreal ant assemblages through a two-year monitoring program (24 monthly samplings)...
June 23, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643787/single-virus-genomics-reveals-hidden-cosmopolitan-and-abundant-viruses
#7
Francisco Martinez-Hernandez, Oscar Fornas, Monica Lluesma Gomez, Benjamin Bolduc, Maria Jose de la Cruz Peña, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Josefa Anton, Josep M Gasol, Riccardo Rosselli, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera, Matthew B Sullivan, Silvia G Acinas, Manuel Martinez-Garcia
Microbes drive ecosystems under constraints imposed by viruses. However, a lack of virus genome information hinders our ability to answer fundamental, biological questions concerning microbial communities. Here we apply single-virus genomics (SVGs) to assess whether portions of marine viral communities are missed by current techniques. The majority of the here-identified 44 viral single-amplified genomes (vSAGs) are more abundant in global ocean virome data sets than published metagenome-assembled viral genomes or isolates...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642744/unexpected-dominance-of-elusive-acidobacteria-in-early-industrial-soft-coal-slags
#8
Carl-Eric Wegner, Werner Liesack
Acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur), which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642735/functional-and-compositional-stability-of-bacterial-metacommunities-in-response-to-salinity-changes
#9
Mercè Berga, Yinghua Zha, Anna J Székely, Silke Langenheder
Disturbances and environmental change are important factors determining the diversity, composition, and functioning of communities. However, knowledge about how natural bacterial communities are affected by such perturbations is still sparse. We performed a whole ecosystem manipulation experiment with freshwater rock pools where we applied salinity disturbances of different intensities. The aim was to test how the compositional and functional resistance and resilience of bacterial communities, alpha- and beta-diversity and the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic community assembly processes changed along a disturbance intensity gradient...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642462/metabolic-changes-in-medaka-fish-induced-by-cyanobacterial-exposures-in-mesocosms-an-integrative-approach-combining-proteomic-and-metabolomic-analyses
#10
Benoît Sotton, Alain Paris, Séverine Le Manach, Alain Blond, Gérard Lacroix, Alexis Millot, Charlotte Duval, Hélène Huet, Qin Qiao, Sophie Labrut, Giovanni Chiapetta, Joelle Vinh, Arnaud Catherine, Benjamin Marie
Cyanobacterial blooms pose serious threats to aquatic organisms and strongly impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Due to their ability to produce a wide range of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites, so called cyanotoxins, cyanobacteria have been extensively studied in the past decades. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the global response of hundreds of proteins and metabolites at a glance. In this study, we provide the first combined utilization of these methods targeted to identify the response of fish to bloom-forming cyanobacteria...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641230/combining-chemometric-tools-for-assessing-hazard-sources-and-factors-acting-simultaneously-in-contaminated-areas-case-study-mar-piccolo-taranto-south-italy
#11
Matilda Mali, Maria Michela Dell'Anna, Michele Notarnicola, Leonardo Damiani, Piero Mastrorilli
Almost all marine coastal ecosystems possess complex structural and dynamic characteristics, which are influenced by anthropogenic causes and natural processes as well. Revealing the impact of sources and factors controlling the spatial distributions of contaminants within highly polluted areas is a fundamental propaedeutic step of their quality evaluation. Combination of different pattern recognition techniques, applied to one of the most polluted Mediterranean coastal basin, resulted in a more reliable hazard assessment...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641227/presence-distribution-and-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-rice-wheat-continuous-cropping-soils-close-to-five-industrial-parks-of-suzhou-china
#12
Yong Li, Ling Long, Jing Ge, Li-Xuan Yang, Jin-Jin Cheng, Ling-Xiang Sun, Changying Lu, Xiang-Yang Yu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in agricultural soils are likely to threaten human health and ecosystem though the food chain, therefore, it is worth to pay more attention to soil contamination by PAHs. In this study, the presence, distribution and risk assessment of 16 priority PAHs in rice-wheat continuous cropping soils close to industrial parks of Suzhou were firstly investigated. The concentrations of the total PAHs ranged from 125.99 ng/g to 796.65 ng/g with an average of 352.94 ng/g...
June 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641173/population-dynamics-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-microbial-fuel-cells-started-with-three-different-inoculum-sources
#13
Shun'ichi Ishii, Shino Suzuki, Yuko Yamanaka, Angela Wu, Kenneth H Nealson, Orianna Bretschger
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one of the bioelectrochemical systems that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matters and recover energy as electric power. Here, we explored how the established electrogenic microbial communities were influenced by three different inoculum sources; anaerobic sludge of the wastewater plant, rice paddy field soil, and coastal lagoon sediment. We periodically characterized both electricity generation with sucrose consumption and 16S rRNA-basis microbial community composition...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640482/organogelator-cellulose-composite-for-practical-and-eco-friendly-marine-oil-spill-recovery
#14
Kana M Sureshan, Annamalai Prathap
Marine oil-spills pose serious threats to the ecosystem and economy. There is much interest in developing sorbents that can tackle such spills. We have developed a novel sorbent by impregnating cellulose pulp with a sugar-derived oleogelator, 1,2:5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-mannitol. The gelator molecules mask the surface-exposed hydroxyl groups of cellulose fibrils by engaging them in H-bonding and expose their hydrophobic parts making the fibers temporarily hydrophobic (water contact-angle 110°). This sorbent absorbs oil effectively, selectively and instantly from oil-water mixtures due to its hydrophobicity...
June 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640348/global-patterns-of-aboveground-carbon-stock-and-sequestration-in-mangroves
#15
Gustavo C D Estrada, Mário L G Soares
In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1) and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1) showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640345/abundance-of-the-reef-building-petaloconchus-varians-gastropoda-vermetidae-on-intertidal-rocky-shores-at-ilha-grande-bay-southeastern-brazil
#16
André Breves, Maria Teresa M DE Széchy, Helena P Lavrado, Andrea O R Junqueira
The reef-building vermetid Petaloconchus varians occurs in the western Atlantic Ocean, from the Caribbean Sea to the southern coast of Brazil. The present study evaluated the abundance of P. varians on intertidal rocky shores in Ilha Grande Bay (Rio de Janeiro State), and characterized their reefs, describing the species density, besides the weight and the belt width of the reefs. Petaloconchus varians reefs were recorded at 25 sites, with rocky shores exposed to different wave action (very sheltered, sheltered, semi-exposed and exposed) and slopes (10° to 46°)...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639406/controlling-cyanobacterial-harmful-blooms-in-freshwater-ecosystems
#17
Hans W Paerl
Cyanobacteria's long evolutionary history has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recent human and climatic modifications of aquatic ecosystems, including nutrient over-enrichment, hydrologic modifications, and global warming. Harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web altering) cyanobacterial bloom (CyanoHAB) genera are controlled by the synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) supplies, light, temperature, water residence/flushing times, and biotic interactions...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639077/microbial-compositions-and-metabolic-interactions-in-one-and-two-phase-partitioning-airlift-bioreactors-treating-a-complex-voc-mixture
#18
Chao Wu, Peilun Xu, Yinfeng Xia, Wei Li, Sujing Li, Xiangqian Wang
Engineered microbial ecosystems in bioscrubbers for the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been complicated by complex VOC mixtures from various industrial emissions. Microbial associations with VOC removal performance of the bioscrubbers are still not definitive. Here, one- and two-phase partitioning airlift bioreactors were used for the treatment of a complex VOC mixture. Microbial characteristics in both bioreactors were uncovered by high-throughput metagenomics sequencing. Results showed that dominant species with specialized VOC biodegradability were mainly responsible for high removal efficiency of relative individual VOC...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638806/in-vitro-increased-respiratory-activity-of-selected-oral-bacteria-may-explain-competitive-and-collaborative-interactions-in-the-oral-microbiome
#19
Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Vera Slomka, Esteban R Herrero, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Lynette Zaidel, Wim Teughels, Nico Boon
Understanding the driving forces behind the shifts in the ecological balance of the oral microbiota will become essential for the future management and treatment of periodontitis. As the use of competitive approaches for modulating bacterial outgrowth is unexplored in the oral ecosystem, our study aimed to investigate both the associations among groups of functional compounds and the impact of individual substrates on selected members of the oral microbiome. We employed the Phenotype Microarray high-throughput technology to analyse the microbial cellular phenotypes of 15 oral bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638399/recent-genetic-gains-in-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-oilseed-rape
#20
Andreas Stahl, Mara Pfeifer, Matthias Frisch, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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