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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668115/yeast-identification-during-fermentation-of-turkish-gemlik-olives
#1
Gamze Mujdeci, María Arévalo-Villena, Z Yesim Ozbas, Ana Briones Pérez
Naturally fermented black table olives of the Gemlik variety are one of the most consumed fermented products in Turkey. The objective of this work was to identify yeast strains isolated during their natural fermentation by using Restriction Fragments Lengths Polymorphism-Polimerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. The study also focused on determining the effect of regional differences on yeast microflora of naturally fermented Gemlik olives. A total of 47 yeast strains belonging to 12 different species which had been previously isolated from the natural brine of Akhisar and Iznik-Gemlik cv...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668041/warming-intensify-co-2-flux-and-nutrient-release-from-algal-wrack-subsidies-on-sandy-beaches
#2
M Lastra, J López, I F Rodil
Algal wrack subsidies underpin most of the food web structure of exposed sandy beaches, and are responsible of important biogeochemical processes that link marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The response in decomposition of algal wrack deposits to global warming has not been studied in ocean exposed sandy beaches to date. With this aim, passive open top chambers (OTCs) were used to increase soil temperature within the range predicted by the IPCC for western Europe (between 0.5 and 1.5 °C), following the hypothesis that the biogeochemical processing of macroalgal wrack subsidies would accelerate in response to temperature increase...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667264/metagenomic-analysis-of-oral-microbiome-in-young-children-aged-6-8-y-living-in-a-rural-isolated-chinese-province
#4
Yuan Xu, Yuhuan Jia, Liang Chen, Wenming Huang, Deqin Yang
BACKGROUND: The mixed dentition is an important transition period from primary teeth. to permanent teeth. However, the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in mixed dentitions was about 30%, which almost represent the caries rate of permanent teeth in this period of time. Therefore, we assessed the oral bacterial profiles in young children (age 6-8) with mixed dentition with or without first molar caries for providing the research basis of caries etiology. METHODS: We collected samples of supragingival plaque and saliva from the children living in Guizhou, a rural isolated province in China...
April 18, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666936/assessment-of-toxic-impact-of-metals-on-proline-antioxidant-enzymes-and-biological-characteristics-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-inoculated-cicer-arietinum-grown-in-chromium-and-nickel-stressed-sandy-clay-loam-soils
#5
Saima Saif, Mohammad Saghir Khan
Considering the heavy metal risk to soil microbiota and agro-ecosystems, the study was designed to determine metal toxicity to bacteria and to find metal tolerant bacteria carrying multifarious plant growth promoting activities and to assess their impact on chickpea cultivated in stressed soils. Metal tolerant strain SFP1 recognized as Pseudomonas aeruginosa employing 16S rRNA gene sequence determination showed maximum tolerance to Cr (400 μg/ml) and Ni (800 μg/ml) and produced variable amounts of indole acetic acid, HCN, NH3 , and ACC deaminase and could solubilize insoluble phosphates even under Cr (VI) and Ni stress...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666770/applying-foliar-stoichiometric-traits-of-plants-to-determine-fertilization-for-a-mixed-pine-oak-stand-in-the-qinling-mountains-china
#6
Lin Hou, Zhenjie Dong, Yuanyuan Yang, Donghong Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Shuoxin Zhang
Background: The Chinese Natural Forest Protection program has been conducted nationwide and has achieved resounding success. However, timber importation has increased; therefore, producing more domestic timber is critical to meet the demand for raw materials. Fertilization is one of the most effective silviculture practices used to improve tree and stand growth. However, determining the appropriate type and amount of elements is necessary for effective fertilization of big timber in different forest types and environmental conditions...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666626/next-generation-immune-repertoire-sequencing-as-a-clue-to-elucidate-the-landscape-of-immune-modulation-by-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#7
Tatsuo Ichinohe, Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Yasuko Honjo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroyuki Sato, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki
The human immune system is a fine network consisted of the innumerable numbers of functional cells that balance the immunity and tolerance against various endogenous and environmental challenges. Although advances in modern immunology have revealed a role of many unique immune cell subsets, technologies that enable us to capture the whole landscape of immune responses against specific antigens have been not available to date. Acquired immunity against various microorganisms including host microbiome is principally founded on T cell and B cell populations, each of which expresses antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666397/insight-into-the-cold-adaptation-and-hemicellulose-utilization-of-cladosporium-neopsychrotolerans-from-genome-analysis-and-biochemical-characterization
#8
Rui Ma, Huoqing Huang, Yingguo Bai, Huiying Luo, Yunliu Fan, Bin Yao
The occurrence of Cladosporium in cold ecosystems has been evidenced long before, and most of the knowledge about nutrient utilization of this genus is sporadic. An alpine soil isolate C. neopsychrotolerans SL-16, showing great cold tolerance and significant lignocellulose-degrading capability, was sequenced to form a 35.9 Mb genome that contains 13,456 predicted genes. Functional annotation on predicted genes revealed a wide array of proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and lipid...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666365/unifying-the-global-phylogeny-and-environmental-distribution-of-ammonia-oxidising-archaea-based-on-amoa-genes
#9
Ricardo J Eloy Alves, Bui Quang Minh, Tim Urich, Arndt von Haeseler, Christa Schleper
Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and abundant in nature and play a major role in nitrogen cycling. AOA have been studied intensively based on the amoA gene (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A), making it the most sequenced functional marker gene. Here, based on extensive phylogenetic and meta-data analyses of 33,378 curated archaeal amoA sequences, we define a highly resolved taxonomy and uncover global environmental patterns that challenge many earlier generalisations. Particularly, we show: (i) the global frequency of AOA is extremely uneven, with few clades dominating AOA diversity in most ecosystems; (ii) characterised AOA do not represent most predominant clades in nature, including soils and oceans; (iii) the functional role of the most prevalent environmental AOA clade remains unclear; and (iv) AOA harbour molecular signatures that possibly reflect phenotypic traits...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666319/shifting-plant-species-composition-in-response-to-climate-change-stabilizes-grassland-primary-production
#10
Huiying Liu, Zhaorong Mi, Li Lin, Yonghui Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Fawei Zhang, Hao Wang, Lingli Liu, Biao Zhu, Guangmin Cao, Xinquan Zhao, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Peter B Reich, Jin-Sheng He
The structure and function of alpine grassland ecosystems, including their extensive soil carbon stocks, are largely shaped by temperature. The Tibetan Plateau in particular has experienced significant warming over the past 50 y, and this warming trend is projected to intensify in the future. Such climate change will likely alter plant species composition and net primary production (NPP). Here we combined 32 y of observations and monitoring with a manipulative experiment of temperature and precipitation to explore the effects of changing climate on plant community structure and ecosystem function...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666317/effects-of-national-ecological-restoration-projects-on-carbon-sequestration-in-china-from-2001-to-2010
#11
Fei Lu, Huifeng Hu, Wenjuan Sun, Jiaojun Zhu, Guobin Liu, Wangming Zhou, Quanfa Zhang, Peili Shi, Xiuping Liu, Xing Wu, Lu Zhang, Xiaohua Wei, Limin Dai, Kerong Zhang, Yirong Sun, Sha Xue, Wanjun Zhang, Dingpeng Xiong, Lei Deng, Bojie Liu, Li Zhou, Chao Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Jiansheng Cao, Yao Huang, Nianpeng He, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Zongqiang Xie, Zhiyao Tang, Bingfang Wu, Jingyun Fang, Guohua Liu, Guirui Yu
The long-term stressful utilization of forests and grasslands has led to ecosystem degradation and C loss. Since the late 1970s China has launched six key national ecological restoration projects to protect its environment and restore degraded ecosystems. Here, we conducted a large-scale field investigation and a literature survey of biomass and soil C in China's forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems across the regions where the six projects were implemented (∼16% of the country's land area). We investigated the changes in the C stocks of these ecosystems to evaluate the contributions of the projects to the country's C sink between 2001 and 2010...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666316/patterns-of-plant-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-concentration-in-relation-to-productivity-in-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems
#12
Zhiyao Tang, Wenting Xu, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Jiaxiang Li, Xuli Tang, Dima Chen, Qing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Gaoming Xiong, Honglin He, Nianpeng He, Yanpei Guo, Qiang Guo, Jiangling Zhu, Wenxuan Han, Huifeng Hu, Jingyun Fang, Zongqiang Xie
Plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content regulate productivity and carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of the allocation of N and P content in plant tissues and the relationship between nutrient content and photosynthetic capacity are critical to predicting future ecosystem C sequestration under global change. In this study, by investigating the nutrient concentrations of plant leaves, stems, and roots across China's terrestrial biomes, we document large-scale patterns of community-level concentrations of C, N, and P...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666315/plant-diversity-enhances-productivity-and-soil-carbon-storage
#13
Shiping Chen, Wantong Wang, Wenting Xu, Yang Wang, Hongwei Wan, Dima Chen, Zhiyao Tang, Xuli Tang, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie, Daowei Zhou, Zhouping Shangguan, Jianhui Huang, Jin-Sheng He, Yanfen Wang, Jiandong Sheng, Lisong Tang, Xinrong Li, Ming Dong, Yan Wu, Qiufeng Wang, Zhiheng Wang, Jianguo Wu, F Stuart Chapin, Yongfei Bai
Despite evidence from experimental grasslands that plant diversity increases biomass production and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, it remains unclear whether this is true in natural ecosystems, especially under climatic variations and human disturbances. Based on field observations from 6,098 forest, shrubland, and grassland sites across China and predictions from an integrative model combining multiple theories, we systematically examined the direct effects of climate, soils, and human impacts on SOC storage versus the indirect effects mediated by species richness (SR), aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and belowground biomass (BB)...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666314/carbon-pools-in-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems-new-estimates-based-on-an-intensive-field-survey
#14
Xuli Tang, Xia Zhao, Yongfei Bai, Zhiyao Tang, Wantong Wang, Yongcun Zhao, Hongwei Wan, Zongqiang Xie, Xuezheng Shi, Bingfang Wu, Gengxu Wang, Junhua Yan, Keping Ma, Sheng Du, Shenggong Li, Shijie Han, Youxin Ma, Huifeng Hu, Nianpeng He, Yuanhe Yang, Wenxuan Han, Hongling He, Guirui Yu, Jingyun Fang, Guoyi Zhou
China's terrestrial ecosystems have functioned as important carbon sinks. However, previous estimates of carbon budgets have included large uncertainties owing to the limitations of sample size, multiple data sources, and inconsistent methodologies. In this study, we conducted an intensive field campaign involving 14,371 field plots to investigate all sectors of carbon stocks in China's forests, shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to better estimate the regional and national carbon pools and to explore the biogeographical patterns and potential drivers of these pools...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666256/global-peatland-initiation-driven-by-regionally-asynchronous-warming
#15
Paul J Morris, Graeme T Swindles, Paul J Valdes, Ruza F Ivanovic, Lauren J Gregoire, Mark W Smith, Lev Tarasov, Alan M Haywood, Karen L Bacon
Widespread establishment of peatlands since the Last Glacial Maximum represents the activation of a globally important carbon sink, but the drivers of peat initiation are unclear. The role of climate in peat initiation is particularly poorly understood. We used a general circulation model to simulate local changes in climate during the initiation of 1,097 peatlands around the world. We find that peat initiation in deglaciated landscapes in both hemispheres was driven primarily by warming growing seasons, likely through enhanced plant productivity, rather than by any increase in effective precipitation...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666251/temperature-accelerates-the-rate-fields-become-forests
#16
Jason D Fridley, Justin P Wright
Secondary succession, the postdisturbance transition of herbaceous to woody-dominated ecosystems, occurs faster at lower latitudes with important ramifications for ecosystem processes. This pattern could be driven by the direct effect of temperature on tree growth; however, an alternative mechanism is tree-herb competition, which may be more intense in more fertile northern soils. We manipulated soil fertility and herbaceous species composition in identical experiments at six sites spanning the Eastern United States (30-43° N) and monitored the growth and survival of four early successional trees...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666247/global-shifts-in-the-phenological-synchrony-of-species-interactions-over-recent-decades
#17
Heather M Kharouba, Johan Ehrlén, Andrew Gelman, Kjell Bolmgren, Jenica M Allen, Steve E Travers, Elizabeth M Wolkovich
Phenological responses to climate change (e.g., earlier leaf-out or egg hatch date) are now well documented and clearly linked to rising temperatures in recent decades. Such shifts in the phenologies of interacting species may lead to shifts in their synchrony, with cascading community and ecosystem consequences. To date, single-system studies have provided no clear picture, either finding synchrony shifts may be extremely prevalent [Mayor SJ, et al. (2017) Sci Rep 7:1902] or relatively uncommon [Iler AM, et al...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666233/integrating-effects-of-species-composition-and-soil-properties-to-predict-shifts-in-montane-forest-carbon-water-relations
#18
Toby M Maxwell, Lucas C R Silva, William R Horwath
This study was designed to address a major source of uncertainty pertaining to coupled carbon-water cycles in montane forest ecosystems. The Sierra Nevada of California was used as a model system to investigate connections between the physiological performance of trees and landscape patterns of forest carbon and water use. The intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE)-an index of CO2 fixed per unit of potential water lost via transpiration-of nine dominant species was determined in replicated transects along an ∼1,500-m elevation gradient, spanning a broad range of climatic conditions and soils derived from three different parent materials...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666218/modelling-phosphorus-uptake-in-microalgae
#19
REVIEW
Dipali Singh, Ladislav Nedbal, Oliver Ebenhöh
Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-renewable nutrient that frequently limits plant growth. It is the foundation of modern agriculture and, to a large extent, demand for P is met from phosphate rock deposits which are limited and becoming increasingly scarce. Adding an extra stroke to this already desolate picture is the fact that a high percentage of P, through agricultural runoff and waste, makes its way into rivers and oceans leading to eutrophication and collapse of ecosystems. Therefore, there is a critical need to practise P recovery from waste and establish a circular economy applicable to P resources...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665884/factors-influencing-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-the-intestine
#20
Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is ancient. Use of antibiotics is a selective driving force that enriches AR genes and promotes the emergence of resistant pathogens. It also has been widely accepted that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs everywhere and plays a critical role in the transmission of AR genes among bacteria. However, our understanding of HGT processes primarily build on extensive in vitro studies; to date, there is still a significant knowledge gap regarding in situ HGT events as well as the factors that influence HGT in different ecological niches...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
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