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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330329/diversity-of-bacteria-and-archaea-in-the-rhizosphere-of-bioenergy-crop-jatropha-curcas
#1
Garima Dubey, Bharati Kollah, Vijay Kumar Gour, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Santosh Ranjan Mohanty
Plant-microbial interaction in rhizosphere plays vital role in shaping plant's growth and ecosystem function. Most of the rhizospheric microbial diversity studies are restricted to bacteria. In natural ecosystem, archaea also constitutes a major component of the microbial population. However, their diversity is less known compared to bacteria. Experiments were carried out to examine diversity of bacteria and archaea in the rhizosphere of bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas (J. curcas). Samples were collected from three locations varying widely in the soil physico-chemical properties...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330262/biodegradation-of-isoproturon-by-pseudoxanthomonas-sp-isolated-from-herbicide-treated-wheat-fields-of-tarai-agro-ecosystem-pantnagar
#2
Krishna Giri, Shailseh Pandey, Rajesh Kumar, J P N Rai
A gram-negative, rod-shaped, isoproturon (IPU) utilizing bacterium was isolated from herbicide-applied wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar. The phylogenetic sequence analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence revealed that the isolate could be a distinct species within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolate was a close relative of Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis (95 % similarity) and designated as K2. The bacterial isolate showed positive reaction for oxidase, catalase, and 20 carbohydrates using KB009 Part A and B HiCarbohydrate™ Kit...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330260/impact-of-forest-vegetation-on-soil-characteristics-a-correlation-between-soil-biological-and-physico-chemical-properties
#3
L R Chandra, S Gupta, V Pande, N Singh
Temperate and dry deciduous forest covers major portion of terrestrial ecosystem in India. The two forest types with different dominant tree species differ in litter quality and root exudates, thereby exerting species-specific impact on soil properties and microbial activity. This study aims to examine the influence of forest type or dominant tree species on soil physico-chemical properties and its relationship with microbial characters in temperate and dry deciduous forest types. We assessed soil physico-chemical properties among five different sites located within the selected forest stand covered by different dominant species...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330133/bioactive-metabolites-produced-by-streptomyces-cheonanensis-vuk-a-from-coringa-mangrove-sediments-isolation-structure-elucidation-and-bioactivity
#4
Ushakiranmayi Mangamuri, Vijayalakshmi Muvva, Sudhakar Poda, Krishna Naragani, Rajesh Kumar Munaganti, Bhujangarao Chitturi, Venkateswarlu Yenamandra
The strain VUK-A was isolated from a sediment sample of the Coringa mangrove ecosystem was identified as Streptomyces cheonanensis based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular properties. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites of the strain Streptomyces cheonanensis VUK-A has led to the segregation of two bioactive compounds, namely 2-Methyl butyl propyl phthalate (1) and Diethyl phthalate (2) using column chromatography. The chemical structure of the active compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, FTIR and EIMS...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329712/toxicity-of-effluents-from-gasoline-stations-oil-water-separators-to-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Romulo Nepomuceno Alves, Célio Freire Mariz, Driele Ventura de Paulo, Paulo S M Carvalho
Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329422/patterns-in-greater-sage-grouse-population-dynamics-correspond-with-public-grazing-records-at-broad-scales
#6
Adrian P Monroe, Cameron L Aldridge, Timothy J Assal, Kari E Veblen, David A Pyke, Michael L Casazza
Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI)...
March 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329020/how-a-collaborative-integrated-taxonomic-effort-has-trained-new-spongiologists-and-improved-knowledge-of-martinique-island-french-antilles-eastern-caribbean-sea-marine-biodiversity
#7
Thierry Pérez, Maria-Cristina Díaz, César Ruiz, Baslavi Cóndor-Luján, Michelle Klautau, Eduardo Hajdu, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Sven Zea, Shirley A Pomponi, Robert W Thacker, Sophie Carteron, Guillaume Tollu, Adeline Pouget-Cuvelier, Philippe Thélamon, Jean-Philippe Marechal, Olivier P Thomas, Alexander V Ereskovsky, Jean Vacelet, Nicole Boury-Esnault
Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328933/water-borne-pharmaceuticals-reduce-phenotypic-diversity-and-response-capacity-of-natural-phytoplankton-communities
#8
Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mridul K Thomas, Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms' expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and their ability to regulate biomass production to fit environmental changes (response capacity)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328927/effect-of-phosphorus-stress-on-microcystis-aeruginosa-growth-and-phosphorus-uptake
#9
Sajeela Ghaffar, R Jan Stevenson, Zahiruddin Khan
This study was designed to advance understanding of phosphorus regulation of Microcystis aeruginosa growth, phosphorus uptake and storage in changing phosphorus (P) conditions as would occur in lakes. We hypothesized that Microcystis growth and nutrient uptake would fit classic models by Monod, Droop, and Michaelis-Menten in these changing conditions. Microcystis grown in luxury nutrient concentrations was transferred to treatments with phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0-256 μg P∙L-1 and luxury nitrogen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328670/the-trauma-ecosystem-the-impact-and-economics-of-new-trauma-centers-on-a-mature-statewide-trauma-system
#10
David J Ciesla, Etienne E Pracht, Pablo T Leitz, David A Spain, Joseph J Tepas, Kristan L Staudenmayer
INTRODUCTION: Florida serves as a model for the study of trauma system performance. Between 2010 and 2104, 5 new trauma centers were opened along side 20 existing centers. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of trauma system expansion on system triage performance and trauma center patient profiles. METHODS: A statewide dataset was queried for all injury related discharges from adult acute care hospitals using ICD-9 codes for 2010 and 2014. The dataset, inclusion criteria, and definitions of high-risk injury were chosen to match those used by the Florida department of health in its trauma registry...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328351/natural-infection-of-leptospira-species-in-the-native-rodents-degu-octodon-degus-and-darwin-s-pericote-phyllotis-darwini-in-mediterranean-ecosystem-of-chile
#11
Juana Paola Correa, Antonella Bacigalupo, Carezza Botto-Mahan, Sergio Bucarey, Pedro Eduardo Cattan, Rodrigo García de Cortázar, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
We report natural infections by pathogenic Leptospira of two rodent species endemic to Chile: the degu ( Octodon degus ) and Darwin's pericote ( Phyllotis darwini ). We detected Leptospira DNA in kidney and urine samples taken in different years and sites, reaching 33% infection. The effects of infection in these species requires further evaluation.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327643/anthropogenic-shift-of-planktonic-food-web-structure-in-a-coastal-lagoon-by-freshwater-flow-regulation
#12
Deevesh A Hemraj, A Hossain, Qifeng Ye, Jian G Qin, Sophie C Leterme
Anthropogenic modification of aquatic systems has diverse impacts on food web interactions and ecosystem states. To reverse the adverse effects of modified freshwater flow, adequate management of discharge is required, especially due to higher water requirements and abstractions for human use. Here, we look at the effects of anthropogenically controlled freshwater flow regimes on the planktonic food web of a Ramsar listed coastal lagoon that is under recovery from degradation. Our results show shifts in water quality and plankton community interactions associated to changes in water flow...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327636/high-throughput-amplicon-sequencing-and-stream-benthic-bacteria-identifying-the-best-taxonomic-level-for-multiple-stressor-research
#13
R K Salis, A Bruder, J J Piggott, T C Summerfield, C D Matthaei
Disentangling the individual and interactive effects of multiple stressors on microbial communities is a key challenge to our understanding and management of ecosystems. Advances in molecular techniques allow studying microbial communities in situ and with high taxonomic resolution. However, the taxonomic level which provides the best trade-off between our ability to detect multiple-stressor effects versus the goal of studying entire communities remains unknown. We used outdoor mesocosms simulating small streams to investigate the effects of four agricultural stressors (nutrient enrichment, the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD), fine sediment and flow velocity reduction) on stream bacteria (phyla, orders, genera, and species represented by Operational Taxonomic Units with 97% sequence similarity)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327631/the-influence-of-environmental-factors-on-communities-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-chenopodium-ambrosioides-revealed-by-miseq-sequencing-investigation
#14
Xihui Xu, Chen Chen, Zhou Zhang, Zehua Sun, Yahua Chen, Jiandong Jiang, Zhenguo Shen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affect multiple ecosystem functions and processes, the assemblages of which vary across ecosystems. However, the influences of environmental factors on AMF communities which may shape these communities are still largely unknown. In this study, AMF communities from roots and rhizosphere soils of Chenopodium ambrosioides in different natural soils were investigated. The root habitat showed significantly smaller numbers of OTUs and lower community richness compared to the rhizosphere soil habitat...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326783/leaching-of-diuron-hexazinone-and-sulfometuron-methyl-applied-alone-and-in-mixture-in-soils-with-contrasting-textures
#15
Fabricia Cristina Dos Reis, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo, Rodrigo Floriano Pimpinato, Bianca A B Martins, Ricardo Victória Filho
When herbicides are applied in mixture, interactions among them could potentially promote changes in herbicide behavior in the soil. Thus, application mode (isolated or in mixture) and soil texture (sandy or clayey) were investigated in the total leaching of the commercial mixture diuron + hexazinone + sulfometuron-methyl, and of each isolated compound. Experiments in soil columns also evaluated the movement of each herbicide and mixtures across soil layers. In the sandy soil, the greatest total leaching was observed with hexazinone compared to diuron and sulfometuron...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326685/hugonella-massiliensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-genome-sequence-and-description-of-a-new-strictly-anaerobic-bacterium-isolated-from-the-human-gut
#16
Ziena Elsawi, Amadou Hamidou Togo, Mamadou Beye, Grégory Dubourg, Claudia Andrieu, Nicholas Armsrtong, Magali Richez, Fabrizio di Pinto, Fadi Bittar, Noémie Labas, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Saber Khelaifia
The human gut is composed of a large diversity of microorganisms, which have been poorly described. Here, using culturomics, a new concept based on the variation in culture conditions and MALDI-TOF MS identification, we proceed to explore the microbial diversity of the complex ecosystem of the human gut. Using this approach, we isolated strain AT8(T) (=CSUR P2118 =  DSM 101782) from stool specimens collected from a 51-year-old obese French woman. Strain AT8(T) is a strictly anaerobic, nonmotile, nonspore-forming gram-positive coccus that do not exhibit catalase and oxidase activities...
March 21, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326152/candida-albicans-alters-the-bacterial-microbiome-of-early-in-vitro-oral-biofilms
#17
M M Janus, W Crielaard, C M C Volgenant, M H van der Veen, B W Brandt, B P Krom
The yeast Candida albicans is an oral commensal microorganism, occurring in the oral cavity of 50-70% of healthy individuals. Its effect on oral ecology has mostly been studied using dual-species models, which disregards the complex nature of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to culture C. albicans in a complex model to study its effect on oral biofilms. Biofilms, inoculated using pooled stimulated saliva with or without addition of C. albicans, were grown under anaerobic, aerobic, or aerobic +5% CO2 conditions...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326127/detecting-peatland-drains-with-object-based-image-analysis-and-geoeye-1-imagery
#18
J Connolly, N M Holden
BACKGROUND: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Mapping drains is difficult and expensive and their spatial extent is, in many cases, unknown. An object based image analysis (OBIA) was performed on a very high resolution satellite image (Geoeye-1) to extract information about drain location and extent on a blanket peatland in Ireland...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326071/temporal-variations-in-cigarette-tobacco-bacterial-community-composition-and-tobacco-specific-nitrosamine-content-are-influenced-by-brand-and-storage-conditions
#19
Jessica Chopyk, Suhana Chattopadhyay, Prachi Kulkarni, Eoghan M Smyth, Lauren E Hittle, Joseph N Paulson, Mihai Pop, Stephanie S Buehler, Pamela I Clark, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amy R Sapkota
Tobacco products, specifically cigarettes, are home to microbial ecosystems that may play an important role in the generation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), as well as the onset of multiple adverse human health effects associated with the use of these products. Therefore, we conducted time-series experiments with five commercially available brands of cigarettes that were either commercially mentholated, custom-mentholated, user-mentholated, or non-mentholated. To mimic user storage conditions, the cigarettes were incubated for 14 days under three different temperatures and relative humidities (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326062/compositional-stability-of-the-bacterial-community-in-a-climate-sensitive-sub-arctic-peatland
#20
James T Weedon, George A Kowalchuk, Rien Aerts, Stef Freriks, Wilfred F M Röling, Peter M van Bodegom
The climate sensitivity of microbe-mediated soil processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling offers an interesting case for evaluating the corresponding sensitivity of microbial community composition to environmental change. Better understanding of the degree of linkage between functional and compositional stability would contribute to ongoing efforts to build mechanistic models aiming at predicting rates of microbe-mediated processes. We used an amplicon sequencing approach to test if previously observed large effects of experimental soil warming on C and N cycle fluxes (50-100% increases) in a sub-arctic Sphagnum peatland were reflected in changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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