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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#1
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905651/-current-evidence-on-health-benefits-of-the-mediterranean-diet
#2
Catalina Dussaillant, Guadalupe Echeverría, Inés Urquiaga, Nicolás Velasco, Attilio Rigotti
The Mediterranean diet is currently considered a functional diet with an increasing amount of scientific evidence that supports its beneficial effects in human health. Several observational cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies show an association between this diet and a lower prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as a reduced overall mortality. Additionally, clinical interventional studies, particularly the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) initiative, have shown, with high quality scientific evidence, that a Mediterranean diet -supplemented either with olive oil or nuts- can lower by 30% the incidence of cardiovascular disease, reverse the metabolic syndrome, and prevent the development of diabetes and aging-related cognitive decline...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905613/unambiguous-identification-and-discovery-of-bacterial-siderophores-by-direct-injection-21-tesla-fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance-mass-spectrometry
#3
Lawrence R Walker, Malak M Tfaily, Jared B Shaw, Nancy J Hess, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, David W Koppenaal
Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(iii) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(iii), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailability. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized by use of a newly developed 21 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization...
December 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905533/five-key-attributes-can-increase-marine-protected-areas-performance-for-small-scale-fisheries-management
#4
Antonio Di Franco, Pierre Thiriet, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Patrice Francour, Nicolas L Gutiérrez, Alain Jeudy de Grissac, Drosos Koutsoubas, Marco Milazzo, María Del Mar Otero, Catherine Piante, Jeremiah Plass-Johnson, Susana Sainz-Trapaga, Luca Santarossa, Sergi Tudela, Paolo Guidetti
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have largely proven to be effective tools for conserving marine ecosystem, while socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs to fisheries are still under debate. Many MPAs embed a no-take zone, aiming to preserve natural populations and ecosystems, within a buffer zone where potentially sustainable activities are allowed. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) within buffer zones can be highly beneficial by promoting local socio-economies. However, guidelines to successfully manage SSFs within MPAs, ensuring both conservation and fisheries goals, and reaching a win-win scenario, are largely unavailable...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905479/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-atherosclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Annika Lindskog Jonsson, Fredrik Bäckhed
Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development of atherosclerotic plaques...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905045/differential-response-of-coral-communities-to-caulerpa-spp-bloom-in-the-reefs-of-indian-ocean
#6
B Manikandan, J Ravindran
Coral reef ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live coral cover and threaten the existence of reefs. Continuous monitoring of the coral communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected reefs, respectively. The two reefs varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an assessment on the response of coral communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904966/treeline-advances-and-associated-shifts-in-the-ground-vegetation-alter-fine-root-dynamics-and-mycelia-production-in-the-south-and-polar-urals
#7
Emily F Solly, Ika Djukic, Pavel A Moiseev, Nelly I Andreyashkina, Nadezhda M Devi, Hans Göransson, Valeriy S Mazepa, Stepan G Shiyatov, Marina R Trubina, Fritz H Schweingruber, Martin Wilmking, Frank Hagedorn
Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass...
November 30, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904926/polychlorinated-biphenyl-bioaccumulation-patterns-among-lake-erie-lower-trophic-level-consumers-reflect-species-ecologies
#8
Jordan A Pitt, Ken G Drouillard, Gordon Paterson
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were quantified in lower trophic level consumers of the Lake Erie western basin food web to assess the capacity of PCBs to discriminate among trophically similar species inhabiting different compartments of the same ecosystem. Zooplankton were characterized by higher proportions of less chlorinated and hydrophobic homologs relative to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), mayfly (Hexagenia limbata) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) samples. PCB biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) differed significantly among species with zebra mussels and emerald shiners having the highest BSAFs...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904922/impacts-of-sediment-organic-matter-content-and-ph-on-ecotoxicity-of-coexposure-of-tio2-nanoparticles-and-cadmium-to-freshwater-snails-bellamya-aeruginosa
#9
Taowu Ma, Meng Wang, Shuangjiao Gong, Bin Tian
The environmental factors are expected to affect the ecotoxicity of heavy metals in the presence of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic ecosystems. However, in sediment scenario, little is known regarding their impacts on the ecotoxicity of co-exposure of sediment-associated heavy metals and NPs. This study evaluated the impacts of different levels of organic matter (OM) (4.8-11.6%) and pH (6-9) on the ecotoxicological effects of co-exposure of sediment-associated titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904417/global-warming-and-the-possible-globalization-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-call-for-increased-awareness-and-action
#10
Emmanuel O Balogun, Andrew J Nok, Kiyoshi Kita
Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902787/effects-of-a-possible-pollinator-crisis-on-food-crop-production-in-brazil
#11
Samuel M A Novais, Cássio A Nunes, Natália B Santos, Ana R D Amico, G Wilson Fernandes, Maurício Quesada, Rodrigo F Braga, Ana Carolina O Neves
Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil-one of the world's agriculture leaders-by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902786/southern-elephant-seals-replenish-their-lipid-reserves-at-different-rates-according-to-foraging-habitat
#12
Gaëtan Richard, Samantha L Cox, Baptiste Picard, Jade Vacquié-Garcia, Christophe Guinet
Assessing energy gain and expenditure in free ranging marine predators is difficult. However, such measurements are critical if we are to understand how variation in foraging efficiency, and in turn individual body condition, is impacted by environmentally driven changes in prey abundance and/or accessibility. To investigate the influence of oceanographic habitat type on foraging efficiency, ten post-breeding female southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina (SES) were equipped and tracked with bio-loggers to give continuous information of prey catch attempts, body density and body activity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902757/evidence-of-facilitation-cascade-processes-as-drivers-of-successional-patterns-of-ecosystem-engineers-at-the-upper-altitudinal-limit-of-the-dry-puna
#13
Luca Malatesta, Federico Maria Tardella, Karina Piermarteri, Andrea Catorci
Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902726/a-landscape-view-of-agricultural-insecticide-use-across-the-conterminous-us-from-1997-through-2012
#14
Timothy D Meehan, Claudio Gratton
Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland) and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides), using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902725/antimicrobial-potential-identification-and-phylogenetic-affiliation-of-wild-mushrooms-from-two-sub-tropical-semi-evergreen-indian-forest-ecosystems
#15
Lallawmsanga, Ajit Kumar Passari, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Bhim Pratap Singh, Geetha Valliammai Meyyappan, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Sivakumar Uthandi, Ramesh Chandra Upadhyay
The diversity of wild mushrooms was investigated from two protected forest areas in India and 231 mushroom specimens were morphologically identified. Among them, 76 isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential against seven bacterial and fungal pathogens. Out of 76 isolates, 45 isolates which displayed significant antimicrobial activities were identified using ITS rRNA gene amplification and subsequently phylogenetically characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902715/local-stressors-resilience-and-shifting-baselines-on-coral-reefs
#16
Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#17
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#18
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901507/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-toxoplasma-gondii-in-a-wild-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-and-seroprevalence-in-two-wild-populations
#19
Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901306/plants-microorganisms-and-soil-temperatures-contribute-to-a-decrease-in-methane-fluxes-on-a-drained-arctic-floodplain
#20
Min Jung Kwon, Felix Beulig, Iulia Ilie, Marcus Wildner, Kirsten Küsel, Lutz Merbold, Miguel D Mahecha, Nikita Zimov, Sergey A Zimov, Martin Heimann, Edward A G Schuur, Joel E Kostka, Olaf Kolle, Ines Hilke, Mathias Göckede
As surface temperatures are expected to rise in the future, ice-rich permafrost may thaw, altering soil topography and hydrology and creating a mosaic of wet and dry soil surfaces in the Arctic. Arctic wetlands are large sources of CH4 , and investigating effects of soil hydrology on CH4 fluxes is of great importance for predicting ecosystem feedback in response to climate change. In this study, we investigate how a decade-long drying manipulation on an Arctic floodplain influences CH4 -associated microorganisms, soil thermal regimes, and plant communities...
November 7, 2016: Global Change Biology
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