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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102779/long-term-dust-aerosol-production-from-natural-sources-in-iceland
#1
Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, Haraldur Olafsson
: Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times...
February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#2
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102339/effects-of-increased-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-on-offspring-performance-of-two-dominant-species-in-a-temperate-steppe-ecosystem
#3
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Liuyi Yang, Linghao Li
Plants adapt to environment by plastic growth which will be transferred to offspring through transgenerational effect. Performance and response of maternal and offspring plant will affect population dynamics and community composition. However, it is scarcely understood how maternal nutrient environment affect the performance and response of offspring through transgenerational effect. Here we studied the impacts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment on maternal and offspring performances and responses of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102293/ocean-warming-and-acidification-synergistically-increase-coral-mortality
#4
F Prada, E Caroselli, S Mengoli, L Brizi, P Fantazzini, B Capaccioni, L Pasquini, K E Fabricius, Z Dubinsky, G Falini, S Goffredo
Organisms that accumulate calcium carbonate structures are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), potentially reducing the socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on these taxa. Since rising atmospheric CO2 is responsible for global warming and increasing ocean acidity, to correctly predict how OW and OA will affect marine organisms, their possible interactive effects must be assessed. Here we investigate, in the field, the combined temperature (range: 16-26 °C) and acidification (range: pHTS 8...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102290/wells-provide-a-distorted-view-of-life-in-the-aquifer-implications-for-sampling-monitoring-and-assessment-of-groundwater-ecosystems
#5
Kathryn Korbel, Anthony Chariton, Sarah Stephenson, Paul Greenfield, Grant C Hose
When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#6
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101957/summer-co-existence-of-small-sized-cyprinid-and-percid-individuals-in-natural-and-impounded-stretches-of-a-lowland-river-food-niche-partitioning-among-fishes
#7
J Lik, M Dukowska, M Grzybkowska, J Leszczyńska
Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101901/cyto-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-exposed-to-a-mixture-of-ibuprofen-and-diclofenac
#8
Hariz Islas-Flores, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Esmeralda Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Mariana Ortíz-Reynoso, Octavio Dublán-García
Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101712/herbicides-and-trace-metals-in-urban-waters-in-melbourne-australia-2011-12-concentrations-and-potential-impact
#9
Mayumi Allinson, Pei Zhang, AnhDuyen Bui, Jackie H Myers, Vincent Pettigrove, Gavin Rose, Scott A Salzman, Robert Walters, Graeme Allinson
Urban stormwater samples were collected from five aquatic systems in Melbourne, Australia, on six occasions between October 2011 and March 2012 and tested for 30 herbicides and 14 trace metals. Nineteen different herbicides were observed in one or more water samples from the five sites; chemicals observed at more than 40% of sites were simazine (100%), MCPA (83%), diuron (63%) and atrazine (53%). Using the toxicity unit (TU) concept to assess potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, none of the detected herbicides were considered to pose an individual, group or collective short-term risk to fish or zooplankton in the waters studied...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101435/microsatellite-markers-for-nuphar-japonica-nymphaeaceae-an-aquatic-plant-in-the-agricultural-ecosystem-of-japan
#10
Toshiaki Kondo, Sonoko Watanabe, Takashi Shiga, Yuji Isagi
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N...
December 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100827/insights-into-resource-consumption-cross-feeding-system-collapse-stability-and-biodiversity-from-an-artificial-ecosystem
#11
Yu Liu, David Sumpter
Community ecosystems at very different levels of biological organization often have similar properties. Coexistence of multiple species, cross-feeding, biodiversity and fluctuating population dynamics are just a few of the properties that arise in a range of ecological settings. Here we develop a bottom-up model of consumer-resource interactions, in the form of an artificial ecosystem 'number soup', which reflects basic properties of many bacterial and other community ecologies. We demonstrate four key properties of the number soup model: (i) communities self-organize so that all available resources are fully consumed; (ii) reciprocal cross-feeding is a common evolutionary outcome, which evolves in a number of stages, and many transitional species are involved; (iii) the evolved ecosystems are often 'robust yet fragile', with keystone species required to prevent the whole system from collapsing; (iv) non-equilibrium dynamics and chaotic patterns are general properties, readily generating rich biodiversity...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099772/exploring-the-symbiont-diversity-of-ancient-western-redcedars-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-long-lived-hosts
#12
Monika A Gorzelak, Brian J Pickles, Miranda M Hart
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are globally distributed, monophyletic root symbionts with ancient origins. Their contribution to carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics is ecologically important, given their obligate association with over 70% of vascular plant species. Current understanding of AMF species richness and community structure is based primarily on studies of grasses, herbs, and agricultural crops, typically in disturbed environments. Few studies have considered AMF interactions with long-lived woody perennial species in undisturbed ecosystems...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099761/size-structuring-and-allometric-scaling-relationships-in-coral-reef-fishes
#13
Jillian C Dunic, Julia K Baum
Temperate marine fish communities are often size structured, with predators consuming increasingly larger prey and feeding at higher trophic levels as they grow. Gape limitation and ontogenetic diet shifts are key mechanisms by which size structuring arises in these communities. Little is known, however, about size structuring in coral reef fishes. Here, we aimed to advance understanding of size structuring in coral reef food webs by examining the evidence for these mechanisms in two groups of reef predators...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098631/after-the-fall-the-tapestry-of-disturbance-and-recovery
#14
Nalini M Nadkarni
On July 3, 2015, Nalini Nadkarni, a world-renowned ecologist who had been studying the biologic processes of ecosystem disturbance and recovery, sustained a catastrophic 50-foot free-fall from the top of the rainforest canopy to the forest floor at her remote field research site. She lost consciousness in shock and sustained life-threatening injuries. Her accompanying students hiked out, radio-called 911, and the Harborview Medical Center (Seattle) Medivac team arrived 4 hours later to rescue her. Her prognosis was extremely grim; her family gathered in anticipation of her death as she underwent four operations during her 10 days in the ICU...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098255/annual-time-series-analysis-of-aqueous-edna-reveals-ecologically-relevant-dynamics-of-lake-ecosystem-biodiversity
#15
Iliana Bista, Gary R Carvalho, Kerry Walsh, Mathew Seymour, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Delphine Lallias, Martin Christmas, Simon Creer
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) in biodiversity assessments offers a step-change in sensitivity, throughput and simultaneous measures of ecosystem diversity and function. There remains, however, a need to examine eDNA persistence in the wild through simultaneous temporal measures of eDNA and biota. Here, we use metabarcoding of two markers of different lengths, derived from an annual time series of aqueous lake eDNA to examine temporal shifts in ecosystem biodiversity and in an ecologically important group of macroinvertebrates (Diptera: Chironomidae)...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098236/wind-wave-behavior-in-fetch-and-depth-limited-estuaries
#16
Arash Karimpour, Qin Chen, Robert R Twilley
Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097736/restoration-and-management-for-plant-diversity-enhances-the-rate-of-belowground-ecosystem-recovery
#17
Ryan P Klopf, Sara G Baer, Elizabeth M Bach, J Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n=15)...
January 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097426/functional-diversity-increases-ecological-stability-in-a-grazed-grassland
#18
Lauren M Hallett, Claudia Stein, Katharine N Suding
Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity...
January 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097216/the-last-frontiers-of-wilderness-tracking-loss-of-intact-forest-landscapes-from-2000-to-2013
#19
Peter Potapov, Matthew C Hansen, Lars Laestadius, Svetlana Turubanova, Alexey Yaroshenko, Christoph Thies, Wynet Smith, Ilona Zhuravleva, Anna Komarova, Susan Minnemeyer, Elena Esipova
An intact forest landscape (IFL) is a seamless mosaic of forest and naturally treeless ecosystems with no remotely detected signs of human activity and a minimum area of 500 km(2). IFLs are critical for stabilizing terrestrial carbon storage, harboring biodiversity, regulating hydrological regimes, and providing other ecosystem functions. Although the remaining IFLs comprise only 20% of tropical forest area, they account for 40% of the total aboveground tropical forest carbon. We show that global IFL extent has been reduced by 7...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097070/sponge-exhalent-seawater-contains-a-unique-chemical-profile-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#20
Cara L Fiore, Christopher J Freeman, Elizabeth B Kujawinski
Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater)...
2017: PeerJ
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